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  • Firstly I’ll introduce peculiarities of SDM. They ‘re particularly interesting because the practice of geo-referencing them have caused a growing demand for powerful exploratory data analysis techniques overcomes classical statistical and data mining techniques and, among other things,support the analysis of socio economic phenomena by a spatial point of view. In this talk I’ll focus my attention on a specific task that is the discovery of spatial association rules For this purpose I’ll present ARES a system to extract association rules from census data and illustrate an application ARES to mine spatial association rules on North West England 1998 census data in order to study the mportality risk in Greater manchester county
  • What is IE. As a task it is… Starting with some text… and a empty data base with a defined ontology of fields and records, Use the information in the text to fill the database.
  • ML… although this is an area where ML has not yet trounced the hand-built systems. In some of the latest evaluations, hand-built shared 1 st place with a ML. Now many companies making a business from IE (from the Web): WasBang, Inxight, Intelliseek, ClearForest.
  • Data sparseness, robustness
  • CV i.e. it is divided into 5 folds (Four are used for training and one for testing in turn).
  • Initial ILP reasearch deals with concept learning in form of predicate definition learning
  • ATRE is a multiple-concept learning system, which solves the following problem:
  • Since the generation of a clause depends on the chosen seed, several seeds have to be chosen such that at least one seed per incomplete predicate definition is kept . Therefore, the search space is actually a forest of as many search-trees as the number of chosen seeds. The parallel exploration of the forest related to odd and even numbers. Spec. hierarchies are traversed top-dow. Search proceeds towards deeper and deeper levels of the specialization hierarchies until at least a user-defined number of consistent clauses is found. A supervisor task decides whether the search should carry on or not on the basis of the results returned by the concurrent tasks. When the search is stopped, the supervisor selects the “best” consistent clause according to the user’s preference criterion. This strategy has the advantage that simpler consistent clauses are found first, independently of the predicates to be learned. First learning step Consistent clauses in red
  • Second learning step
  • CV i.e. it is divided into 5 folds (Four are used for training and one for testing in turn).
  • If we guarantee the following two conditions: ……………………… then after a finite number of steps a theory T , which is complete and consistent, is built. If we denote by LHM( T i ) the least Herbrand model of a theory T i , the stepwise construction of theories entails that LHM( T i )  LHM( T i+1 ), for each i  {0, 1,  , n-1}, since the addition of a clause to a theory can only augment the LHM
  • In order to guarantee the first of the two conditions it is possible to proceed as follows. First, a positive example e + of a predicate p to be learned is selected, such that e + is not in LHM( T i ). The example e + is called seed . Then the space of definite clauses more general than e + is explored, looking for a clause C, if any, such that neg(LHM( T i  { C })) =  . In this way we guarantee that the second condition above holds as well. When found, C is added to T i giving T i+1 . If some positive examples are not included in LHM( T i+1 ) then a new seed is selected and the process is repeated. The second condition is more difficult to guarantee because of the non-monotonicity property. The approach followed in ATRE to remove inconsistency due to the addition of a clause to the theory consists of simple syntactic changes in the theory, which eventually creates new layers . The layering of a theory introduces a first variation of the classical separate-and-conquer strategy sketched above, since the addition of a locally consistent clause generated in the conquer stage is preceded by a global consistency check.
  • Learning multi-relational patterns from multi-relational data and background knowledge It allows to navigate the relational structure of data

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  • 1. Mobile Broadband: The Global Evolution of UMTS/HSPA 3GPP Release 7 and Beyond ACRONYM LIST........................................................................................................................................... 3 PREFACE ..................................................................................................................................................... 5 1 INTRODUCTION........................................................................................................................................ 6 2 PROGRESS OF REL-99/REL-5/REL-6 UMTS ......................................................................................... 7 PROGRESS TIMELINE .................................................................................................................................. 7 3 THE GROWING DEMANDS FOR WIRELESS DATA APPLICATIONS .................................................. 9 WIRELESS DATA TRENDS AND FORECASTS .................................................................................................. 9 4 OVERVIEW OF 3GPP REL-7.................................................................................................................. 15 4.1 MIMO ON HSDPA.............................................................................................................................. 15 4.2 RAN ENHANCEMENTS ......................................................................................................................... 19 4.3 IMS/CORE NETWORK ENHANCEMENTS ................................................................................................ 24 5 EVOLUTION BEYOND REL-7 – SAE/HSPA+/LTE................................................................................ 26 5.1 ARCHITECTURE EVOLUTION (SAE) ...................................................................................................... 27 5.2 AIR-INTERFACE EVOLUTION OR LONG TERM EVOLUTION (LTE) ............................................................. 29 5.3 HSPA EVOLUTION (HSPA+) ............................................................................................................... 35 6 CONCLUSIONS....................................................................................................................................... 37 APPENDIX A: DETAILED VENDOR PROGRESS ON REL-99/REL-5/REL-6 ......................................... 39 APPENDIX B: GLOBAL UMTS OPERATOR STATUS ............................................................................ 48 APPENDIX C: GLOBAL EDGE-UMTS OPERATOR STATUS & DEVICES ............................................ 56 APPENDIX D: GLOBAL HSDPA OPERATOR STATUS & DEVICES ..................................................... 58 HSDPA DEPLOYMENTS ............................................................................................................................ 58 HSDPA DEVICES ..................................................................................................................................... 60 VENDORS ................................................................................................................................................. 61 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ............................................................................................................................. 63 2
  • 2. Acronym List 1xEV-DO 1x EVolution Data Optimized 1xEV-DV 1x EVolution Data Voice 3GPP 3rd Generation Partnership Project AGPS Assisted Global Positioning System AMR Adaptive Multi-Rate ARPU Average Revenue Per User BTS Base Transceiver Station CQI Channel Quality Indications CS Circuit Switched CSI Combination of Circuit Switched and Packet Switched services CSCF Call Session Control Function CTIA Cellular Telecommunication Industry Association D-TxAA Double Transmit Adaptive Array DCH Dedicated Channel E2E End to End E-DCH Enhanced Dedicated Channel (also known as HSUPA) E-DPCCH Enhanced Dedicated Physical Control CHannel E-DPDCH Enhanced Dedicated Physical Data CHannelCHannel EDGE Enhanced Data for Global Evolution ETSI European Telecommunication Standards Institute EUTRA Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access EUTRAN Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access Network FBC Flow Based Charging FBI Fixed Broadband access to IMS FDD Frequency Division Duplex GPRS General Packet Radio System GSM Global System for Mobile communications GUP Generic User Profile HARQ Hybrid Automatic Repeat Request HLR Home Location Register HS-SCCH High-Speed Shared Control Channel HSDPA High Speed Downlink Packet Access HSPA High Speed Packet Access (HSDPA + HSUPA) HSPA + High Speed Packet Access Plus (also known as HSPA Evolution) HSS Home Subscriber Server HSUPA High Speed Uplink Packet Access HTML Hyper-Text Markup Language IMS IP Multimedia Subsystem IP Internet Protocol ISIM IMS SIM ISP Internet Service Provider ISUP ISDN User Part ITU International Telecommunication Union J2ME Java 2 Micro Edition LCS LoCation Service LMMSE Least Minimum Mean Squared Error LTE Long Term Evolution (Air Interface Evolution) M2M Machine to Machine MAC Media Access Control MBMS Multimedia Broadcast/Multicast Service MITE IMS Multimedia Telephony Communication Enabler MRFP Multimedia Resource Function Processor MME Mobility Management Entity MMS Multimedia Messaging Service NGN Next Generation Network OMA Open Mobile Architecture OTA Over The Air PAR Peak to Average Ratio PARC Per-Antenna Rate Control 3
  • 3. PCC Policy and Charging Convergence PCMCIA Personal Computer Manufacturers’ Card Interface Adapter PCS Personal Communication System PoC Push-to-talk over Cellular PLMN Public Land Mobile Network POTS Plain Old Telephone Service PS Packet Switched PSI Public Service Identities PSTN Public Switched Telephone Network QAM Quadrature Amplitude Modulation QPSK Quadrature Phase Shift Keying QoS Quality of Service RAB Radio Access Bearer RAT Radio Access Technology RNC Radio Network Controller RRC Radio Related Signaling SAE System Architecture Evolution SBLB Service Based Local Policy SDMA Spatial Division Multiple Access SIM Subscriber Identity Module SIP Session Initiated Protocol SMS Short Message Service SRNC Serving Radio Network Controller STTD Space-Time Transmit Diversity TFC Transport Format Combination TTI Transmission Time Interval UE User Equipment UMTS Universal Mobile Telecommunication System, also known as WCDMA UPE User Plane Entity USIM UMTS SIM UTRA Universal Terrestrial Radio Access UTRAN UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network VCC Voice Call Continuity VoIP Voice over Internet Protocol VPN Virtual Private Network WAP Wireless Application Protocol WCDMA Wideband Code Division Multiple Access WIM Wireless Internet Module WLAN Wireless Local Area Network 4
  • 4. Preface The growing commercialization of Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS), also known as Wideband Code Division Multiple Access (WCDMA), has been the topic of an annual white paper by 3G Americas since 2003, when the focus was Third Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) Release '99. With both the rapid progress of the evolutionary 3GPP roadmap for UMTS to HSPA from Release 5 (2004 white paper) to Release 6 (2005 white paper) and now Release 7, and the commercial deployment of 107 UMTS/WCDMA networks worldwide with nearly 75 million customers at the writing of this paper, the need for semi-annual updates has become necessary in order to provide reasonably current information. In fact, on December 6, 2005, Cingular Wireless launched UMTS enhanced with High Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA) in 16 major markets throughout the U.S., becoming the first operator in the world to launch this enhanced UMTS technology on a wide-scale basis. Already there are 41 operators offering HSDPA services in 31 countries of the world, with additional commitments from 62 more operators as of July 7, 2006 (see Appendix D). 3G Americas' first UMTS white paper, UMTS to Mobilize the Data World reported on the progress of UMTS: from its inception in 1995, to standardization by ETSI1 in January 1998, to the commercial launch by Japan's NTT DoCoMo and other operator trial launches. The paper provided documentation on the installation, testing and preparation of UMTS networks on several continents, and the prediction that UMTS and EDGE would serve as complementary technologies for GSM operators throughout the world. Figure 1. Global UMTS Subscriber Growth Forecast2 The rapid growth of UMTS led to a focus on its next significant evolutionary phase, namely, Release 5 (Rel-5). 3GPP Rel-5, initially deployed in 2005, has many important enhancements that are easy upgrades to the initially deployed Release 1999 (Rel-99) UMTS networks. Rel-5 provides wireless operators the improvements they need for offering customers higher-speed wireless data services with vastly improved spectral efficiencies through the HSDPA feature. It is expected that HSDPA Rel-5 will provide a 50 percent reduction in cost per megabit versus Rel-99, and HSDPA Rel-6 will further build upon reductions in the cost per megabit. In addition to HSDPA, Rel-5 introduces the IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) architecture that promises to greatly enhance the end-user experience for integrated multimedia applications and offer mobile operators a more efficient means for offering such services. 1 ETSI: European Telecommunications Standards Institute 2 Informa Telecoms and Media, World Cellular Information Service, June 2006 5
  • 5. UMTS Rel-5 also introduces the IP UTRAN concept to realize transport network efficiencies and reduce transport network costs. The 3G Americas white paper titled The Evolution of UMTS – 3GPP Release 5 and Beyond was published in June 2004, updated in November 2004, and provided an overview and status update of the key 3GPP Rel-5 specifications and features discussed above. The Global Evolution of UMTS/HSDPA - 3GPP Release 6 and Beyond December 2005 white paper provided information on the commercialization and industry progress towards the evolution of UMTS to Release 6 (Rel-6) with discussion of future evolutions of the technology. Mobile Broadband: The Global Evolution of UMTS/HSPA Release 7 and Beyond takes the step forward to Release 7 (Rel-7) and the future beyond HSPA. In this new paper, we explore UMTS/HSDPA commercialization status and its continuing standards developments, focusing on Rel-7 and looking at what lies beyond with the Long Term Evolution (LTE) and System Architecture Evolution (SAE) initiatives. We also explore the growing demands for wireless data and successes already indicated for a variety of wireless data applications: the increasing Average Revenue Per User (ARPU) for wireless data services by operators worldwide, the cost per byte of UMTS data service, and technology benefits. The appendices include lists of both commitments and deployments for EDGE, UMTS and HSDPA, as well as the progress of leading UMTS vendors. UMTS evolution is ongoing with a clear roadmap well into the near future, and this white paper provides the guide for its readers to understand the evolutionary process. This paper has been prepared by a working group of 3G Americas' member companies. The material represents the combined efforts of many experts from the following companies: Andrew Corporation, Cingular Wireless, Ericsson, Gemalto, Hewlett-Packard, Lucent Technologies, Motorola, Nokia, Nortel, and Siemens. 1 Introduction Wireless data revenues are picking up and have now passed 10% of the total revenues for many operators. Today the most popular applications are text messaging (SMS), Web and WAP access, multi- media messaging (MMS) and content downloads, e.g., ring tones, music and video clips, with more than 50% of the mobile subscribers using these basic data services. With the introduction of UMTS, data revenues will play an increasingly important role for operators. Most UMTS operators today are offering some kind of mobile broadband service and several PC vendors offer laptops with built-in HSDPA capabilities that will boost data usage even further. Other services, with less penetration today but with high expectations for future growth, include mobile email access, mobile TV, mobile gaming and full track music downloads. While earlier 3GPP releases already provide efficient support for these services, 3GPP Rel-7 focuses on providing improved support and performance for real-time conversational and interactive services such as Push-to-talk Over Cellular, picture and video sharing, and Voice and Video over IP. These services are starting to become available as operators deploy IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) based on 3GPP Rel-5. The radio interface enhancements in 3GPP Rel-7 will provide improved capacity in terms of the number of packet data users that can be connected simultaneously as well as improved state transition delays in order to shorten initial delays for service establishment or re-activation. The introduction of Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) will further enhance mobile broadband offerings by taking theoretical peak rates well above today’s 14 Mbps as well as improving the average cell throughput. 3GPP Rel-7 also provides new and enhanced Core Network and IMS features. IMS is extended to wireline subscribers to make it the common platform for both fixed and mobile networks going forward. IMS Multi-media Telephony defines a telephony service for Voice and Video over IP, allowing operators to provide telephony services in the packet switched (PS) domain that is consistent with the already existing services in the CS domain. Voice Call Continuity provides seamless mobility between the voice component of the IMS Multi-media Telephony and CS voice. CSI provides the means for a mobile station to combine a CS voice call with PS-based IMS services between the same two users, enabling picture and video sharing with CS voice calls in order to provide enriched voice services. Policy and Charging Convergence (PCC) allows operators to perform advanced dynamic QoS control and charging for packet data services. Looking further ahead, 3GPP is working on a new radio interface and new system architecture in order to cope with the rapid growth in IP data traffic and ensure competitiveness for the next ten years and 6
  • 6. beyond. The evolution of the technology will bring theoretical peak rates to above 100 Mbps for downlink and 50 Mbps for uplink, and reduce latency to levels comparable with fixed broadband Internet, e.g., less than 5 ms in ideal conditions. In order to achieve this, an evolution or migration of the network architecture, as well as an evolution of the radio interface is studied in the System Architecture Evolution (SAE), Long Term Evolution (LTE) and HSPA Evolution (HSPA+) Study Items. 2 Progress of Rel-99/Rel-5/Rel-6 UMTS At the time of this writing, 3GPP Rel-99 through Rel-4 and Rel-5 UMTS are considered mature specifications, with Rel-99 initially standardized in early-mid 1999 and published by 3GPP in March 2000, Rel-4 completed in March 2001, and Rel-5 published in March 2002. The Rel-99 UMTS specifications provided an evolution path for the GSM, GPRS and EDGE technologies that enabled more spectrally efficient and better performing voice and data services through the introduction of a 5 MHz UMTS carrier. Commercial deployments of Rel-99 UMTS networks began several years ago and the number of commercially deployed UMTS systems has grown rapidly since then, as substantiated in the 107 commercial UMTS networks in the deployment status listing in Appendix B of this paper. Rel-4 introduced call and bearer separation in the Core Network, and Rel-5 introduced some significant enhancements to UMTS including HSDPA, IMS and IP UTRAN.3 Rel-6 was completed in March 2005 introducing further enhancements to UMTS including HSUPA (or E- DCH), MBMS and Advanced Receivers.4 The first commercial deployments of HSDPA occurred in Q4 2005, while initial deployments of IMS are already underway. There have also been numerous trials and demos of Rel-6 features such as HSUPA in 1Q-2Q 2006. Leading manufacturers worldwide support UMTS and to illustrate the rapid progress and growth of UMTS, detailed descriptions of recent accomplishments from each of the 3G Americas’ participating vendors on Rel-99, Rel-5 and Rel-6 UMTS are included in Appendix A of this white paper. As there are many technology milestones to report, a summary of some of the key technology milestones and developments is provided in this section. However, Appendix A has individual reports from leading vendors on their recent demonstrations, trials, product releases and contracts. Progress Timeline Figure 2. 3GPP UMTS Timeline5 3 3GPP Rel-5 and Beyond - The Evolution of UMTS, November 2004, 3G Americas, 4 The Global Evolution of UMTS/HSDPA - 3GPP Release 6 and Beyond, December 2005, 3G Americas, 5 3G Americas, June 2006 7
  • 7. In November 2003, HSDPA was first demonstrated on a commercially available UMTS base station in Swindon, U.K. HSDPA was first commercially launched on a wide scale by Cingular Wireless in December 2005, followed closely thereafter by Manx Telecom and Telekom Austria. In June 2006, "Bitė Lietuva" of Lithuania became the first operator to launch HSDPA at 3.6 Mbps, a record speed. At this time, there are 41 commercial HSDPA networks with an additional 62 operators committed to deploying HSDPA. It is expected that almost all UMTS operators will deploy HSDPA. In early 2006, leading infrastructure vendors launched a new generation of base stations allowing for fewer sites, increasing capacity by 50-150 percent and optimized for cost efficiency at every site. Power consumption was cut further by 35-55 percent thereby enhancing power efficiency. These base stations allow GSM to be seamlessly upgraded to UMTS and operate in both GSM and UMTS networks in parallel. Frequency bands are currently supported in the 850, 1900 and 2100 MHz bands and will also support all coming frequency bands, including 900, 1700, 1800, 1700/2100 and 2500 MHz. The 700 MHz band will be introduced in time to support the rollouts when the 700 MHz band has been auctioned and cleared. One vendor cites the mobile-data throughput capability of the most cost-effective base station is more than 400 GB per day, resulting in a broadband radio network at a cost close to $1 per GB. With reportedly up to 70 percent lower base station site expenditures, the GSM/UMTS infrastructure costs are encouraging operators to deploy 3G UMTS technology today. Most vendors' HSDPA solutions require software-only upgrades, which can be downloaded remotely to the UMTS RNC and Node B. At 3GSM 2006 in Barcelona, infrastructure vendors demonstrated live HSDPA data downloading at a speed of 3.6mbps. HSDPA on-air tests have shown 950kbps with 80mph in a live UMTS network. Delivery of HSUPA is expected in 1Q2007, compliant to Rel-6. Handset manufacturers have already shipped the world’s first handsets that support HSDPA, and, in May of this year, the first commercial network with HSDPA handhelds was launched in South Korea. In addition to allowing data to be downloaded at up to 1.8 Mbps, the initial handsets offer such applications as satellite-transmitted Digital Multimedia Broadcasting (DMB) TV programs, have two to-three-megapixel cameras, Bluetooth, radios and stereo speakers. Many new devices are anticipated for launch in 2H 2006; Cingular has expectations to offer their customers several devices in mid-year. HSDPA data cards support different UMTS frequency bands, and can be used in both the U.S. and Europe. Some vendors’ wireless modules are expected to introduce more UMTS/HSDPA data capabilities in 2006 through enabling the machine-to-machine (M2M) market and further improving the diversity of possible applications. The world’s first HSDPA demonstrations with Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) technology using a commercial radio base station were in April at CTIA Wireless 2006, and data rates were doubled from 10 to 20 Mbps. HSUPA technology was demonstrated live at several global trade shows in early 2006, with speeds peaking at more than 4Mbps, enabling the use of many more applications. Some vendors plan to have HSUPA for enhanced uplink data speeds available as early as the first quarter of 2007, in compliance with 3GPP Rel-6. Beyond HSPA, leading vendors are actively developing and testing IMS device implementation. The GSMA’s IMS (Videoshare) Interoperability Test Sessions yielded important early successes in demonstrating IMS functionality, as well as ensuring interoperable solutions that will increase the take-up of this next step in the GSM/UMTS evolution. Vendors are also supporting IMS development across multiple frequency bands to deliver valuable applications and services. Vendors have signed commercial IMS agreements throughout the world and are conducting hundreds of trials of various IMS network elements. IMS developer programs are available in Germany, USA, China and Singapore to encourage the creation of advanced IMS applications and services. Some vendors have announced plans to make their current infrastructure reusable for Long Term Evolution (LTE), for example, by introducing new modules that can be integrated into the existing base stations. These future network infrastructure architectures will find their way into the market around 2008 or 2009. Technology milestones and advances in the evolution of UMTS continue to develop as the number of 3G customers grows at a rapidly increasing rate. With the structure for services and applications beginning to grow more secure, the demand for wireless data services and other advance voice applications is showing a growth trend as well. Reference Appendix A for more detailed information on the progress of the GSM to HSPA evolution and beyond. 8
  • 8. 3 The Growing Demands for Wireless Data Applications As 3G networks continue their rollout worldwide, manufacturers are enabling a slew of applications that are driving innovations in mobile handsets, and crossing barriers into a wide variety of vertical enterprise markets. Consumers are likewise driving the mobile content for entertainment, advertising, and MMS services. As these applications proliferate, voice is becoming a secondary factor when purchasing a mobile device, according to Naqi Jaffery, Telecom Trends International.6 High-speed wireless data services have elevated what Motorola calls “the device formerly known as the cell phone” to much more. Wireless-phone makers offer a new generation of handsets that combine a variety of functions in a single device. Handsets can send email, store music on removable memory, store video clips, check satellite positioning and even monitor a user’s stress level. A wireless device is now a must-have device for lifestyle–conscious consumers as well as world travelers and business people. Wireless Data Trends and Forecasts “Each year, more and more consumers are experiencing the incredible benefits that only wireless can offer,” said CTIA President, Steve Largent. “The mobile communications revolution is in full swing, and now nearly 70% of America is taking part in it.” According to a CTIA survey, revenues from wireless data services jumped more than 86% in the past year, amounting to more than $8.58 billion in 2005, up from $4.6 billion in 2004. American customers sent nearly 50 billion text messages in the six month period ending December 2005, and consumed nearly 1.5 trillion wireless minutes in the year 2005. These two measurements represented a 97% and a 36% increase respectively. With the U.S. adding more than 25 million new subscribers in 2005, the U.S. wireless industry had a stellar 2005, passing the 200 million subscriber mark and 70% market penetration thresholds, receiving positive market response to both PC cards and the first handset-based 3G applications, and with providers reporting they had crossed the 10% data ARPU level. “Total voice service revenue declines late in the forecast period [U.S. wireless industry in 2008-2009] will jolt an industry accustomed to 25 years of voice revenue growth and further emphasize the importance of data services to the future of the industry,” observed Scott Ellison, IDC.7 Wireless Data Revenue U.S. data revenue is expected to grow 45% to $12.6 billion in 2006 from the previous year, according to research firm Ovum.8 In comparison, Ovum expects total wireless revenue to grow 10% to $135.86 billion in 2006. On a global basis, Kagan Research forecasts total wireless data revenues will be the wireless industry’s quickest growth area, increasing from $8.4 billion in 2005 to $46.6 billion by 20149. That would account for about 24 percent of a total $191 billion in 2014 wireless service revenues, against just 7 percent in 2005. Kagan also suggests that interactive applications for games, t-commerce and advertising will become an increasing portion of subscriber-related multi-channel revenue at 3.2 percent by 2015. Including video on demand and pay per view revenues will further increase the sector to nearly 10 percent in the ten year outlook. In November 2005, Yankee Group launched the Global Wireless/Mobile Premium Forecast, predicting that data services would comprise 21% of total worldwide wireless operator service revenue of US$698 billion by 2009. Text messaging revenue will top US$36 billion in 2009, ringtone revenue to carriers and content providers will reach almost US$28 billion.10 Carriers are beginning to reap the benefits of faster networks and “devices formerly known as the cell phone”. Cingular Wireless, the largest carrier in the U.S., added a record 1.8 million net subscribers in Q4 2005. Driven by its best ever overall churn performance and record gross additions, the company ended the year 2005 with 54.1 million customers. Cingular reported that ARPU reflects continued pressure on voice revenues as the wireless market becomes more penetrated and lower-revenue 6 “The Future of Mobile Handsets,” Telecom Trends International report, May 1, 2006 7 IDC Forecast Anticipates Decline in Total Voice Revenue in 2008-2009 for the U.S. Consumer Wireless Industry, IDC press release, March 29, 2006 8 3G Retains its Buzz but Potential Remains Unclear, Dow Jones NY, January 27, 2006 9 Media Trends 2006, Kagan Research, April 2006 10 Global Wireless/Mobile Premium Forecast, Yankee Group report, November 2005, © Copyright 1997-2006. Yankee Group Research, Inc. All rights reserved. 9
  • 9. customers enter the category, though these impacts were substantially offset by continued increase in data ARPU. The company’s data ARPU was up 63% over the year-ago fourth quarter at $4.71 and represented 10.4% of overall revenue. For T-Mobile USA, data revenues now represent 9.6% of postpaid ARPU, or $5.21 per customer, compared to 8.8% in the third quarter of 2005 and 6.6% in the fourth quarter of 2004. Central to the growth in data services revenue was a net increase in postpaid converged device users of more than 123,000 during 4Q 2005. In total, T-Mobile USA had 1.1 million converged device users at the end of 2005 including both the Blackberry and T-Mobile Sidekick devices. Rogers Wireless in Canada reported in 1Q 2006 that wireless postpaid voice and data subscriber ARPU increased in Q1 2006 to $62.20, an increase of 5.1% over first quarter 2005. Data revenues increased 72% and roaming revenues increased 33.1% in the first quarter year over year. Data revenue totaled $98.5 million for the first three months of 2006 or approximately 10.3% of Rogers total wireless network revenue compared to 7.1% in the same period of 2005. Rogers stated this increase reflects the continued rapid growth of Blackberry, text and multimedia messaging services, wireless Internet access, downloadable ring tones, music and games, and other wireless data services and applications. Telcel, the América Móvil operation that is market leader in Mexico, reports year end 2005 data ARPU at 11% of total company revenues, up from 9% in 2004, with a “vision of a steady pace of growth as new applications and services (i.e. mobile payments) are launched and the usage of GPRS/EDGE networks elevates”. Informa Telecoms & Media’s Data Metrics offers a look at the 20 global operators leading the market with data as the largest percentage of total revenue. As of March 2006, Filipino operators Smart and Globe continue to report the highest percentage of revenue for data on a global bases, 50% and 38% of revenue from data respectively in 4Q 2005. As of March 2005, Globe commercially launched HSDPA, enabling them to reduce their cost per bit for data services. Figure 3. Global Data Percentage of Revenue11 Some analysts are predicting that mobile data revenues worldwide will represent up to 35% of total monthly ARPU by 2010. It is no surprise that NTT DoCoMo is among the leaders, having done the 11 Informa Telecoms and Media, World Cellular Information Service, June 2006 10
  • 10. groundbreaking work in this space since 1998. NTT DoCoMo earns more than $1 billion per month from data services with a stated goal to derive 80% of their revenues from data services by 2010. 3G Devices Gartner predicts that sales of HSDPA handsets will reach 2.1 million this year and will jump to 89.3 million by 2009.12 In a bid to encourage mobile customers to show more interest in multimedia services and applications, two device vendors have taken a more pro-active stance. Motorola has a flash new mobile music and video messaging application (which uses Flash) and Nokia has launched an interactive online community for mobile movies. Motorola’s StudioMOTO is a free online music studio that lets users create their own multimedia for their mobile and Nokia’s Nseries Studio enables filmmaking with mobile devices. In addition to handsets, soaring notebook PC shipments reflect strong demand for mobility on the computer market and generate rapid growth in the device population, claimed a Berg Insight report in January 2006. According to the study, HSDPA is the best suited wireless broadband technology for most regular users. T-Mobile (Germany) already began shipping HSDPA-ready PC data cards in late 2005, as did Cingular Wireless (US). Tobias Ryberg of Berg Insight said, “One of the key issues for the telecom industry is how [notebook PCs] should be connected to the Internet. There is much talk about various emerging technologies, but HSDPA is actually here right now and combines high performance with good coverage. No other technology can be expected to achieve the same footprint in the near future.” Ryberg said that European mobile operators were aiming to connect 50 million notebook PCs to the Internet via HSDPA. According to the report there are currently more than one million 3G data card users worldwide. Virtually all 3G network operators in Europe offer mobile broadband services. Beginning in the first half of this year, PC vendors including HP, Dell, Lenovo and Fujitsu will offer notebook computers with optional integrated HSDPA wireless broadband capability, which will boost current 3G download speeds by approximately four times. This was further supported by ABI Research which reported that the spread of high speed mobile data services is driving the increased adoption of wireless modems in laptop computers. The original wireless modems for laptops were add-ons in the shape of PC cards, and according to Phil Solis, senior analyst at ABI Research, “there are still several good years left in the PC card market.” Now, progressively more wireless modems are being built right into the computer, and it is there that the long term opportunity lies. This will produce a change in the dynamics of the market. ABI Research estimates that shipments of embedded modems will equal those of PC cards by 2009. Internet access via the mobile phone threatens to overtake wireless access from a notebook PC, according to the annual Face of the Web study of Internet trends from Ipsos Insight. The massive install base of mobile phones throughout the world is driving mobile access at a phenomenal rate.13 “In cellular’s early years, the primary focus was the cellular modem, and on improving its design,” according to Alan Varghese of ABI Research. “In later years, as cellular networks switched on high- speed data, the design focus veered away from the modem and towards applications such as digital imaging, music and video. Thus, it is no longer an either/or game: the chipset design focus has to be on both the modem and the applications in order to enable robust wireless connections, low power consumption and enjoyable user-experiences. 3G chipset architects find they have a full plate on their hands.”14 3G Applications Telephia reports that mobile data usage in the U.S., such as text and multimedia messaging, mobile Web, and downloads reached the 50% adoption mark in Q4 2005, rising seven percentage points since the beginning of the year. According to the latest data from Telephia’s Customer Value Metrics report, SMS activity leads the way for all mobile data usage with 41% of wireless subscribers using text messaging on their cell phones at the end of 2005. During Q4 2005, 22% of all cell phone users paid for accessing the Web via cell phone, 13% used MMS services (which raised 5 percentage points since Q1 2005), and 11% downloaded content from their cell phones (up 3 percentage points from the beginning of the year).15 The global market for mobile-phone premium content, including music, gaming and video, is expected to 12 Forecast: Mobile Terminals, Worldwide, 2000-2009 (4Q05 Update) Gartner, January 12, 2006 13 Mobile Phones to Rival PC for Internet Access, iTWire, Stan Beer, April 20, 2006 14 3G Chipset Design for Music, Gaming, Video and TV: No Longer an Either/Or Game, ABI Research press release, February 23, 2006 15 American Mobile Data Usage Surges, Telephia, April 7, 2006, 11
  • 11. expand to more than $43 billion by 2010, rising at a compound annual growth rate of 42.5 percent from $5.2 billion in 2004, iSuppli Corp. predicts.16 Downloading music to a mobile handset, accessing and editing e-mails on a mobile handset, watching television or the person at the other end on the display during a phone call -- which services will wireless customers be using in the future, and what will they be willing to pay for them? To find the answers, Siemens surveyed over 5,300 mobile communication subscribers in eight countries about innovative wireless applications and their expectations with respect to the content and functionality of these applications.17 A few trends are clear; mobile television and e-mail access on a mobile handset number among the most popular applications. The survey on "innovative wireless services" was conducted in Brazil, Canada, China, Germany, Italy, Korea, Russia and the United States. It was found that consumers across all countries and continents are keenly interested in mobile e-mail access -- on average, 74 percent of the surveyed wireless users want to be able to send, receive and edit e-mails on their wireless devices. Users in North America and Europe, in particular, have high expectations with respect to mobile e-mail access. Although the focus is on using this technology in connection with their work, many wireless subscribers would also consider personal usage. In many countries, Mobile TV is one of the most attractive applications - with an average of 59% of all respondents expressing interest in utilizing this application. This application is especially interesting to wireless providers due to the strong willingness on the part of users to pay for it. In Korea, where Mobile TV is already being offered, more than 90% of all respondents voiced their interest in mobile television. The study shows that the ability to download music tracks to mobile handsets also offers high potential with 62% of all respondents indicating they would download music files to their wireless devices. In all of the countries in which the survey was conducted, mobile music downloads numbered among the three most popular applications. Other applications that rank high-- particularly among the young generation-- include Mobile Gaming as well as the IMS-based services Group Communication, Enriched Voice Calling and File Sharing. A new report by Datamonitor expects the number of mobilized email accounts to explode over the next three years. According to the report there are roughly 650 million corporate email inboxes worldwide today. Based on the assumption that at least 35-40% of these inboxes could potentially be mobilized, Datamonitor estimates the global addressable market for enterprise mobile email at around 260 million subscriptions. According to Datamonitor, mobile operators are in a position to make the most of the 18 upsurge in growth anticipated for mobile email. Motorola is developing a chip that would allow users to pay at cash registers by swiping their cell phones. Such payments already are prevalent in Asia, where customers can buy groceries, movie tickets and train fare with their mobile phones.19 With people spending billions on ringtones, wallpaper and games for their phones, analysts and retail executives say they believe it will not be much of a leap to get them to use their phones to buy shoes, books and laptops. “This will show up on the radar screen in 2006,” said Roger Entner, Ovum. “The more different pieces we add to these Swiss Army phones, the easier it is to get user acceptance for the next application. And especially around next Christmas, the convenience of shopping on a computer or a cell phone will beat the mall hands down.” 20 Trip Hawkins, PC-gamer pioneer and founder and CEO of start-up Digital Chocolate is helping to shape the nascent mobile gaming industry.21 Hawkins considers mobile gaming a community experience—the mobile phone is a social computer. What started on the Internet with dating services, chat and IM has spread like wildfire to the mobile phone with messaging, mobile email, and personalization—all about social identity. “The mobile phone is in a position to be the dominant platform in the same way the PC turned out to be the dominant platform of desktop computing. What the mobile phone has going for it as the social computer is ubiquity, because everyone has one, and because it supports a mobile lifestyle,” states Hawkins. “On the regular Internet, people are used to getting everything for free. But with the mobile phone, people are willing to pay for services. So there’s a huge business opportunity.” Hawkins sees the next important change as faster networks as there will be a quantum leap as we go from 2G to 3G networks meaning the gaming experience will get a lot better. 16 iSuppli Corp, March 8, 2006, 17 End-User Requirements & Expectations, presentation, Siemens Network Evolution Forum, 3GSM World Congress 2006, Barcelona 18 Mobile Email on the Verge of Mass Market Adoption, Datamonitor press release, February 2, 2006, 19 Mobile Phones the Next Wave in Contactless Payments, CTIA Smartbrief, February 8, 2006 20 “Those Born to Shop Can Now Use Cellphones,” Bob Tedeschi, New York Times, January 2, 2006 21 Get Your Digits in Shape: Mobile Games are Hot and Getting Hotter, Business Week, Business News Online Newsmaker Q&A, Steve Hamm, April 3, 2006 12
  • 12. UK- based Juniper Research predicts that worldwide revenues for mobile gaming, which is composed of casino-style games, sports betting and lotteries will reach $19.3 billion by 2009. Juniper expects mobile gaming to make up roughly a third of the entire estimated $60 billion mobile entertainment market for that year. Mobile gaming already hit $468 million in 2004, and is projected at $2.07 billion at the end of 2005.22 Telephia found the mobile gaming industry is “soaring” with wireless customers buying more than 8.2 million mobile games in March 2006, up 53% from 5.4 million in January 2006 according to their report. Unique buyers also “surged” from an estimated 3.5 million in January to 5 million in March 2006 according to Telephia’s report. 23 In August 2005, the Pelorus Group predicted that mobile Web connectivity and services would grow from $1 billion to $15.3 billion in five years time (2005-2010).24 Social networking websites such as, which will soon go mobile, and others like Flickr for photo-sharing, for college students, or Rabble which lets users create profiles so they can share photos, videos and blogs with other members of the Rabble group, could become key applications drivers for new 3G wireless networks. Cell phones are the ideal tools for social networking and building online communities, because not only are people rarely without their phones, but today’s handsets also come equipped with sophisticated features such as cameras, digital music and video players and recorders that can be used for documenting one's life. Mobile-handset makers Nokia and Sony Ericsson are even embedding technology into some of their phones to make it easier for users to upload pictures and text to blogs. This makes the mobile phone a great tool for users to create their own content. The market for full track music downloads to mobile devices was twenty times larger at the end of 2005 than it was twelve months earlier noted ABI Research in its “Mobile Music Services” survey of world markets. Global revenues from over-the-air downloaded full track songs last year were $251 million up from $12.4 million in 2004.25 Nearly a quarter of Americans have downloaded a ringtone to their mobile phone, according to Ipsos Insight in TEMPO, their quarterly study of digital music behaviors since 2002 published in August 2005. This marked a dramatic increase from the 5 percent who had downloaded music one year earlier (in 2004).26 Mobile music now accounts for approximately 40% of record company digital revenues (which totaled $1.1 billion in 2005, up from $380 billion in 2004). Record companies are seeing sharply increased sales of master ringtones which account for the bulk of their $400 million plus mobile music revenues.27 Adoption of mobile video on phones has been somewhat low to date with only 2% of users claiming a subscription. JupiterResearch has found that 41% of mobile phone users are interested in some form of video service on their mobile phones. JupiterResearch expects the growing demand for video to generate $501 million in revenues by 2010 from $62 million in 2005. Among mobile subscribers today, 17% were interested in watching ‘live TV’ on their phones while 11% indicated interest in short video clips.28 Mobile advertising had $45 million in US ad revenue in 2005, but this is expected to grow to $1.26 billion in three years, according to Ovum’s forecast, and then carry on growing.29 Mobile ad budgets for Third Screen company had risen from an average of $20,000 for a campaign a year ago to ranges of $150,000 to $250,000 today. In January 2006, Third Screen signed a $1.6 million contract for a one-year campaign. One reason for the growing interest in cell phone ads is the relatively high click-through rate -- around 4 percent for mobile phones compared to 1 percent on the internet.30 Another tremendous area of growth for wireless data will be in machine-to-machine (M2M) wireless mobile connections. In Europe alone, Berg Insight predicts at least 25 million machines with connectivity to mobile networks by 2009.31 This number is currently estimated at 5 million. Although the use of these 22 Interactive Games Announces Launch of Cell Phone Gaming Division and Strategic Alliance with Via-Cell, Market Wire, April 28, 2005 23 Metric: Mobile gaming purchases up 53%, Fierce Wireless, March 8, 2006 24 Mobile Web Market to Hit $15.3B, Fierce Wireless, August 31, 2005 25 Ringing in the Changes: The Explosive Growth of Mobile Music Downloads, ABI Research press release, March 28, 2006 26 More Americans Download Music, Fierce Wireless, August 10, 2005 27 Mobile Music Downloads Soar, Cellular News, January 24, 2006 28 JupiterResearch Predicts the Mobile Video Market will Generate Revenues of Over $500 Million by 2010 as a Result of Expanded Video Offerings on Mobile Phones, JupiterResearch press release, March 28, 2006 29 “We’ll Be Returning You to our Mobile Phone Call-Right After These Important Messages,” Telecom TV, Martyn Warwick, January 18, 2006 30 “Marketers Want to Appear on Small Screen” New York Times, Matt Richtel January 16, 2006 31 Mobile M2M connections to hit 25 million by 2009, CNET Networks, Jo Best, May 11, 2006 13
  • 13. nodes is largely for GSM/GPS tracking technology, other growth areas will be in the security and retail sectors. This will include use of 3G applications and services. Robin Duke-Woolley of Harbor Research predicts that revenues from M2M networking devices will grow 27% annually, and could reach $10.6 billion worldwide by 2011.32 IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) It has been estimated that by the end of the decade, more than 400 million people will regularly use SIP- based services across IP multimedia networks. IMS Research conducted an assessment of the trends affecting the uptake, including the timeline for IMS deployment. The assessment concluded that after initially slow uptake, the most popular service will be ‘push to talk’ followed by picture and video sharing, also known as ‘push to’ service.33 Services included in the assessment were conferencing, instant messaging, interactive gaming, location services and mapping, mo-blogging and voice over WLAN among others. Total revenues for these services on cellular networks enabled with IP multimedia subsystems were estimated by IMS Research to ramp up to exceeding $50 billion by 2010. Report author John Devlin said, “The biggest single factor affecting the uptake of services on cellular networks will be operator strategy with regard to the positioning and pricing of these services and also the upgrade path to 3G and beyond. IMS is seen by some operators in the industry as an enhancement for 3G networks and they are intending to use it as an enabler to encourage subscriber migration and service uptake.” Figure 4. Worldwide Uptake of IMS Services In Terms of Subscriber Numbers34 The IMS market is expected to peak in 2010 when investments in IMS equipment are expected to reach $4.5 billion, according to Informa Telecoms & Media.35 Informa predicts that successful services running on IMS will include VoIP and IPTV in the fixed environment and Push-to-talk over Cellular (PoC) and Instant Messaging in the mobile market. In the fixed market, Informa predicts that 39 million users will be enjoying IMS enabled services by 2011 compared with the 188 million users in the mobile sector. The next two years will be pivotal to the adoption of IMS worldwide. As of early April 2006, there were more than 50 contracts and 100 ongoing trials, and operators are expected to form strategies within the next two years. Operators are expected to enjoy cost savings from the layered architecture that IMS offers while maintaining a future-proof network. In the mobile domain, Informa expects that PoC will be a major 32 Harbor Research M2M Forecast, 2006 33 “Push To” Services take the Lead, IMS Research press release, March 16, 2006 34 IMS Research, Worldwide Uptake of Wireless Services, Wm. Morelli, May 2006 35 IMS Opportunities and Challenges, Informa Telecoms & Media report, March 2006 14
  • 14. driver for IMS adoption while video sharing is already operating over IMS networks in a handful of cases around the world. VoIP over Cellular Industry interest in ‘VoIP over cellular’ is increasing. Reasons include the prospects of higher ARPU through richer communication (evolution currently driven by Internet players); lower OPEX through the offering of all mobile services from a common PS platform; and fixed/mobile convergence. The movement is to standardize an ‘IMS Multimedia Telephony’ service in 3GPP for many reasons: standardized services have benefits over proprietary solutions in terms of mass market potential; IMS is the standardized IP service engine for 3GPP access; and the service should make use of IP’s multimedia capability and flexibility, while retaining key telephony characteristics. 3GPP is the body with major mobile telephony expertise to accomplish this standardization process. The market indicators described in this section are representative of anticipated growth in the demand for wireless data services. The 3G networks and devices, applications and business strategies for IMS and UMA are in place or in development and researchers agree that the industry is poised for an explosion in the area of wireless data. Recent industry progress of UMTS from Rel-5 towards Rel-6 clearly supports the market trend claims reported in this section. 4 Overview of 3GPP Rel-7 As demonstrated in the previous 3G Americas’ white papers on UMTS/HSDPA [Ref 3, Ref 4], Rel-5 and Rel-6 introduced several features that provided significantly larger capacity and better performance compared to Rel-99. Rel-7 continues to build on the strong foundation of Rel-5/Rel-6 by introducing further capacity enhancing features such as MIMO for HSDPA. Moreover, Rel-7 focuses on RAN enhancements such as Continuous Connectivity, Gaming over IP (GoIP) and Delay Optimizations that enhance the capabilities for providing efficient and optimized real-time services such as VoIP, gaming and push-to-talk (PTT). Finally, Rel-7 also introduces IMS/Core Network enhancements related to multi- media telephony, combining of circuit and packet switched services (CSI), policy and charging and voice call continuity. It is proposed to keep the current Radio Network and Core Network separation to enable fast rollouts and easy implementation to terminals. This section provides an overview of the Rel-7 features discussed above. 4.1 MIMO on HSDPA The term “MIMO” is an acronym for multiple-input, multiple-output, and it is used to refer to any wireless system with multiple antennas at the transmitter and receiver. At the transmitter, multiple antennas can be used to mitigate the effects of fading via transmit diversity and to increase throughput via spatial division multiple access (SDMA). Beamforming and sectorization are two examples of SDMA. Beamforming can also be used for range extension. At the receiver, multiple antennas can be used for receiver combining which provides diversity and combining gains. If multiple antennas are available at both the transmitter and receiver, then different data streams can be transmitted from each antenna, with each stream carrying different information but using the same frequency resources. This technique, known as spatial multiplexing (SM), can potentially increase a user's peak data rate compared to conventional single- stream transmission. In the context of HSDPA Rel-7, MIMO specifically refers to SM. In this section, we first describe basic principles of spatial multiplexing followed by a discussion of the two main MIMO proposals that were investigated for Rel-7. We then describe how MIMO is used in a system context and the network environments that are best-suited for MIMO. We assume throughout that the MIMO mode uses two Node B antennas and two antennas per user equipment (UE). HSDPA uses rate adaptation based on a user’s channel quality information (CQI), which is fed back from the UE to the Node B. In conventional single-antenna HSDPA, the highest rate achievable under realistic conditions employs 16QAM and coding rate 1/2. Using a spreading period of 16 chips per symbol and 15 parallel codes for the HSDCH, this yields 7.2 Mbps (3.84Mchips per sec * 15 codes / 16 chips per code * 4 bits per symbol * 1/2 information bit per coded bit). Spatial multiplexing achieves higher data rates by reusing spectral resources over multiple spatial dimensions. For example, using two transmit antennas, one could transmit two separate data streams, each with data rate 7.2 Mbps resulting in a peak rate of 14.4Mbps. Because the two data streams are modulated in the same bandwidth using the same set of spreading codes, MIMO for HSDPA is sometimes called “code reuse”. At the receiver, multiple antennas are required to demodulate the data streams based on their spatial characteristics. In general, the 15
  • 15. minimum number of receiver antennas required is equal to the number of separate data streams. Different receiver techniques can be used, but they typically employ a minimum mean-squared error (MMSE) linear processor followed by a non-linear interference canceller. The two specific MIMO proposals for Rel-7 are Per-Antenna Rate Control (PARC)[R1-010879] and [R1- 060708] and Double Transmit Adaptive Array (D-TxAA) [R1-030556]. Their baseband block diagrams are shown in Figures 5 and 6, respectively. Each MIMO proposal consists of a single-stream mode and a SM mode. For PARC, the single-stream mode uses space-time transmit diversity (STTD) block coding following the channel coding, interleaving, mapping to symbols, and spreading (C.I.M.S.) of the information bits. In the SM mode, the information bits are first demultiplexed, prior to coding. Because the rate for each antenna can be adapted independently, the number of bits sent to each antenna can be different. For D-TxAA, the single-stream mode uses Rel-99 TxAA to achieve closed-loop transmit diversity. The signals for each antenna are weighted by a complex amplitude chosen to best match the instantaneous channel characteristics. The pairs of amplitudes are chosen from a pre-defined set. Spatial multiplexing for D-TxAA transmits two simultaneous streams whose weight vectors are mutually orthogonal. Simulation results from various companies have shown similar performance for the PARC and D-TxAA schemes. In Rel-7, MIMO based on PARC has been adopted for UTRA TDD mode and Dual-codeword MIMO based on D-TxAA (with weights being signaled on the HS-SCCH in the downlink) has been adopted for UTRA FDD mode. In PARC, channel quality information is fed back from the UE to the NodeB to indicate which transmission mode to use and what data rate(s) can be supported. D-TxAA requires additional feedback to indicate which weighting vector(s) to use. D-TxAA could potentially achieve slightly higher throughput than PARC for low mobility channels. info info bits C.I.M.S. bits C.I.M.S. STTD Single-stream TX Single-stream TX SM TX SM TX C.I.M.S. C.I.M.S. + 1:2 1:2 Demux Demux info C.I.M.S. info C.I.M.S. + bits bits Figure 5. PARC36 Figure 6. D-TxAA37 To demonstrate performance of these MIMO techniques, Figure 7 and Figure 8 depict the average cell throughput and CDF of user throughput respectively for a 2x2 D-TxAA system compared to a reference 1x2 Linear Minimum Mean Square Error (LMMSE) system when using a space-time channel model (SCM). The scenario used in the evaluation is a micro cellular network scenario according to the model for the “Urban Micro” environment. The inter-site distance was 1000 meters without additional penetration loss. It can be observed that 2x2 D-TxAA MIMO provides some gain (approximately 10%) over the reference 1x2 LMMSE system in average cell throughput and increases the peak throughputs of the individual users. The results are expected to be comparable to PARC. 36 TSG-R1(01)0879, 3GPP TSG RAN WG1, Turin, Italy, Aug 27-31, 2001 37 TSGR1#32(03)0556, 3GPP TSG RAN WG1, Marne la Vallee, France, May 19-22, 2003 16
  • 16. Figure 7. Average cell throughput in SCM Urban Micro, RR scheduler38 Figure 8. CDF of user throughput39 It should be noted that the spatial multiplexing techniques discussed above could also be used for lower data rates by reducing the coding rate and using smaller data constellations. For example, one could 38 Nokia, " WCDMA MIMO performance", March 27-31, 2006, Athens, Greece, 3GPP TSG RAN WG1 Meeting #44bis, Tdoc R1-060799 39 3GPP RAN WG1 #45, R1-061451, Lucent Technologies 17
  • 17. transmit two data streams, each with QPSK and coding rate ¼. The same data rate could be achieved with a single data stream using QPSK and coding rate ½. For lower data rates, it is more efficient to transmit using a single stream rather than with spatial multiplexing. In other words, for a given low rate and a given total transmit power, single stream transmission achieves a lower frame error rate. Therefore MIMO for HSDPA uses single-stream transmission for lower data rates and spatial multiplexing for only the higher data rates. Because multiple antennas are available at the Node B, transmit diversity can be used for single-stream transmission. The “crossover point” at which it becomes more efficient to transmit with spatial multiplexing depends on many factors including the number of UE antennas. For dual-antenna UEs, the crossover point is typically about 5dB SINR (geometry), corresponding to an achievable data rate of about 4Mbps. In conventional cellular networks with fully loaded 3-sector cells and universal frequency reuse, the geometry is greater than 4dB in about 35% of the locations. Therefore SM is used about 35% of the time, and the fraction of users that achieve a peak rate equal or higher than the single-stream peak rate of 7.2 Mbps is about 25%. This is compared to the 15% that can achieve 7.2 Mbps in a conventional baseline HSDPA system with dual-antenna UEs. In terms of total average cell throughput, MIMO provides about a 33% improvement over this baseline. If cell throughput is a more important performance metric than peak data rate, it is much more efficient to use sectorization instead of SM. Using 6-sector cells each with a single antenna, the throughput improvement over the baseline is about 80%, but the tradeoff is that the peak rate remains the same since only a single antenna is used in each sector. Because the gains of MIMO are relatively modest for conventional networks with fully loaded cells, Rel-7 MIMO studies are now done in the context of "contained" environments where the intercell interference is limited. Examples of these environments include malls, academic campuses, and airports. In these environments, MIMO performance gains are improved, in terms of the fraction of time SM is used and overall throughput. Figure 9 shows a system-level comparison between conventional single-antenna and MIMO systems for the case of isolated cells and a conventional interference-limited environment39. The MIMO system used in these simulations is a PARC system (described below); however, similar results are expected for a D- TxAA system. Note that the peak rate and cell edge rates are defined as the 90% and 10% points of the cumulative distribution of achievable rates. Figure 9. MIMO system-level performance40 Operators Perspective on MIMO Wireless network operators see a need for MIMO (Multiple-Input Multiple-Output) due to its many advantages. Wireless systems using MIMO represent an economical way to increase user capacity, range and throughput in a variety of environments, most notably those which are enclosed and having low radio interference such as small and/or isolated cells. MIMO has been variously defined as “two or more unique radio signals, in the same radio channel, where each signal carries different digital 40 3GPP RAN WG1 #45, R1-061451, Lucent Technologies 18
  • 18. information“ and “two or more radio signals which use beam-forming, receive combining, and spatial multiplexing”. The use of multiple antennas at both transmitter and receiver allows: • Multiplicative increase in peak data rate • Significantly higher spectrum efficiency, especially in low-interference environments • Increased system capacity (number of users) In UMTS systems, operators see a great need for MIMO in “contained environments” such as: • Hot spots similar to those serviced by today’s WiFi systems (airports, hotel lobbies, etc) • Academic campuses, in various self-contained areas (quads, auditoriums, cafeterias, etc) • Stadiums and arenas, again, which offer self-contained environments • Malls and shopping areas, favored by large numbers of younger, internet-savvy users • Mass transportation (trains, etc) with users looking for interaction and entertainment • Enclosed parks and recreation areas • Residential homes, supplanting DSL/Cable services Operators believe that, notwithstanding the basic differences in the physical layers used by UMTS and LTE, the benefits envisioned from MIMO in LTE, can also be obtained from MIMO in UMTS systems, starting in Rel-7. 4.2 RAN Enhancements Continuous Connectivity for Packet Data Users Packet-oriented features like HSDPA and HSUPA (HSPA) in UMTS systems provide high data rates for both downlink and uplink. This will promote the subscribers’ desire for continuous connectivity, where the user stays connected over a long time span with only occasional active periods of data transmission, and avoiding frequent connection termination and re-establishment with its inherent overhead and delay. This is the perceived mode to which a subscriber is accustomed in fixed broadband networks (e.g., DSL) and may make a significant difference to the user experience. The Fractional-DPCH feature was introduced in Rel-6 to support a high number of HSDPA users in the code limited downlink, where effectively a user in the active state, not being transmitted with any data, is consuming only a very small portion of the downlink capacity. In the uplink, the limiting factor for supporting a similarly high number of users is the noise rise. For such a high number of users in the cell it can be assumed that many users are not transmitting any user data for some time (e.g., for reading during web browsing or in between packets for periodic packet transmission such as VoIP). The corresponding overhead in the noise rise caused by maintained control channels will limit the number of users that can be efficiently supported. Since completely releasing the dedicated connection during periods of traffic inactivity would cause considerable delays for reestablishing data transmission and a correspondingly worse user perception, the Continuous Connectivity for Packet Data Users intends to reduce the impact of control channels on uplink noise rise while maintaining the connections and allowing a much faster reactivation for temporarily inactive users. This is intended to significantly increase the number of packet data users (i.e. HSPA users) in the UMTS FDD system that can stay in the active state (Cell_DCH) over a long time period, without degrading cell throughput. The objective aims also at improving the achievable UL capacity for VoIP users with its inherent periodic transmission through reducing the overhead of the control channels. 19
  • 19. Figure 10. Relative uplink capacity cost of a user in the active state and not transmitting any data41 Thus far, the 3GPP study summarized in Fig. 10, indicates that with Rel-7, the uplink can support the users not transmitting any data in the active state with one third of the capacity cost than in Rel-6. These users see practically no delay when resuming the data transmission. The same studies indicate the potential for VoIP capacity increase in the uplink is in the order of 50% with Rel-7 (see Fig. 11). Figure 11. Relative uplink VoIP capacity with Rel-6 and Rel-742 The key technologies studied under the Continuous Connectivity for Packet Data Users for 3GPP Rel-7 are reducing the uplink noise rise caused by the uplink DPCCH transmission of the users not transmitting any data, by either reducing the uplink DPCCH transmission power (SIR_target reduction) or by shutting it down completely for short time durations (UL DPCCH gating). Capacity investigations for the latter are shown in the two figures above. The benefit of turning the UE’s transmitter off is significantly reduced UE power consumption which also enables longer times for the UE to be kept in the active state when the applications require no data transmission. The benefit of just reducing the uplink DPCCH power to a certain level is that synchronization and power control can be kept stable in all situations together with a less bursty behavior of the channel. In connection with the key technologies further enhancements (e.g., CQI reductions, UL DPCCH slot format modifications) are considered to improve the UL noise rise situation. 41 3GPP TR 25.903 v1.0.0 (2006-05), Continuous Connectivity for Packet Data Users 42 Ibid. 20
  • 20. Although the main trigger of the work on "continuous connectivity for packet data users" was the bottleneck of UL noise rise which is especially costly for temporarily inactive users, further control channel overhead reduction improvements are also investigated for the downlink (e.g., when looking at UE battery savings or VoIP capacity enhancements). The downlink HSPA VoIP capacity enhancement is being investigated; the key techniques being optimizing the control signaling of HSDPA to be most efficient for small VoIP-like packets and optimizing the HSDPA scheduler to take the full advantage of knowing that certain traffic is VoIP traffic. To some extent, the scheduler enhancements and control signaling optimizations may be mutually exclusive and thus selecting which method is best requires careful consideration. Gaming over IP (GoIP) As part of the IMS realtime services using HSDPA/HSUPA, GoIP may become very important applications for the operator. To ensure the target gaming performance and propose proper improvements of existing standards, it is necessary to investigate and define the performance requirements for gaming traffic. Existing requirements The following tables are cited from the current 3GPP standards: Table 1. 3GPP TS 22.105: requirements for conversational voice, videophone and interactive games Medium Application Degree of Data rate Key performance parameters and target symmetry values End-to-end Delay Information One-way Variation loss Delay within a call Audio Conversational voice Two-way 4-25 kb/s < 150 msec < 1 msec < 3% FER preferred < 400 msec limit * Video Videophone Two-way 32-384 kb/s < 150 msec < 1% FER preferred < 400 msec limit Lip-synch < 100 msec Data Interactive Two-way < 1 KB < 250 msec N.A Zero games *The overall one way delay in the mobile network (from UE to PLMN border) is approximately 100 msec If VoIP over HSDPA is intended to become the primary mechanism for providing voice and/or video services, then it can be assumed that the requirements should not be degraded from the existing requirements shown above. Requirements for interactive games are obviously very dependent on the specific game, but it is clear that demanding applications will require very short delays. Consistent with demanding interactive applications, a maximum 250ms end-to-end (E2E) one-way delay is proposed here and leads to a ping time of 500ms. 21
  • 21. Table 2. 3GPP TS 23.107: RAB characteristics for Conversational class RAB characteristics Traffic class Conversational class Maximum bitrate (kbps) <= 16 000 (2) (7) Delivery order Yes/No Maximum SDU size (octets) <=1 500 or 1 502 (4) SDU format information (1) (5) Delivery of erroneous SDUs Yes/No/- Residual BER 5*10-2, 10-2, 5*10-3, 10-3, 10-4, 10-5, 10-6 SDU error ratio 10-2, 7*10-3, 10-3, 10-4, 10-5 Transfer delay (ms) 80 – maximum value Guaranteed bit rate (kbps) <= 16 000 (2) (7) Traffic handling priority Allocation/Retention priority 1,2,3 (1) Source statistic descriptor Speech/unknown Signalling Indication No specific mention of gaming traffic has been made. The transfer delay characteristic is one way, and measured from CN to UE. This allows for 150ms for internet based delay which is more than feasible. Gaming over HSDPA The following three major performance parameters have been identified to be sufficient for defining the gaming performance requirements: • End-to-end delay • Jitter • Application packet loss Given the wide variety of games available, it is recommended to separate the games into the following four categories in which the corresponding tolerable gaming performance have been described with the use of the above proposed performance parameters: • First Person Shooter (FPS) – fast user response, many online players at once, highly dynamic - Up to 150ms end-to-end delay may be acceptable - 10ms jitter may be expected to be critical for FPS gaming - Up to 5% packet loss is acceptable • Real Time Strategy (RTS) – slightly lower response required, slower gameplay, handful of players in a single game - 250ms-500ms end-to-end delay may be acceptable - Requirements for jitter are undefined - 1% packet loss with 150ms delay may be acceptable • Massive Multiplayer Online Role Playing Games (MMORPG) – Persistent games, highly variable scenarios, many hundreds of players online at once, many tens in a given situation - Several packets every ms - Latency << 350ms o With 80ms RAB latency no problem o 150ms ping delay cannot be achieved with 80ms RAB - Depending on the time and game contents, the required data rate ranges between 8kbps- 24kbps 22
  • 22. - 10% packet loss may be acceptable if latency is low; 10~15% packet loss with 150ms ping delay is acceptable • Non-real Time Games (NRTG) – e.g., chess, backgammon, cards etc. - Zero packet loss, which can be achieved by retransmission methods It is understood that, within these four gaming categories, the requirements for delay, jitter and packet loss are different depending on the games and on the expectations of the player, but the typical range of the requirement attributes for real time gaming have been observed as following: • Packet loss 0.1% 5% • Latency (e2e) 75ms – 250ms • Data rate (5kbps- 60kbps) It is clear from the values above that the definition in TS 22.105 is considerably stricter than necessary in terms of packet loss in most cases. Jitter has been shown to be problematic, but not in a truly quantifiable way and it is proposed that jitter should be minimized to as little as possible, potentially by algorithms in the application rather than in the network. However, in terms of latency, the requirements on the RAB delay for best performance are too low since E2E delays >75ms will lead to a perceived drop in performance from the user if the game requires the fastest response. Activities in 3GPP on defining more appropriate values related to realtime gaming for TS 22.105 are ongoing. Currently, the following requirements are in discussion: Table 3. 3GPP TS22.105 Values Related to Realtime Gaming Medium Application Degree of Data End-to-end Delay Information symmetry rate One-way Variation loss Delay within a call Data realtime two-way < 60 < 75 msec N.A. < 3% FER games kb/s preferred preferred < 5% FER limit It should be noted that these values are considered the most demanding with respect to delay requirements (e.g., supporting First Person Shooter games). Other types of games may require higher or lower data rates and more or less information loss but can tolerate longer end-to-end delay. Delay optimization for procedures applicable to PS and CS Connections In Rel-99, UMTS introduced a dedicated channel (DCH) that can be used for CS and PS connections when UE is in CELL_DCH state. In addition to CELL_DCH state, Rel-99 introduced CELL_FACH state where signaling and data transmission is possible on common channels (RACH and FACH) and CELL_PCH and URA_PCH states, where the transmission of signaling or user data is not possible but enables UE power savings during inactivity periods maintaining the RRC connection between UE and UTRAN and signaling connection between UE and PS CN. The introduction of the CELL_PCH and URA_PCH states, the need of releasing the RRC connection and moving the UE to Idle mode for PS connections was removed and thus the Rel-99 UTRAN can provide long living Iu-connection PS services. On the other hand, when UE is moved to CELL_PCH or URA_PCH state, the start of data transmission again after inactivity suffers inherent state transition delay before the data transmission can continue in CELL_DCH state. As new packet-oriented features like HSDPA and HSUPA in Rel-5 and Rel-6 UMTS systems respectively provide higher data rates for both downlink and uplink in CELL_DCH state, the state transition delay has been considered to be significant and negatively influencing the end user experience. In addition to RRC state transition delay, the radio bearer setup delay to activate new PS and CS services has been seen as problematic in UMTS, due to signaling delays on CELL_FACH state where only low data rates are available via RACH and FACH, and due to activation time used to synchronize the reconfiguration of the physical and transport channel in CELL_DCH state. 23
  • 23. To secure future competitiveness of UMTS and enhance the end user experience even further, the delay optimization for procedures applicable to PS and CS connections work is targeted to reduce both setup times of new PS and CS services and state transition delays to, but still enable, excellent UE power saving provided by CELL_PCH and URA_PCH states. During the 3GPP Rel-6 time frame, the work was focused on solutions that can be introduced in a fast manner on top of existing specifications with limited effects to the existing implementations. In addition, the solutions which allow the Rel-6 features to be used in the most efficient manner were considered. The agreed modifications can be summarized as: introduction of enhanced support of default configurations, reduced effects of the activation time, and utilization of HSPA for signaling. Thus, from Rel-6 onwards, the signaling radio bearers (SRBs) can be mapped on HSDPA and HSUPA immediately in RRC connection setup and default configurations can be used in radio bearer setup message and RRC connection setup message in a more flexible manner. The utilization of default configuration and mapping of the SRBs on HSDPA and HSUPA will reduce message sizes, activation times, and introduce faster transmission channels for the signaling procedures, thereby providing significant enhancement to setup times of PS and CS services compared to Rel-99 performance. In the 3GPP Rel-7 time frame, the work will study methods of improving the performance even further, especially in the area of state transition delays. As the work for Rel-7 is less limited in scope of possible solutions, significant improvements to both RRC state transition delays and service setups times are expected. 4.3 IMS/Core Network Enhancements Fixed Broadband Access to IMS (FBI) It is recognized that several standards organizations are in the process of defining NGN (Next Generation Network) session control using IMS as a platform. Fixed Broadband Access provides a means of extending IMS services to wireline subscribers. The work on Fixed Broadband Access (FBI) will embed IMS as the framework for advanced services for many types of operators. IMS is extended to act as a common core and services platform for fixed and mobile networks. Under the Fixed Broadband Access (FBI) work, 3GPP is considering requirements from a number of different communities of operators including those based on DSL and cable technology. IMS is now accepted as the de facto basis for session oriented services in next generation telecommunications networks. A number of features have been introduced primarily in order to extend the IMS towards providing services for fixed broadband access: • NAT traversal • Optional use of SIP preconditions for wireline access • PSTN bridging – the use of IMS as a transit network with PSTN round the edge One Tunnel for Packet Traffic The amount of user plane data is assumed to increase significantly during the next few years because of the introduction of HSPA and the IP Multimedia Subsystem. Currently in UMTS, packet data traffic must traverse two nodes in the core network – the SGSN and GGSN. This is independent of the traversal done in the UTRAN. The discussions in 3GPP have shown that more scalable UMTS system architecture can be achieved by direct tunneling of user plane data between the RNC and the GGSN, which is known as One Tunnel approach (Fig. 12). In the One Tunnel Approach, the transport and control functionality of the SGSN are separated, resulting in a new distribution of functionality with the GGSN. The new SGSN controller (cSGSN) is performing all control functions of an SGSN while the enhanced GGSN (xGGSN) is responsible for SGSN and GGSN transport functionality for the majority of traffic. 24
  • 24. cSGSN xGGSN Internet or UTRAN intranet Control plane User plane Figure 12. One Tunnel architecture This architecture has several benefits: • All bearer resources are shared between cSGSNs resulting in reduction in CAPEX by eliminating the bearer hardware on new cSGSNs • 3G bearer plane is engineered only at the xGGSN and not tied to geographic distribution of users • User plane scalability: as 3G bearer throughput grows, bearer resources only added at the xGGSN • No need to project 3G bearer capacity of individual cSGSN for roamers; only need to project network-wide 3G bearer capacity for roamers IMS Multimedia Telephony Communication Enabler (MITE) and Supplementary Services The aim of MITE is to provide specifications for common telephony services over IMS, including well known and well used supplementary services. This builds on the capabilities provided by IMS in Rel-5 and Rel-6. MITE will enable consistent user experience and interoperable implementations. MITE covers voice and multimedia user-to-user sessions that can be enhanced with features like forwarding and conferencing. MITE offers operators a path to evolve telephony services from the CS domain towards IMS without abandoning legacy features. MITE is aligned with service definitions being generated for Next Generation Networks (NGN) and therefore MITE can be used in conjunction with the FBI work item to provide consistent wireline and wireless services. Combining CS and IMS (CSI) CSI provides a means for a mobile station to combine a CS voice call with PS-based IMS services between the same two users. The motivation is to introduce multi-media telephony, without the immediate requirement to upgrade the radio to support VoIP. This is done by using legacy CS voice for the voice component of the multi-media session. In addition, CSI introduces a SIP-based mechanism for users to exchange terminal capabilities. Capability exchange provides a means by which party A can know which IMS services/media types can be included as part of a multi-media session with party B. Capability exchange can be done independent of CSI and is expected to be used for detecting if a voice call can be successfully upgraded to video. CSI provides a path to introduce subscribers to IMS services and in particular the concept of rich calls. The main usage scenario is to start each session with a CS voice call then to detect what add-on services are possible and display these available services to the user in order to encourage their use. By re-using CS calls for the voice, there is no risk of VoIP performance issues impacting IMS launch. CSI also allows operators to manage their investment in rolling out IMS while establishing the level of market demand for new services. CSI is the basis for video sharing services (adding video to an established voice call in progress) being launched on some networks. 25
  • 25. Policy and Charging Convergence (PCC) PCC provides enhanced and future-proof tools to allow operators to perform advanced dynamic QoS control and charging for IP data bearers. PCC develops the capabilities provided in Rel-5 Service Based Local Policy (SBLP) and Rel-6 Flow Base Charging for IP bearers. PCC will combine the policy control and charging functions into a single architecture which provides consistent signaling and which can support multiple access types. PCC will enable operators to adjust the QoS being provided to users based on a range of factors including application requirements and user subscription level (gold, silver, bronze). PCC will also provide tools useful to manage the impact of “bandwidth hogging” applications such as peer-to-peer file sharing. The PCC architecture is built on the Rel-6 Flow Based Charging including evolution of the Rel-6 FBC reference points (Gx, Gy, Rx). Like FBC (Flow Based Charging), the PCC architecture can manage multiple service data flows on one single bearer, allowing more flexibility to configure and optimize the radio interface. Voice Call Continuity (VCC) VCC is a home IMS application, which enables seamless continuity of voice services between CS domain and IMS. VCC subscribers’ calls are anchored in home IMS when roaming across CS domain and IMS. VCC provides functions for call originations, terminations and call continuity across CS domain and IMS. The VCC Application is inserted in the control signalling path of VCC subscriber’s CS and IMS sessions for employment of a 3pcc (third party call control function) controlling these sessions. Calls established over CS domain are redirected to IMS for insertion of VCC Application in the call control signalling path using standard CS domain techniques available for redirecting calls at call establishment; these calls are then processed according to standard IMS procedures. This allows for voice service continuity across CS domain and IMS. VCC provides selection of domain for delivery of incoming calls to VCC subscribers simultaneously registered in CS domain and IMS. VCC provides inter-domain mobility while maintaining active session(s), manifested by transfers between CS domain and IMS, with capability to transition multiple times in both directions. 5 Evolution Beyond Rel-7 – SAE/HSPA+/LTE To ensure the competitiveness of the 3GPP systems in a time frame of the next ten years and beyond, a long term evolution of the 3GPP access technology is specified in 3GPP. The vision of this long term evolution and transition towards a packet switched only system is shown in Fig. 13. 2006 2008-9 2012-17 Current Phase Transition Phase PS-Only Phase - CS Domain continues to be - Network Architecture is progressively - Large Majority of the the primary enabler of migrating towards a Packet-based Traffic is carried over Conversational Services Architecture optimized to carry all QoS PS Domain - PS Domain restricted to Data Classes of Traffic (from Best Effort to - CS Domain is only used Applications and some Conversational) for small proportion of innovative RT/near-RT - Legacy CS Traffic is increasingly carried legacy Devices/Users Services over PS Domain - PS Transition completed Figure 13. Migration towards full service delivery through the evolved packet core43 To enhance the capability of the 3GPP system to cope with the rapid growth in IP data traffic, the packet- switched technology utilized within 3G mobile networks requires further enhancement. Continued evolution and optimization of the system is also necessary in order to maintain a competitive edge in terms of both performance and cost. Important parts of such a long term evolution include reduced 43 Cingular Wireless 26
  • 26. latency, higher user data rates, improved system capacity and coverage, and reduced overall cost for the operator. Additionally, it is expected that IP-based 3GPP services will be provided through various access technologies. A mechanism to support seamless mobility between heterogeneous access networks is needed for future network evolution. In order to achieve this, an evolution or migration of the network architecture, as well as an evolution of the radio interface is studied in the System Architecture Evolution (SAE), Long Term Evolution (LTE) and HSPA Evolution (HSPA+) Study Items in 3GPP. From a network deployment point of view it is likely that HSPA enhancements will be introduced first, followed by the evolved packet core (SAE) and then the evolved radio interface (LTE). 5.1 Architecture Evolution (SAE) SAE or 3GPP System Architecture Evolution is the study item where the 3GPP industry is developing a framework for an evolution and migration of current systems to a higher-data-rate, lower-latency, packet- optimized system that supports multiple radio access technologies. The focus of this work is on the PS domain with the assumption that voice services are supported in this domain. The main drivers for the network evolution are: • To be able to meet the targets for the evolution of the radio-interface (a.k.a. LTE) • To enable the evolution towards an All-IP Network • To support mobility and service continuity between heterogeneous access networks The main objectives for the evolved architecture are: • To get very low latency for the overall network • To efficiently support a variety of services, especially from the PS domain (e.g., Voice over IP, Presence) • To support a variety of different access systems (existing and future) and support access selection based on combinations of operator policies, user preferences and access network conditions • To improve basic system performance e.g., communication delay, communication quality, connection set-up time, etc. • To be able to maintain negotiated QoS across the whole system; in particular inter-domain and inter-network interworking and QoS on the network link to the Base Station site • To support service continuity between I-WLAN and the 3GPP PS domain • To support multiple radio access technologies and terminal mobility between different radio access technologies • To be able to maintain and support the same capabilities of access control (authentication, authorization), privacy and charging when moving between different radio access technologies High Level Architecture Overview Figure 14 shows the current architecture model for the evolved system. It identifies functional entities which may be physically co-located or distributed, according to product development and deployment scenarios. For instance, the Inter-AS anchor may or may not be co-located with the UPE; the MME and UPE may or may not be co-located in the same node. 27
  • 27. GERAN Gb SGSN GPRS Core PCRF Iu UTRAN Rx+ S7 S3 S4 HSS Op. S5a S5b S6 IP S1 MME 3GPP SAE SGi Serv. Evolved RAN Anchor Anchor (IMS, UPE IASA PSS, Evolved Packet Core etc…) S2 S2 non 3GPP WLAN IP Access 3GPP IP Access * Color coding: red indicates new functional element / interface Figure 14: Logical high level architecture for the evolved system44 New functional elements The architecture model contains the following new functional elements: • Mobility Management Entity (MME): The MME manages and stores UE context (for idle state: UE/user identities, UE mobility state, user security parameters). It generates temporary identities and allocates them to UEs. It checks the authorization whether the UE may camp on the TA or on the PLMN. It also authenticates the user. • User Plane Entity (UPE): The UPE terminates for idle state UEs the downlink data path and triggers/initiates paging when downlink data arrive for the UE. It manages and stores UE contexts, e.g., parameters of the IP bearer service or network internal routing information. It performs replication of the user traffic in case of interception. • 3GPP Anchor: The 3GPP Anchor is a functional entity that anchors the user plane for mobility between the 2G/3G access system and the LTE access system. • SAE Anchor: The SAE Anchor is a functional entity that anchors the user plane for mobility between 3GPP access systems and non-3GPP access systems. New interfaces The architecture model contains the following new interfaces: • S1: S1 provides access to Evolved RAN radio resources for the transport of user plane and control plane traffic. • S2: S2 provides the user plane with related control and mobility support between WLAN 3GPP IP access or non 3GPP IP access and the SAE Anchor. • S3: S3 enables user and bearer information exchange for inter 3GPP access system mobility in idle and/or active state. It is based on Gn reference point as defined between SGSNs. • S4: S4 provides the user plane with related control and mobility support between GPRS Core and the 3GPP Anchor and is based on Gn reference point as defined between SGSN and GGSN. • S5a: S5a provides the user plane with related control and mobility support between MME/UPE and the 3GPP Anchor. • S5b: S5b provides the user plane with related control and mobility support between the 3GPP anchor and SAE anchor. 44 3GPP TR 23.882 v1.2.0 28
  • 28. • S6: S6 enables transfer of subscription and authentication data for authenticating/authorizing user access to the evolved system (AAA interface). • S7: S7 provides transfer of (QoS) policy and charging rules from PCRF to Policy and Charging Enforcement Point (PCEP). • SGi: SGi is the reference point between the Inter AS Anchor and the packet data network. Packet data network may be an operator's external public or private packet data network or an intra operator packet data network, e.g., for provision of IMS services. This reference point corresponds to Gi and Wi functionalities and supports any 3GPP and non-3GPP access systems. 5.2 Air-interface Evolution or Long Term Evolution (LTE) The first wave of UMTS-based network rollouts are experiencing data rates up to 384 Kbps both in the uplink and downlink. The High Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA) is being rolled out with 2-3 Mbps practical data rate capabilities and a theoretical peak rate of 14.4 Mbps. With High Speed Uplink Packet Access (HSUPA) to follow during 2007, the theoretical capability up to 5.7 Mbps in the uplink can be achieved. In order to prepare for the future needs of wireless operators, 3GPP has initiated activity on the long term evolution of UTRAN (Universal Terrestrial Radio Access Network), which is aiming clearly beyond what the UMTS/HSPA can achieve. The UTRAN long term evolution work is looking for the market introduction of Evolved UTRAN (EUTRAN) around 2010, with resulting specification availability planned toward the end of 2007. The fundamental targets of this evolution – to further reduce user and operator costs and to improve service provisioning – will be met through improved coverage and system capacity as well as increased data rates and reduced latency. The feasibility study is currently ongoing in 3GPP and recently, key decisions have been reached on the multiple accesses and the protocol architecture. Feasibility study finalization is scheduled for the June 2006 time frame when actual detailed specification development will start. The following sections will cover the requirements for the work defined in 3GPP, introduce the physical layer development, cover the network and protocol architecture developments and discuss multi-antenna solutions. The initial findings on performance are covered as well. Requirements The latest developments with Rel-5 and Rel-6 UMTS specifications can achieve up to 14.4 Mbps downlink and 5.7 Mbps uplink peak data rates (theoretical rates without channel coding) with HSDPA and HSUPA, respectively. Clearly, for the long term evolution, more ambitious goals were necessary to make it worth the effort. This was also learned from the earlier 3GPP feasibility studies on the adoption of a basic OFDM system in the downlink with 5 MHz bandwidth. Thus the following targets were defined in 3GPP: • User plane latency below 5 ms with 5 MHz or higher spectrum allocation. With spectrum allocation below 5 MHz, latency below 10 ms should be facilitated • Reduced control plane latency • Scalable bandwidth up to 20 MHz, with smaller bandwidths covering 1.25 MHz, 2.5 MHz, 5 MHz, 10 MHz and 15 MHz for narrow allocations. Also 1.6 MHz is considered for specific cases, especially for the unpaired frequency band • 2 to 3 times capacity over the existing Rel-6 reference scenarios with HSUPA • 2 to 4 times capacity over the existing Rel-6 reference scenarios with HSDPA • Improved end user data rates at the cell edge • Support for packet switched (PS) domain only • Downlink peak data rates up to 100 Mbps with 20 MHz bandwidth • Uplink peak data rates up to 50 Mbps with 20 MHz bandwidth While considerable investments have been made and continue to be made in UMTS and GSM-based networks, inter-working with UMTS and GSM is a key requirement for any new system part of the 3GPP technology family. The requirement for handover between legacy systems and E-UTRAN is a break of 300 ms for services with real time quality and 500 ms for the non-real time services. Further, there is a desire to have a reduced CAPEX/OPEX for lower cost per bit. Agreed assumptions for evaluation include two receiver antennas in the mobile terminal, which facilitates usage of advanced antenna technologies, such as Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) antenna 29
  • 29. concepts. Respectively, a typical base station is expected to have two antenna transmit and receive capabilities. The defined mobility support is aiming for optimized performance for mobile speeds of less than 15km/h and high performance for speeds up to 120km/h. The connection should be maintained with mobile speeds even up to 350 km/h. Multiple Access Technology Following the requirements laid down for the multiple access technologies, it has become evident that something other than the use of the current radio interface technology needs to be considered for the radio access supporting up to 100 Mbps and up to 20 MHz bandwidth. The UMTS radio interface technology is very efficient for providing (downlink) peak data rates up to 10 Mbps and is in the same ballpark with OFDM when considering 5 MHz bandwidth in large macro-cell. However, the requirements such as reaching 100 Mbps peak rates cannot be met with UMTS technology with reasonable mobile terminal complexity. As an example, the downlink direction would require either multiple 5 MHz carriers or at least four times higher chip rates, neither of which solutions are very attractive when aiming for very high performance with advanced receivers in the mobile terminal. Because this was clearly understood in the 3GPP community, the decision was made to adopt Single Carrier FDMA (SC-FDMA) for the uplink direction due to the good performance in general and superior properties in terms of uplink signal Peak-to-Average Ratio (PAR) when compared to the possible use of OFDM technology in the uplink. In the downlink direction the solution was OFDM, mainly due to the simplicity of the terminal receiver in the case of large bandwidths in a difficult environment. Also, the network side transmission PAR was not considered such a key problem. Downlink: OFDM with Frequency Domain Adaptation The evolved radio access is adapting the transmission parameters not only in the time domain, but also in the frequency domain. Frequency domain adaptation is made possible through the use of OFDM and can achieve large performance gains in cases where the channel varies significantly over the system bandwidth. Thus, frequency domain adaptation becomes increasingly important with an increased system bandwidth. Information about the downlink channel quality, obtained through feedback from terminals, is provided to the base station scheduler. The scheduler determines which downlink spectrum blocks to allocate to which user and dynamically selects an appropriate data rates for each spectrum block by varying the output power level, the channel coding rate and/or the modulation scheme. Quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK), 16 quadrature amplitude modulation (16-QAM) and 64-QAM modulation schemes are supported in the downlink. For downlink, the adoption of OFDMA enabled better support of different bandwidth options. The basic OFDM transmitter chain is shown in Figure 15. For the feasibility studies, several advanced techniques are being considered on top of the basic OFDMA operation including frequency domain scheduling, MIMO antenna technologies and variable coding and modulation. 30
  • 30. Transmitter Bits Serial to IFFT Cyclic Modulator IFFT … Parallel Extension frequency Receiver total radio BW (eg. 20 MHz) Remove Serial to IFFT Cyclic FFT … Extension Parallel Bits Demodulator Equaliser Figure 15. OFDMA principle45 Uplink: Single Carrier FDMA with Dynamic Bandwidth For uplink the focus was on the novel and rather new approach, SC-FDMA, in order to reach Peak to Average Ratio (PAR), which has been identified as a critical issue for use of OFDMA in the uplink where power efficient amplifiers are required. Another important requirement was to maximize coverage. For each time interval, the base station scheduler assigns a unique time-frequency interval to a terminal for the transmission of user data, thereby ensuring intracell orthogonality. The terminal is only assigned with contiguous spectrum blocks in the frequency domain to maintain the single-carrier properties and thereby ensure power-efficient transmission. Frequency domain adaptation is typically not used in the uplink due to lack of channel knowledge, as each terminal cannot continuously transmit a pilot signal covering the whole frequency domain. Slow power control, compensating for path loss and shadow fading, is sufficient as no near-far problem is present due to the orthogonal uplink transmissions. Transmission parameters, coding and modulation are similar to the downlink transmission. The chosen SC-FDMA solution is based on the use of a cyclic prefix to allow for high performance and low complexity receiver implementation in the base station. With SC-FDMA, the type of modulation applied will impact the PAR, but with OFDMA the large number of parallel sub-carriers typically makes the PAR 2-6 dB higher than SC-FDMA. For the uplink considerations, the importance of the cell edge operation (or uplink range in general) was highlighted due to the operator requirements. A mobile data service that provides high data rates in the majority of the cell area is easier to market and sell compared to a mobile data service that severely limits the high data rate availability to a small fraction of the cell area. Hence improvement in PAR is very essential to achieve high data rate availability close to the cell edge. 45 UTRAN Long Term Evolution in 3GPP, Antti Toskala, Harri Holma, Esa Tiirola, Kari Pajukoski. PIMRC’2006, The 17th Annual IEEE International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications. Finlandia-Hall, Helsinki, Finland, September 11-14, 2006 31
  • 31. Transmitter Bits Cyclic Modulator Extension frequency total radio BW (eg. 20 MHz) Receiver Remove MMSE FFT Cyclic Equaliser Extension IFFT Demodulator Bits Figure 16. FDMA transmitter and receiver chains46 The general FDMA transmitter and receiver concept is illustrated in Figure 16. The OFDMA and SC- FDMA uplink PAR comparison is shown in Figure 17, indicating the difference depending on the modulation being used. With optimised modulation the difference may be up to 6 dB in the favor of SC- FDMA. PAR vs rolloff with different modulations 9 SC pi/2-BPSK SC QPSK 8 SC 16-QAM OFDM pi/2-BPSK 7 OFDM QPSK OFDM 16-QAM PAR 99.9% [dB] 6 5 4 3 2 0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 0.45 0.5 rolloff Figure 17. SC-FDMA PAR compared to OFDM PAR in the uplink47 Several key physical layer parameters have relationship with the multiple access method, such as the sub-carrier spacing of OFDM. The selection is a compromise between support of high Doppler frequency, overhead from cyclic prefix, implementation imperfections, etc. The sub-carrier spacing used in the feasibility study is 15 kHz. To optimize for different delay spread environments (e.g., ranging from urban pico cells to rural mountain area cells), two cyclic prefix values are to be used. Doppler will also impact the parameterization, as the physical layer parameterization needs to allow maintaining the connection at 350 km/h. It has been recognized, however, that scenarios above 250 km/h are specific cases, such as the high-speed train environment. The optimization target is clearly the lower mobile terminal speeds, below 15 km/h, and performance degradation is allowed for higher speeds. The parameterization was chosen in such a way that common sampling rates with GSM/EDGE and UMTS can be utilized to reduce complexity and cost and enable easy dual mode / multimode implementation. 46 H. Holma, A. Toskala, "HSDPA/HSUPA for UMTS”, Wiley, 2006 47 Nokia, "Coverage comparison between UL OFDMA and SC-FDMA”, October 10-14, 2005, San Diego, USA, 3GPP TSG RAN WG1 Meeting #42, Tdoc R1-051088 32
  • 32. Radio Access Protocol Architecture The long term evolution protocol and network architecture is characterized by three special requirements: • Support for PS domain only i.e. there will be no connection to circuit switched (CS) domain nodes, such as the Mobile Switching Center, but speech services need to be handled as Voice over IP (VoIP) calls • Tight delay targets for small roundtrip delay; the roundtrip delay target is 5 ms for bandwidths of 5 MHz or more. Respective target is 10 ms for the bandwidths of below 5 MHz • Reduced cost of the system 3GPP defined the functional split between the eNode B and the access gateway (aGW). All the radio related signaling (RRC) as well as all layers of retransmission are located in eNode B. It was natural that MAC layer functionality etc., similar to HSDPA/HSUPA operation, will remain in the eNode B. Ciphering and header compressions were decided to be located in aGW, as shown in Figure 18. The physical layer solution to be chosen for EUTRA was concluded, not requiring uplink or downlink macro-diversity. Figure 18. UTRAN LTE Architecture in 3GPP with RRM server for future study48 Multi-Antenna Solutions In order to fulfill the requirements on coverage, capacity and high data rates, various multi-antenna schemes need to be supported as part of the specifications for the long term 3G evolution. For example, beamforming can be used to increase coverage and/or capacity. Spatial multiplexing, sometimes referred to as MIMO, can be used to increase data rates by transmitting multiple parallel streams to a single user. However, conventional multi-antenna diversity techniques, at both the receiver and transmitter, will also play an important role in fulfilling the requirements. It is necessary to consider multi-antenna technologies as a well-integrated part of the evolved radio access and not as an extension added to the specification at the later stage. The provision of low cost single antenna devices, especially for new emerging markets, should be allowed when multi-antenna solutions are covered in the very first version of specification. The potential of using the spatial domain is large and the development of new and even more efficient multi-antenna algorithms is expected to continue in the future. Hence, to make the evolved radio access future-proof, it should be able to support new and improved multi-antenna algorithms in an efficient manner. OFDM in the downlink direction can be designed to provide good support for MIMO technologies, as technologies such as frequency domain scheduling allow creating such signal to noise conditions where 48 Nokia, ”Further evaluation results for SC-FDMA”, May 8-12, 2006, Shanghai, China, 3GPP TSG RAN WG1 Meeting #45, Tdoc R1-061239 33
  • 33. MIMO technology works better compared to the more uniform interference conditions. Also, the received solutions with OFDM fit well together with MIMO and allow implementation with a reasonable impact to baseband complexity. Different multi-antenna algorithms require measurements with different resolutions in the time, frequency, space and stream domains. The Doppler spread of the radio channel and the velocity of the UE will also affect which resolutions are appropriate. By using a set of adjustable preprocessing rules for the receiver, it is possible to adapt the measurement resolution to the current conditions. For a large group of multi-antenna schemes, such as various open-loop beamforming schemes, open loop transmit diversity and basic spatial multiplexing techniques, a required data rate is a sufficient measurement result format. For other multi-antenna schemes, more feedback information about the radio channel is needed. By letting the transmitter specify how many bits should be used to represent the phase and amplitude, respectively, various multi-antenna schemes that require knowledge of the radio channel will be supported (e.g., closed loop transmit diversity and eigenvalue-based MIMO). Performance It can be seen that, especially in the macro-cell environment (and 5 MHz bandwidth), HSDPA is setting a rather high bar of the baseline reference performance that is not easily beaten with a classic OFDM approach, as has been discussed in 3GPP previously. When one starts to look for higher bandwidths and also environments where multiple antenna solutions could be applied together with advanced methods, like frequency domain scheduling, there are opportunities to have a better performance level. In the uplink direction the use of SC-FDMA offers possibility, especially for the cell edge performance, as one can create orthogonal uplink which helps the link budget for the users at cell edge. An example reference case is shown in Figure 19, which shows the uplink performance when compared to the reference HSUPA reference case from 3GPP. With the smaller cells, with the inter-site distance of 500 meters, there is a bit more gain, as shown in Figure 20. Figure 19. Comparison of SC-FDMA vs. UMTS/WCDMA 34
  • 34. Figure 20. UMTS/WCDMA (HSUPA) and SC-FDMA performance for 500 meter cell radius49 Remaining Work in 3GPP In 3GPP, the following key milestones have been reached thus far: • December 2005: Decision on the multiple access principles and macro-diversity support • March 2006: Radio protocol architecture agreed • June 2006: Work Item opened, and Study Item continues in selected areas to cover more performance results as per operators' request It should be noted that the standardization of 3G LTE is currently ongoing. It is therefore uncertain to what extent the technical solutions will be included in the standard. The aim of the Study Item was to develop solutions and evaluate their potential for the evolution of the 3GPP radio-access technology towards a high-data-rate, low-latency and packet-optimized radio-access technology. The evaluation results presented so far indicate that system concepts can meet most of requirements and no significant issue was identified in terms of feasibility. In some areas further results are to be provided to improve the coverage of the results in this study. In the June 2006 RAN#32 plenary meeting the feature Work Item Description was approved and therefore moved to Work Item phase according to study results. The actual specification work will continue in order to produce the specifications during 2007 to meet, on a timely basis, the need for wider bandwidth as part of the 3GPP technology family evolution. 5.3 HSPA Evolution (HSPA+) HSPA Evolution, also known as HSPA+, is an effort by 3GPP to enable operators to capitalize on existing RAN infrastructure investments by further improving the radio performance of HSPA as well as leveraging the use of the SAE core with the current radio interface in 2 x 5 MHz spectrum. HSDPA is being deployed now, and HSUPA (E-DCH) will be deployed by 2006-2007. Both will continue to be enhanced in the 3GPP standards as well as products for quite some time as the HSPA technologies represent considerable recent and future business investments for the 3GPP operators. LTE is being developed to address a significantly higher level of performance than provided by Rel-6 HSPA and products will not be available until 2009-2010. Mass deployment of LTE could take several years after introduction. SAE is being developed to rationalize the System Architecture in the scope of a full service delivery within the PS Domain. Although it is expected that most GSM/UMTS operators will deploy HSPA, when LTE becomes available on the market, LTE will be the natural choice for operators that have not deployed HSPA. This could be green-fielders or existing GSM/EDGE operators. For existing HSPA operators that have the additional spectrum, LTE will co-exist with HSPA and enhance the network in densely populated areas and hot- Nokia, "Further evaluation results for SC-FDMA”, May 8-12, 2006, Shanghai, China, 3GPP TSG RAN WG1 49 Meeting #45, Tdoc R1-061239 35
  • 35. spots, in the same way as HSDPA is used today to enhance the offering of existing GSM/UMTS operators. HSPA+ is, from a terminology perspective, a nomenclature for further developments encompassing both directions of transmission of information - the downlink direction (HSDPA) and the uplink direction (HSUPA). HSPA+ is a plan that addresses the PS domain and the positioning of HSDPA and HSUPA further enhancements and evolutions towards LTE performance targets. HSPA+ plans to take a simple approach, use sensible technology, and incorporate these facts to synthesize a smart business process for HSPA evolution to LTE. HSPA+ addresses, in as simple a way as possible, the system evolution of UMTS/HSPA to raise the overall performance of existing HSPA. HSPA+ Goals and Objectives The goal of HSPA+ is not to replace LTE nor slow down LTE’s progress in 3GPP. HSPA+ seeks to enhance HSDPA/HSUPA. HSPA+ provides an incremental technology developmental path for both RAN and Core aspects to meet the stated 3GPP and industry commitment to balance the work and developments between HSPA and LTE. HSPA+ is therefore an enhancement, where simplifications and rationalizations agreed for LTE/SAE are partially applied to the HSPA system, providing enhanced performances and leveraging the existing infrastructure. The HSPA+ system vision is positioned towards providing full service delivery through the PS Domain. Since HSPA networks will form an integral part of future 3G systems, there is a need to enhance the capabilities and performance of HSPA-based radio networks as well as enable co-existence with LTE and provide a smooth migration path towards LTE and SAE. HSPA operators are just as interested in the potential performance and cost savings which may be achieved through HSPA Evolution in a 5 MHz bandwidth as they are in the future LTE / SAE system. In March 2006, a new Study Item was approved in 3GPP to look at the evolution of HSPA using the following guiding principles: • HSPA spectrum efficiency, peak data rate and latency should continue to evolve. The tradeoffs necessary to achieve performance comparable to LTE in 5 MHz should be analyzed • The interworking between HSPA Evolution and LTE should be as smooth as possible from one technology to the next and should facilitate joint technology operation • Evolved HSPA should be able to operate as a packet-only network based on utilization of Shared Channels only • HSPA Evolution shall be backward compatible in the sense that legacy terminals (R99-DCH and HSPA mobiles) are able to share the same carrier with terminals implementing the latest features of the HSPA Evolution track without any performance degradation • Ideally, existing infrastructure should only need a simple upgrade to support the features defined as part of the HSPA Evolution The objectives for the HSPA+ study are: 1. Define a broad framework for HSPA evolution, without introducing any unnecessary delay to existing work in 3GPP 2. Define a set of requirements for HSPA evolution which covers the following aspects: • Targets for improvements in latency, throughput and spectrum efficiency utilizing the existing 5 MHz bandwidth • Define constraints in terms of acceptable hardware and software changes to current elements (UE, NodeB, RNC, SGSN and GGSN) • Define constraints in terms of acceptable network architecture changes 3. Determine what performance benefit is achieved by already ongoing work in 3GPP (to a large extent mentioned in section 4 of this document) 4. HSPA Evolution shall be backward compatible in the sense that legacy terminals (R99-DCH and HSPA mobiles) are able to share the same carrier with terminals implementing the latest features of the HSPA Evolution track without any performance degradation 36
  • 36. 5. Identify potential solutions to improve HSPA performance towards the agreed targets within the defined constraints In order to accomplish these objectives, 3GPP will have to make recommendations for future HSPA Evolution Work Items and possible revisions to ongoing Work Items related to HSPA. Current Progress with HSPA+ The HSPA+ work is in its early stages, as the initial Technical Report (TR) for HSPA+ was just introduced into TSG-RAN #32 by a group of operators50 in June 2006. Continuing work on the TR will continue and is expected to be concluded at TSG-RAN #34 in December 2006. It is expected that many architectural options to meet the HPSA+ goals discussed above will be explored. 3GPP has a number of open Rel-7 Work Items targeting focused areas of improvement (CS/PS Set Up Procedures, Continuous Connectivity, MIMO, Gaming, Advanced Receivers of all kinds, Single GTP Tunnel), but no way forward to look at an optimized PS-only operation mode based on usage of fast shared channels only (HS-DSCH + E-DCH). 3GPP must also consider the possibility of adapting the LTE Solutions to HSPA Evolution. “LTE Solutions” should be understood as LTE approaches of what is happening in each state, what is preserved and where, the functional split, and how the reduction in Latency is achieved. In summary, HSPA+ is expected to provide the operator with enhancements towards a packet core, while making a transition to LTE easier. It is expected to provide performance benefits via architectural enhancements, while being fully backwards compatible with the current UTRAN radio interface. 6 Conclusions In 1991, a typical user of wireline data used only one megabyte per month. In 1999, that figure grew dramatically -- to nearly 200 megabytes per month. Wireless data services are starting to follow a growth curve similar to that of wireline data as the performance and usability of mobile handsets improves and new wireless data services are rolled out. Higher data rates at lower cost and with ubiquitous coverage are expected to open up the mass market to wireless data services, and drive demand for more graphically rich multimedia content. Analysts report the cost advantages of 3G over 2G are immense, with the cost per megabyte falling from several dollars to under $0.10 per megabyte. As the cost falls for operators and consumers alike, more compelling services will be deliverable at reasonable prices, and critical mass can be reached. It is expected that HSDPA Rel-5 will provide a 50 percent reduction in cost per megabit versus Rel-99, and HSDPA Rel-6 will increase that even further. UMTS has arrived to meet these growing wireless data demands, delivering the opportunity for high- speed wireless data services to nearly 75 million customers as of June 2006. It is forecast to reach 100 million customers by the end of the year, and half a billion in late 2009 or early 2010. UMTS customers already outnumber all other 3G technologies by a ratio of nearly 3:1.51 The networks are in place. Currently, UMTS is commercially launched by 107 operators in 50 countries52 with 79 more networks planned or in deployment. In the U.S. marketplace, Cingular Wireless launched the world’s first wide scale UMTS/HSDPA network in sixteen markets in December 2005, providing several HSDPA-capable PC cards to their customers. Furthermore, the operator plans to introduce HSDPA terminals in 1Q 2006 and cover most major U.S. markets with UMTS/HSDPA by the end of 2006. Now, six months after the first network launch, HSDPA is commercially deployed in 41 networks, and 62 additional operators have networks planned, in deployment, or in trial. In total, 103 operators have announced their HSDPA deployment plans. It is expected that nearly all UMTS operators will deploy HSDPA, essentially a simple upgrade to the existing system, resulting in a significant increase in data capacity and offering operators a much-reduced network cost for data services. This scope of UMTS/HSDPA networks across the world ensures the continuation of benefits offered by the GSM family of technologies, including vast economies of scale as well as the opportunity for global roaming. Additionally, commitments by leading terminal manufacturers are being satisfied with more than 300 UMTS devices available for various spectrum bands, and a wide variety of bandwidth-hungry applications in the offering. Today’s customer is beginning to utilize the functionality, speed, and variety offered by mobile wireless enterprise solutions and entertainment options. 50 3GPP RP-060296, “HSPA Evolution beyond Release 7”, China Mobile, Cingular, DoCoMo, o2, Orange, 3, Telecom Italia, Telefonica, Telia-Sonera, T-Mobile, Vodafone 51 3G customers worldwide pass the 100 million mark at mid June 2006, UMTS Forum press release, June 13, 2006 52 Appendix A: Global UMTS Network Status, December 2005 37
  • 37. The growing commercialization of UMTS includes 41 network introductions of Rel-5 with HSDPA. With the standards completion of Rel-6 demos and trials of features like HSUPA and advanced receivers are currently ongoing. Thus, UMTS evolution is focused in two main areas: 1) Rel-7 enhancements to the HSPA RAN and core network to enable even greater speeds, capacity improvements and improved support of real-time services like VoIP, gaming and PTT, and 2) future evolution defining a flatter IP system architecture and new OFDMA based air-interface. Rel-7 enhancements include features such as MIMO on HSPA, continuous connectivity improvements, setup latency improvements, support of voice call continuity and IMS Multi-media Telephony. Future evolution to a flatter IP network is being defined through the System Architecture Evolution (SAE) work item in the SA working groups while the new OFDMA based air-interface is being defined through the Long Term Evolution (LTE) work item in the RAN working groups. The RAN working groups are also studying the migration of the HSPA system to the new SAE/LTE system through the HSPA+ work item. UMTS is rapidly gaining momentum, not only in deployment progress and the availability of terminals, applications and services for Rel-99, but also through the recently deployed Rel-5 improvements to provide significant data capacity, performance and feature functionality benefits. Rel-6 and Rel-7 continue this momentum by further improving both uplink and downlink capacity/throughput performance and efficiency for all types of services (including broadcast/multicast and real-time services like VoIP, gaming and PTT). The SAE/LTE work in 3GPP is defining the future evolution beyond Rel-7. The 3GPP standards continue to deliver the indisputable merits and benefits of the GSM family of technologies -- GSM, GPRS, EDGE and UMTS/HSDPA -- to more than 2 billion wireless customers throughout the world today. 38
  • 38. Appendix A: Detailed Vendor Progress on Rel-99/Rel-5/Rel-6 The following sections were contributed by companies represented in the working group for this 3G Americas’ white paper. This is not a comprehensive document of all the progress made to date by the vendor community, but is representative of some of the activities at leading members of the UMTS/HSPA eco-system. Andrew Corporation delivers products and solutions that address all areas of the UMTS RF path and coverage requirements, including a suite of UMTS tools for planning, implementation, geo-coded traffic, and performance data management. Andrew’s solutions specifically address the unique needs of wireless operators facing UMTS deployments, including: • Rapid development of a focused outdoor UMTS footprint — Andrew accelerates dense urban builds with small footprint rooftop deployments; supplements macro coverage with microcell- based capacity for outdoor hotspots; simplifies greenfield site builds with kits and bundles; broadens effective cell coverage with tower-mounted amplifiers, multi-carrier power amplifiers, and Node M interference cancellation repeaters; and provides turnkey coverage and distributed capacity for outdoor venues such as urban streets, urban canyons, road tunnels, and railways. Andrew’s cable and connector products have best in class RF performance, coupled with ease of deployment. Andrew’s broadband, multiband basestation antennas, with available Remote Electrical Tilt, facilitate site optimization and simplify configuration, lowering rental costs. Andrew Insitute provides world renowned training for personnel involved with RF system installation and maintenance. • Cost-effective indoor capacity and coverage — Andrew helps operators and OEMs evolve beyond voice and move indoors aggressively with Pico Node B, a fully functional Node B product that supports 40 and 80 user configurations and supports microcell applications. They offer balanced coverage and capacity in a phased, modular manner through active and/or passive distributed antenna systems, along with Pico Node B, and distribute coverage and capacity creatively, granularly and cost-effectively with ION-B and ION-M. • Real-time network monitoring and optimization — Andrew makes regular, systemic drive testing, and service benchmarking fast and effective with Invex3G, scanners that were among the first to support UMTS and other technologies in the same instrument. Our patented remote electrical tilt base station antennas accelerate post-deployment optimization by responding quickly to changing traffic patterns and reducing interference and coverage “holes.” Andrew’s SmartBeam antennas with 2 and 3 way pattern remote adjustment provide capacity increases through load balancing and interference management. In addition, Andrew’s network management software helps manage repeaters and minimize maintenance trips. • Effective network planning and rollout — Andrew’s network planning tools such as Odyssey, Optum, Omnix, and help operators design and plan networks, accurately predict coverage needs, efficiently expand and deploy networks, optimize data, analyze and monitor performance, and improve efficiency. Andrew’s RF solutions enable operators to synchronize investments with revenue using scalable deployment strategies and technologies, accelerate payback by expanding macro coverage effectively while concentrating on balancing coverage, capacity and interference management in key areas such as urban settings, indoors, and along transportation corridors. Ericsson is a primary supplier to the world’s UMTS and HSPDA networks. In May 2006, Ericsson equipment powered more than 10 commercially launched HSDPA networks, starting with Cingular Wireless in December 2005 followed by, among others, 3 Italy, Vodafone Germany and Vodafone Portugal. Ericsson products supports more than 50 commercially launched UMTS networks in all parts of the world and upgrade to HSDPA is ongoing in more than 30 networks. One of the key merits of the Ericsson HSDPA equipment is the superior support for mixing Rel-99 voice and data traffic with HSDPA traffic on the same carrier. The flexible solution allows for simultaneously high Rel-99 load and significant HSDPA data rates which defers the need for the operator to add an 39
  • 39. additional carrier. The Ericsson HSDPA equipment today supports peak rates of 3.6 Mbps downlink and 384 kbps uplink while support for 14.4 Mbps as well as HSUPA can be added with a software upgrade. During the CTIA Wireless 2006 show in Las Vegas, Ericsson performed the world’s first HSDPA demonstration with Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) technology using a commercial radio base station. In the demonstration, data rates were doubled from 10 to 20 Mbps. Ericsson’s new generation of radio base stations allows for 30 percent fewer sites, increases capacity by 50-150 percent and is optimized for cost efficiency at every site. It also enhances power efficiency, with power consumption cut by a further 35-55 percent and the size is half that of previous models. It includes distributed, carry-to-site, multi-access GSM/UMTS and mega-capacity products for both indoor and outdoor use. To support 3G evolution, the new generation of base stations is also prepared for LTE. The base stations are already available for the 850, 1900 and 2100MHz frequency bands and will fully support all forthcoming frequency bands, including 900, 1700, 1800, 1700/2100 and 2500MHz. As of May 2006, Ericsson has signed 28 IMS system agreements for commercial launch or trial, all based on the IP Multimedia Subsystem standard, including both mobile operators such as Telecom Italia Mobile (TIM) and fixed operators such as Telefónica. The contracts are distributed over the Americas, Europe, Asia and Africa and include GSM/GPRS, UMTS, CDMA2000 and fixed network implementations. The various contracts include a mix of applications such as push-to-talk, weShare (combinational services, CSI), IP Telephony (Voice over IP) and IP Centrex. Ericsson has successfully trialed Multimedia Broadcast Multicast Service (MBMS) for distribution of multimedia services, such as mobile TV, over 3G networks. The trial, performed in Stockholm, Sweden, was the first live use of MBMS. In April 2006 Ericsson showcased its enhanced program guide for mobile TV that integrates TV and on-demand mobile TV services in one location in one device. It also allows users to easily access stored content for playback, making the mobile TV service even more attractive and personal. By the end of 2005, more than 40 operators had commercially launched mobile TV over cellular networks. Of these, 16 operators had mobile TV solutions delivered by Ericsson. Ericsson Mobile Platforms (EMP), a Business Unit within the Ericsson, is a leading platform supplier for UMTS with, as of February 2006, more than 15 million of the world’s UMTS handsets based on EMP technology. EMP was the first platform provider in the world to have commercially launched handsets containing its UMTS, EDGE and GPRS technologies. During 2006 EMP started deliveries of HSDPA platforms for true mass-market deployment that are designed to facilitate true mass-market HSDPA volumes with a strong focus on size, cost and performance. The HSDPA platforms also incorporate advanced receiver technology to provide enhanced data rates over wider cell coverage areas or enhance cell capacity. Gemalto (the resulting company from the merger of Axalto and Gemplus) already delivers USIMs to 3G operators around the world including: 3, Amena, Cingular, Cytamobile-Vodafone, FarEasTone, HK Danmark, KTF, Maxis, NTT DoCoMo, O2, Orange, SmarTone, SK Telecom, Sunrise, T-Mobile, Telefonica MoviStar, Telekom Srbija, Telecom Italia, Vodafone, Vodafone K.K. (JPhone), and Wind. By the end of 2005, Gemalto had supplied tens of millions of USIM cards with more than 100,000 of these going to device and infrastructure manufacturers for test purposes to ensure product interoperability. Gemalto monitors the implementation of USIM features in devices, particularly helping device manufacturers implement the 3GPP phonebook, higher communication speeds to the USIM, as well as the ISIM for IMS provisioning and authentication. All USIMs are based on a multi-application platform and run Java Card™ operating systems in a tamper- resistant environment. They can support access to 2G and 3G networks and inter-mode roaming. USIMs and SIMs are combined to enable various migration paths to 3G services. Some operators launched the USIM to provide higher security and a richer and portable phonebook to their 2G subscribers. As multi-application platforms, USIMs also enable non-telecom smart card applications in mobile devices. They are compatible with smart card payment and Pay-TV security standards and protocols: • SK Telecom deployed USIMs co-branded with VISA International. The (U)SIM cards support the VSDC (VISA Smart Debit Credit) application for the world's first mobile proximity payment service on a USIM; • 3 Italy, a UMTS operator, is using Gemalto’s USIMs to secure access to its DVB-H service with a Pay TV Conditional Access applet. 40
  • 40. USIMs support over-the-air remote updates for applet download, roaming list updates, and other subscription maintenance services. Gemalto provides two thirds of 3G OTA platforms and recently announced its selection by Telefonica for an OTA platform to remotely manage SIMs and USIMs over SMS and packet data. In 2005, H3G Hong Kong downloaded 5 KB applets to USIMs in 20 seconds using UMTS packet data. The Gemalto USIM support mutual authentication, full device provisioning for wireless data, a Java Card API including J2ME integration, faster speeds to devices up to 460 Kbps, IMS provisioning with ISIM, support of 1.8 V, and a richer phonebook. The latest Gemalto USIMs feature a 3GPP Rel-6-compliant operating system, which can be enhanced to include R7 features. The USIM is also offering large and secure storage suitable for protected content and associated rights, enabling easy portability of acquired content from phone to phone. With up to 1 GB of storage, the latest Gemalto USIMs can also store multimedia content accessible at 52 Mbps. In November 2005, Orange successfully launched a 128 MB version with pre-loaded content (MP3 and MP4 files) to promote multimedia services on its network. Overall the 3GPP R7 smart card platform adopted several requirements addressed by the ETSI-SCP that will be specified overtime, such as: • New protocols to communicate between the smart card and the device (high speed protocol and direct interface for contactless transactions like mass transit and payment); • Trusted link between the card and the device (a.k.a. secure channel); • Delivery of IP packets directly to the card; • Enablers for the OMA Smart Card Web Server (HTTP server in the card for offline pages, tutorials, and service teasers). Hewlett-Packard provides revenue generating solutions for service providers that incorporate HP carrier- grade platforms, industry standard IMS core network elements, management software, extensible service delivery framework, and partner assets. The HP Service Delivery Platform (SDP) is a strategic blueprint for helping service providers develop, deploy and manage standards-based end-user services and migrate from today’s legacy networks to the next generation IMS architecture. The SDP does this by focusing on the key areas that service providers must address in making the transition to IMS; service creation and composition, service delivery infrastructure, service management, transport, signaling and end user devices. The SDP allows service providers to deliver services (web and real-time) across multiple network types (fixed, mobile, and broadband) and generations (2G/2.5G/3G/IMS) -- essentially bridging the networks of today and tomorrow by evolving the existing network model to a Services Oriented Architecture (SOA). The HP OpenCall portfolio of software solutions powers the real-time service delivery infrastructure of the HP SDP and consists of the following: • HP OpenCall Software signaling portfolio – provides for the development of 3G solutions and evolution of applications from 2G to 3G network environments. Consisting of both a signaling platform and gateway component, the environment supports access to SS7, SIGTRAN, SIP and Diameter protocols in both a highly-scalable and cost-effective manner. • HP OpenCall Home Location Register (HLR) – providing support for Rel-5 and 3G Authentication. The HLR has been in production operation for over 15 years and currently services over 150 million subscribers worldwide. The HP HLR can be co-located with the OpenCall Home Subscriber Server, offering a transition path from a 2G to a 3G setting. • HP OpenCall Home Subscriber Server (HSS) – providing authentication, authorization, and auditing capabilities in compliance with 3GPP standards. The HSS manages and maintains customer profile data for IMS services and provides a point where application, subscriber and service data may be defined, provisioned, maintained, and retrieved. • HP OpenCall XML Document Management Server (XDMS) – performs standards-based functions necessary for storing and managing group membership information. This OMA-compliant network element supports XML Configuration Access Protocol (XCAP) Directory, Push-to-talk Over Cellular (POC), Resource List Server (RLS) rules and shared XML Document Management System (XDMS) model. Through the XDMS, group function capabilities include multicasting of instant and multi- 41
  • 41. media messages, filtration of incoming communications, sharing of status information, and creation of dynamic virtual communities. • HP OpenCall Media Platform (OCMP) – supplying the IMS Media Resource Function (MRF) that supports video streaming, video-mail, and other interactive multi-media solutions. OCMP fully supports SIP interaction and extends the capabilities of standard MRF solutions by providing support for advanced functions such as VoiceXML (VxML) and Voice+Video XML (V²xML). With this, the MRF delivers a concurrent service to subscribers connected through diverse network-types (wireless, fixed, broadband). The MRF can combine video, audio, text-to-speech, and auto- speech-recognition within one service. HP OpenView is a broad suite of management products spanning telecom-specific tools including TeMIP, Service Quality Manager, Identity and Application management, and broader IT capabilities based upon the Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) model. HP OpenView is delivered to service providers in the context of the HP Integrated Service Management (ISM) blueprint covering fulfillment, assurance and billing. It is used by service providers to improve service availability and allow these operators to more readily meet Service Level Agreements (SLAs) necessary for day to day operations. HP offers products and solutions running on a range of carrier grade telecommunications platforms and a variety of hardware and operating system variants including ATCA-based Linux, carrier-grade high- availability UNIX, and fault-tolerant Nonstop Servers. Lucent Technologies first demonstrated HSDPA in March 2003 at the CTIA Wireless 2003 trade show in New Orleans and has since played a significant role in the commercialization of the technology. Lucent’s UMTS/HSDPA solutions powered the first two commercial HSDPA network launches in the world – Cingular in the United States and Manx Telecom (a wholly owned subsidiary of O2) on the Isle of Man, respectively. Lucent helped Cingular launch the world’s first commercial HSDPA network with Lucent-supplied equipment in the Phoenix and Seattle markets on Oct. 18, 2005. Cingular has since launched many more Lucent-supplied markets. In fact, in February 2006, Cingular expanded the market coverage of Lucent’s existing agreement to supply 3G UMTS/HSDPA network equipment - including radio access network and core switching, and software and services - to support Cingular's nationwide 3G service. O2, Manx Telecom and Lucent announced the first commercial HSDPA network service in Europe on the Isle of Man on November 1, 2005. This marked a significant milestone in the deployment of a super-fast, mobile network based on Lucent’s end-to-end, 3G UMTS/HSDPA and IMS solutions for Manx Telecom. Lucent also announced an extension to the network analysis and optimization service it has been delivering for T-Mobile International, focused on improving the end-to-end performance of the customer's UMTS networks in Germany, Austria, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom. These services also will include T-Mobile's 3G HSDPA networks when they become operational. Additionally, Lucent is engaged in an ongoing UMTS collaboration with China Netcom, having completed a successful UMTS trial in Shanghai and the first successful field trial of HSDPA technology in China. The two companies conducted a series of data calls -- including demonstrations of live TV and video-on- demand services -- on a 3G UMTS trial network deployed by China Netcom in Shanghai. These achievements serve as a follow up to Lucent’s successful completion of the UMTS testing regime coordinated by China’s Ministry of Information Industries (MII). On the hardware side, Lucent’s HSDPA solution requires software-only upgrades, which can be downloaded remotely to its UMTS RNC and Node B. Lucent also unveiled the Lucent Base Station Router (BSR), a Bell Labs innovation that integrates key components of 3G mobile networks into a single network element optimized to support UMTS/HSDPA data services, and "flattens" what is typically a more complex architecture. O2 is currently conducting laboratory trials of the Lucent BSR in Germany. The BSR was selected as the first place winner of a CTIA WIRELESS 2006 Wireless Emerging Technologies (E-tech) Award in the category of “Most Innovative In-Building Solution.” Lucent also is pioneering the introduction of HSUPA technology, having completed live demonstrations of the technology at several major wireless trade shows including 3GSM World Congress 2006 in Barcelona, Spain and CTIA Wireless 2006 in Las Vegas. 42
  • 42. Lucent has established itself as an industry leader in the introduction of commercial IMS networks announcing commercial IMS agreements with Cingular, SBC, Bell South, Netia (Poland), Sprint, Manx Telecom, PAETEC and an initial deployment in China. Lucent also is conducting more than 77 trials of various IMS network elements with more than 16 operators globally. Lucent’s IMS-based solution is a service delivery architecture that serves as the cornerstone of Lucent’s vision for next-generation blended lifestyle services, and Lucent is continuously evolving its IMS solution, such as the integration of Bell Labs-developed software technologies into its portfolio to enable wireless, wireline, and converged network operators to create and deliver simple, seamless, secure, portable, and personal multimedia services to their subscribers. These software technologies are part of a “Service Enhancement Layer” that gives Lucent’s IMS solution distinct competitive advantages. Motorola has been contributing to the 3GPP standardization of HSDPA -- Mobile Broadband for Rel- 5 since 2000. This culminated in extensive simulation capabilities and the early ability to demonstrate HSDPA over the air on commercial infrastructure. Motorola regularly demonstrates its HSDPA devices and solutions and is currently in the process of deploying HSDPA into its customer’s networks [2006]. In November 2003, Motorola became the first vendor to demonstrate HSDPA on a commercially available UMTS base station at its Swindon, UK facility. Shortly thereafter Motorola publicly demonstrated HSDPA at the 3GSM World Congress 2004 event, with more than 70 presentations in three days. October 2004 saw the extensive testing of HSDPA using a suite of consumer and corporate applications in multi-cell, multi-user environments to assess key performance criteria compared with UMTS, WiFi and with Motorola’s own simulation results. These trials were conducted with five major operators who independently witnessed all or the majority of the impressive results obtained. Motorola has since tested HSDPA and UMTS combined on a single carrier to enable field characterization in this configuration that is most suited to initial HSDPA deployments. 3GSM World Congress 2005 was equally successful, demonstrating a multi-user HSDPA scenario that secured much industry attention; throughout 2005 numerous customer demonstrations were delivered both at Motorola Swindon and elsewhere around the world including 3GSM Asia (Hong Kong). In January 2006 Motorola launched its Motorola AXPT product: a UMTS and HSDPA access point solution that enables rapid and effective indoor wireless broadband coverage. This revolutionary new device features a “collapsed architecture” design and uses IP backhaul; a real alternative to WiFi that provides the end user with a “One Device, One Operator” solution for voice as well as high-speed data. Understandably this generated significant interest at 3GSM World Congress Barcelona, with almost 100 private demonstrations taking place. Also at 3GSM 2006 Motorola demonstrated HSUPA on a modified commercial platform. This natural compliment to HSDPA was demonstrated peaking at over 4Mbps, enabling the ready use of many more applications. Motorola is now in the final stages of validating its HSDPA Mobile Device solution for the 3GSM Marketplace. The company has completed or is nearing the completion of all relevant test cases in conjunction with its lead Interoperability Test (IOT) Partners. In addition, Motorola is actively participating in field and lab trials with a number of key carriers. The first sealed terminal testing of 16QAM and 384 Kbps uplink was part of this field testing. Motorola’s leadership position in Category 6 and 12 HSDPA in a sealed terminal form factor has been confirmed by a number of key carriers. Enabling HSDPA in Motorola’s extensive UMTS network product portfolio requires only a straightforward upgrade with minimal operator capital outlay; this provides the opportunity for rapid return on investment via simplified infrastructure deployment (pre-optimization of system parameters), rapid introduction of end user devices (Motorola was one of first vendors to be awarded an HSDPA handset contract by NTT DoCoMo) and the efficient enablement of revenue-generating applications and services. Beyond HSDPA, Motorola has been actively developing and testing its IMS device implementation across key vendor labs. This work has led to Motorola being selected by a number of IOT partners to participate in the GSMA’s IMS (Videoshare) Interoperability Test Sessions. These sessions have yielded important early successes in demonstrating IMS functionality, as well as ensuring interoperable solutions that will increase the take-up of this next step in the GSM/UMTS evolution. Motorola’s participation (across multiple frequency bands, carriers and regions) has given it a strong position in the development and deployment of such services. 43
  • 43. Motorola has a two-fold approach to delivering valuable applications and services: 1. For fixed operators serving enterprise and residential markets, Motorola offers advanced services like Seamless Mobility on IMS 2. For mobile operators, Motorola offers advanced VoIP, IP-based services like Push-to-talk over Cellular. To these ends, Motorola has more than 60 contracts with mobile operators worldwide for IMS-based deployments, including PTX and MSS, supporting more than 2.5 million subscribers. This activity is in addition to ongoing IMS trials of seamless mobility with cable, fixed and mobile operators. IMS is the key control point as part of Motorola’s Seamless Mobility vision -- enabling seamless experience at home, work, out in the world and in autos. Motorola has assets in all the segments and hence there is significant commitment to all programs and technologies. Nokia has introduced network infrastructure optimized for the 1700/2100 MHz band to support operators bidding in the 2006 3G spectrum auction in the US. The Nokia Flexi Base Station enables easy deployment of cellular and/or broadband wireless access networks, such as UMTS, HSPA, and WiMAX with up to 70 percent lower base station site expenditures because of its small footprint, light weight and reduced power consumption. The Flexi Base Station will be available for UMTS and HSPA for the IMT- 2000 frequencies 2100 MHz, 1700 MHz, 1800 MHz and 1700/2100 MHz in the second half of 2006. Other frequencies like 1900 MHz and 850 MHz will be introduced during the first half of 2007. The 700 MHz frequency variant will be introduced in time to support rollouts when the 700 MHz band has been auctioned and cleared by the FCC. Meanwhile the field proven Nokia UltraSite site solution, including both GSM/EDGE and UMTS variants, already support the 800/900/1800/1900/2100 MHz frequencies. Nokia was the first company to introduce Internet-High-Speed Packet Access (I-HSPA), an innovative, cost effective flat network architecture solution that enables high-speed mobile access with wide area coverage for data intensive business and consumer applications. The flat network architecture will enable significant cost savings making UMTS with I-HSPA a cost-effective broadband wireless option for high data volumes. I-HSPA architecture is based on the current HSPA standards for uplink and downlink and therefore all current HSPA capable terminals and data cards will be fully interoperable with this unique solution. Flexi Base Station and I-HSPA solutions were demonstrated live at CTIA Wireless in Las Vegas in April 2006, at CeBIT in Germany in March 2006 and at 3GSM in Barcelona in February 2006. Nokia has launched two HSDPA networks commercially, one of these being T-Mobile Germany. T-Mobile and Nokia provided HSDPA to CeBIT 2006 visitors in Hanover and simultaneously activated HSDPA in Germany and later in the Netherlands and the United Kingdom. Prior to the launch, Nokia and T-Mobile successfully trialed HSDPA in live networks. Nokia is expecting the majority of its UMTS customers, 58 UMTS Rel-99 reference customers of which 49 are commercially launched, to update their UMTS networks to HSDPA during this year. With Nokia, HSPA is available as a simple upgrade to existing UMTS networks through a remote software upgrade. HSUPA for enhanced uplink data speeds is planned to be available during the second half of 2007 now that it has been ratified in 3GPP Rel-6. Meanwhile the Nokia Rel-99 UMTS RAN currently supports up to 384 kbps uplink throughput ensuring incomparable uploading times already today for high speed data users. At 2006 3GSM in Barcelona, Nokia launched its 3GPP Rel-6 based Unlicensed Mobile Access (UMA) network solution. UMA technology enables the use of broadband and unlicensed access technologies, such as WLAN, to offer and expand mobility to users of voice and data services as well as extending GSM indoor coverage. Nokia's offering combines network equipment and UMA capable handset to create a complete end-to-end solution. Nokia also launched its newest UMA capable phone, the Nokia 6136, and gave a live demonstration of UMA calls. The Nokia UMA solution has already been commercially launched successfully with Saunalahti in Finland and with an operator in the Middle East. In addition Nokia has trialed the solution in Latin America and with three operators in the US and Europe as of today. Nokia launched a new release of the Nokia IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS), building on successful deployments of Nokia IMS applications such as Push-to-talk over Cellular and Video Sharing. Nokia IMS Release 2.0 now brings VoIP and real-time multimedia not only for mobile networks, but for fixed networks. Nokia also supports a broad IMS application development community through Forum Nokia. 44
  • 44. Nokia IMS 2.0 release is compliant with 3GPP IMS specifications and the Next Generation Network architecture defined by ETSI TISPAN, and becomes available in the second half of 2006. Nokia is a leader in deliveries of IMS for fixed and mobile networks, with over 70 references for IMS solutions commercially launched, for example, by TMN Portugal, CSL Hong Kong and TIM Italy. Nokia was also selected on February 2006 by Vodafone Group as a preferred supplier, with a contract to begin deploying the Nokia IMS solution to Vodafone affiliates worldwide, with first deployments commencing during 2006. With over 80 customers, Nokia has also delivered the majority of the world's commercial 3GPP compliant mobile soft switches. Nokia provides a full range of services to help operators differentiate and innovate their mobile offerings based on Nokia’s end to end capability from networks to devices. As an example of such a service, Nokia launched its Mobility Hosting Solution at CTIA Wireless 2006 that will offer the mobile service providers a chance to quickly roll out new, exciting services for subscribers while ensuring that an operators’ investment in such new services is utilized as efficiently as possible. Further strengthening Nokia’s end to end capability, Nokia is able to deliver a portfolio of leading convergence devices with more than 15 announced UMTS/GSM phones to date world wide. At the end of 2005, Nokia held the global market share leader position for 3G devices with 24 percent, and was leading EMEA at 35 percent market share. 50 percent of the new Nokia devices to be launched in 2006 globally will support UMTS, with shipments of Nokia 3G devices likely to reach upwards of 40 million units during 2006. Nortel has a complete set of solutions like Omni Transmit Sector Receive (OTSR) and Variable Bit Rate (VBR) for transmissions and a complete portfolio with the new compact RCN 1500, the unique GSM- UMTS dual mode Macro BTS 18000 (Indoor and Outdoor), the new BTS 6000 compact macro BTS, and the Optical Remote Radio Head based on Common Public Radio Interface (CPRI) architecture. Other Nortel solutions include the new UMTS Micro BTS 1120, a small "zero footprint" BTS and UMTS Pico BTS 1010, a lightweight and compact indoor solution planned for cost effective coverage. Nortel recently demonstrated a number of industry milestones including: • At the 3GSM World Congress in February 2006, Nortel demonstrated the industry’s first simultaneous HSUPA and HSDPA calls. • Also at the 3GSM World Congress in February 2006, Vodafone and Nortel demonstrated HSDPA at 3.6 Mbit/s on a live commercial network. Reports from the field confirmed the high stability of the network and typical/average speeds per user around 1 Mbit/s. • In March 2006, the first HSDPA commercial services launched by Orange were based on Nortel equipment with confirmed performance and stability. • In March 2006, Nortel and Qualcomm demonstrated the industry-first HSDPA category 8 call at 7.2 Mbit/s, based on Nortel commercial infrastructure, and a Qualcomm Form Factor handset • In January 2005 Nortel, QUALCOMM and Orange successfully completed UMTS and HSDPA calls in the 900 Mhz band, becoming the world’s first companies to showcase UMTS and HSDPA services in the 900 MHz band, for the improved delivery of broadband services to rural areas and in-building penetration. • In April at CTIA 2006, Nortel’s HSUPA performance was demonstrated real time on the physical layers L1 and L2 with a Nortel Node B - BTS and mobile emulators. HSUPA for enhanced uplink data speeds is planned to be introduced during the first half of 2007. HSUPA is the complement of HSDPA and together provides for an evolution towards HSPA. Nortel is also delivering fully compliant 3GPP Rel-4 and Rel-5 solutions in the core network. In February 2006, Nortel was selected to deploy North America’s largest 2G/3G 3GPP Rel-4 compliant network including MSC (Mobile Switching Center) Server and Media Gateway products. According to Nortel’s estimate, the company’s Rel-4 technology will help provide up to a 300 percent increase in call handling capacity. Nortel’s IMS solution supports 3GPP (IMS), 3GPP2 (MMD), Packet Cable 2.0 and TISPAN standards. Nortel’s 2nd generation ATCA-compliant hardware is the platform for Nortel’s Call Session Control and Home Subscriber Server functions in the IMS architecture. Nortel’s IMS solution is based upon open protocols and interfaces so it gives operators a smooth evolution to future technology delivery and interoperates with a wide range of legacy equipment. 45
  • 45. Nortel’s IMS solution is one of the most open IMS implementations in the market as evidenced by the collaboration with many developers, partners and applications providers in its seven SIP Interoperability labs, six IMS Live Experience Centers and two Joint Customer Innovation Centers. In addition, Nortel is enhancing its IMS solution through work with IBM in the IBM Telecommunications Solutions Labe (TSL) in Montpellier, France. Long Term Evolution (LTE) - Nortel has a clear strategy in place to deliver next generation wireless networks with a significant time to market advantage and a smooth evolution path. Nortel views two key technologies - OFDM and MIMO - as the fundamental blocks for all next generation access technologies and is leveraging its R&D investment across 3GPP LTE, 3GPP2 EVDO Rev C and WiMAX, enabling maximum synergies across these product lines. Nortel has invested in developing OFDM and MIMO since 1998, demonstrating its commercial benefits and feasibility to more than 100 customers worldwide. At the 3GSM World Congress 2005, Nortel publicly promoted the advantages of HSOPA – High Speed OFDM Packet Access - to the 3GPP operators and the introduction of OFDM MIMO into the 3GPP standards. HSOPA/LTE has the potential to increase ten-fold the number of users that can be served by an operator’s network. In 2006, Nortel expects to deliver an HSOPA/LTE laboratory prototype solution that can provide up to 25 Megabits per second uplink in the 5MHz spectrum – at least 15 times faster than today’s fastest mobile connectivity. Nortel’s original OFDM-MIMO laboratory prototype, demonstrated in 2004, delivered 37 Mbit/s in downlink in the same bandwidth. Nortel anticipates beginning customer HSOPA/LTE trials in 2007. Nortel aims to demonstrate that UMTS operators can evolve to HSOPA/LTE with minimal additional investment. On the radio access side, Nortel’s Base Transceiver Station (BTS) platforms enable a smooth evolution to HSOPA as well as supporting GSM, UMTS, HSDPA, HSUPA and HSOPA/LTE. Siemens and NEC won, on average, one UTRAN contract per month since the beginning of 2005 and maintain one of the strongest UMTS positions in the market. As of May 2006, Siemens and NEC delivered their solution to about 30 countries and more than 40 operating companies. More than 80 percent of all UMTS subscribers in commercial networks are using Siemens/NEC technology. The HSDPA end-to-end solution was available for commercial use since the second half of 2005 and nearly 10 HSDPA contracts followed. All NodeBs shipped since 2002 can support HSDPA via a simple software upgrade. Siemens’ HSDPA data cards support different UMTS frequency bands and can be used in both the U.S. and Europe. Siemens wireless modules are expected to introduce more UMTS/HSDPA data capabilities in 2006 through enabling the machine-to-machine (M2M) market and further improving the diversity of possible applications. At 3GSM World Congress 2006 in Barcelona, Siemens demonstrated live HSDPA data downloading at a speed of 3.6 Mbps. HSDPA on-air tests have shown 950kbps at 80mph in a live UMTS network. With the delivery of HSUPA in 1Q2007, Siemens’ UMTS will be compliant to Rel-6. Starting in 2005, Siemens has introduced a distributed RAN architecture by separating the NodeB into Radio Server (RS) and Remote Radio Head (RRH). With this distributed architecture concept, the total size, weight and power consumption can be significantly reduced compared to the conventional NodeBs. In April 2006, Siemens announced the Multi-standard Base Station (MBS) solution by using a single modular platform to support both 2G/GSM and 3G/UMTS. Operators can upgrade their 2G/GSM BTS by adding a small slide-in Radio Server Unit (RSU) into the existing 2G/GSM rack. Because the RSU can fit into any standard 19-inch shelf space, this solution has provided operators more flexible ways to perform a vendor independent 3G/UMTS upgrade on their existing 2G/GSM sites. The new Rel-6 compliant and ATCA based RN-880 RNC will be available this year. The RN-880 will not only offer unique performance density and granular scalability, but also provide a migration path to IP. Siemens is one of the few vendors that offers both IMS infrastructure and IMS services. Siemens IMS@vantage has already been installed by more than 35 carriers as a secure and powerful convergence platform for IP-based multimedia applications. It is built around the session initiation protocol (SIP), a protocol for multimedia services (via many IP access networks) such as Push-to-talk over Cellular, Call & Share, instant messaging and chat applications, as well as for conference calls and VoIP telephony. In 2005, Siemens started the industry‘s first IMS Developer Program with the first projects in Germany, USA, China (Nanning) and Singapore with the following major targets: creating a developer community, leveraging the development of new applications, and delivering new applications to operators. 46
  • 46. GSM Association’s tests in 2006 examined the interworking of IMS platforms from different vendors and the interoperability of IMS carrier networks under real-world conditions. The IP Multimedia Subsystem from Siemens passed the GSM Association test series without a hitch – the Siemens system interoperates seamlessly with the IMS systems of other key vendors. Siemens also took part in trials testing the delivery of new applications. These tests are designed to ensure that new multimedia services, such as video sharing, can be used smoothly by wireless users across network boundaries. In April 2006, Cingular Wireless, Siemens and Georgia Institute of Technology announced a program to encourage the creation of advanced IMS applications and services. The program includes developing an IMS Laboratory at Georgia Tech co-sponsored by the Georgia Electronic Design Center and the Office of Information Technology. The IMS Lab will be used by students and researchers. A public demonstration of the IMS Lab is scheduled for October 2006. In this context, Siemens also actively contributes to the convergence of cellular networks and alternative access technologies like WiFi. Using IMS, Siemens and Time Warner Cable demonstrated several ways in which cellular networks and IP-based broadband or WiFi networks could be set up to provide seamless access for users. To complement this evolution, wide area meshed WLAN network solutions are available and capable to carry real-time services at a high capacity. The first traction of municipal scale deployment using Siemens equipment was recently announced, for example, in Toronto. 47
  • 47. Appendix B: Global UMTS Operator Status GLOBAL UMTS OPERATOR STATUS OPERATORS IN SERVICE 107 Informa Telecoms & Media, WCIS PRE-COMMERCIAL 4 Updated: July 7, 2006 PLANNED/IN DEPLOYMENT 74 LICENSE AWARDED 11 Source: Informa Telecoms & Media TRIAL 19 World Cellular Information Service POTENTIAL LICENSE 95 LICENSE REVOKED/SOLD 11 Start Country Operator Status Date Opening 1 Andorra STA Planned/In Deployment Dec-05 2 Australia Hutchison 3G (3) In Service Apr-03 3 Australia Optus In Service Oct-05 4 Australia Telstra In Service Sep-05 5 Australia Vodafone In Service Oct-05 6 Austria Connect Austria (ONE) In Service Dec-03 7 Austria Hutchison 3G (3) In Service May-03 8 Austria mobilkom In Service Apr-03 9 Austria tele.ring In Service Dec-03 10 Austria T-Mobile Austria In Service Dec-03 11 Bahrain MTC Vodafone Bahrain In Service Dec-03 12 Belgium BASE (Orange) Planned/In Deployment Q1 2007 Belgacom Mobile 13 Belgium (Proximus) In Service Sep-05 14 Belgium Mobistar Planned/In Deployment Q3 2006 15 Brunei B-Mobile In Service Sep-05 16 Brunei DST Planned/In Deployment Q1 2007 17 Bulgaria BTC (Vivatel) Planned/In Deployment Q3 2006 18 Bulgaria Cosmo Bulgaria Mobile Planned/In Deployment Q3 2006 19 Bulgaria MobilTel (M-TEL) In Service Mar-06 20 Cambodia CamGSM (Mobitel) Planned/In Deployment 1H 2006 21 Canada Rogers Wireless Planned/In Deployment 3Q 2006 22 Croatia Tele2 Planned/In Deployment Q2 2006 23 Croatia T-Mobile Planned/In Deployment Q1 2006 24 Croatia VIPNet In Service Nov-05 25 Cyprus Areeba In Service Oct-05 26 Cyprus CYTA Planned/In Deployment Q1 2006 27 Czech Republic Eurotel Praha In Service Dec-05 28 Czech Republic Vodafone (Oskar Mobil) Planned/In Deployment Q3 2007 29 Czech Republic T-Mobile Planned/In Deployment Q1 2007 30 Denmark HI3G Denmark (3) In Service Oct-03 31 Denmark Sonofon Planned/In Deployment Q4 2006 32 Denmark TDC Mobil In Service Nov-05 33 Denmark Telia Planned/In Deployment 2H 2006 34 Denmark T-Mobile Planned/In Deployment Q1 2006 35 Estonia Elisa Planned/In Deployment Q4 2006 36 Estonia EMT In Service Oct-05 37 Estonia Tele2 Planned/In Deployment Q4 2006 38 Fiji Vodafone Fiji Planned/In Deployment Q1 2007 39 Finland Alands Mobiltelefon Planned/In Deployment Q2 2006 40 Finland DNA Finland In Service Dec-05 41 Finland Elisa In Service Nov-04 48
  • 48. Start Country Operator Status Date Opening 42 Finland Song Networks Planned/In Deployment Q2 2006 43 Finland TeliaSonera In Service Oct-04 44 France Bouygues Telecom Planned/In Deployment Q2 2006 45 France Orange France In Service Dec-04 46 France SFR In Service Nov-04 47 Georgia Argotex Planned/In Deployment Q1 2007 48 Georgia Magticom Planned/In Deployment Q4 2009 49 Germany E-Plus In Service Aug-04 50 Germany O2 In Service Jul-04 51 Germany T-Mobile In Service May-04 52 Germany Vodafone D2 In Service May-04 53 Greece Cosmote In Service May-04 54 Greece Panafon (Vodafone) In Service Aug-04 55 Greece STET Hellas (TIM) In Service Jan-04 56 Guernsey Wave Telecom In Service Jul-04 Cable & Wireless 57 Guernsey Guernsey Planned/In Deployment Dec-06 58 Hong Kong Hong Kong CSL In Service Dec-04 59 Hong Kong Hutchison In Service Jan-04 60 Hong Kong SmarTone In Service Dec-04 61 Hong Kong Sunday In Service Jun-05 62 Hungary Pannon GSM In Service Oct-05 63 Hungary T-Mobile In Service Aug-05 64 Hungary Vodafone Pre-commercial Q3 2006 65 India Reliance Planned/In Deployment Mar-08 66 India Tata Teleservices Planned/In Deployment Mar-08 67 India Spice Telecom Planned/In Deployment Jun-08 Excelcomindo Pratama 68 Indonesia ProXL License Awarded Q1 2007 Hutchison Telecom 69 Indonesia Indonesia Planned/In Deployment Q4 2006 70 Indonesia Indonesian Satellite License Awarded Q1 2007 Natrinto Telepon Selular 71 Indonesia Lippo Planned/In Deployment Q4 2006 72 Indonesia Telkomsel License Awarded Q1 2007 73 Ireland Hutchison Whampoa In Service Jul-05 74 Ireland O2 In Service Mar-05 75 Ireland Vodafone Ireland In Service Nov-04 76 Isle of Man Manx Telecom In Service Nov-05 77 Israel Cellcom Israel In Service Jun-04 78 Israel Partner Comm. (Orange) In Service Nov-04 79 Italy H3G (3) In Service Mar-03 80 Italy Ipse 2000 License Awarded 81 Italy TIM In Service May-04 82 Italy Vodafone Omnitel In Service May-04 83 Italy Wind In Service Oct-04 84 Japan eAccess Planned/In Deployment Mar-07 85 Japan Softbank Planned/In Deployment Apr-07 86 Japan NTT DoCoMo (FOMA) In Service Oct-01 87 Japan Vodafone In Service Dec-02 Cable & Wireless 88 Jersey Guernsey Planned/In Deployment 2007 49
  • 49. Start Country Operator Status Date Opening 89 Jersey Jersey Telecoms Planned/In Deployment Jun-06 90 Kenya Safaraicom Planned/In Deployment Q4 2007 91 Korea KTF In Service Dec-03 92 Korea SK Telecom In Service Dec-03 93 Kuwait MTC Planned/In Deployment 94 Kuwait Wataniya Telecom In Service Mar-06 95 Latvia Bité Planned/In Deployment Q2 2006 96 Latvia LMT In Service Dec-04 97 Latvia Tele2 Pre-commercial Q2 2006 98 Libya El Madar Tel. Company Planned/In Deployment Q1 2006 99 Libya Libyana Planned/In Deployment Q1 2006 100 Liechtenstein Orange Planned/In Deployment Q1 2006 101 Liechtenstein Tele2 (Tango) Planned/In Deployment Q1 2006 102 Lithuania Bité In Service Jun-06 103 Lithuania Omnitel Planned/In Deployment Q4 2006 104 Lithuania Tele2 Planned/In Deployment Q2 2007 LUX Communications 105 Luxembourg (VOX) In Service May-05 P&T Luxembourg 106 Luxembourg (LUXGSM) In Service Jun-03 107 Luxembourg Tele2 (Tango) In Service Jul-04 108 Malaysia Maxis In Service Jul-05 109 Malaysia Telekom Malaysia In Service May-05 110 Malaysia MiTV Planned/In Deployment Q2 2007 111 Malaysia TT docCom Planned/In Deployment Q1 2007 112 Maldives Wataniya Planned/In Deployment Q4 2006 113 Malta MobIsle Comm. (go mobile) Planned/In Deployment Q4 2006 114 Malta Vodafone Planned/In Deployment Q1 2006 115 Mauritius Cellplus Mobile Comm. Planned/In Deployment Mar-06 116 Mauritius Emtel In Service Nov-04 117 Monaco Monaco Telecom Pre-commercial Q2 2006 118 Netherlands KPN Mobile (Telfort) In Service Oct-04 119 Netherlands Orange Planned/In Deployment Q2 2006 120 Netherlands T-Mobile Netherlands In Service Jan-06 121 Netherlands Vodafone Libertel In Service Jun-04 122 New Zealand Econet Wireless Planned/In Deployment Dec-06 123 New Zealand TelstraClear Planned/In Deployment Q2 2007 124 New Zealand Vodafone In Service Aug-05 125 Norway Hi3G Access Planned/In Deployment Q1 2006 126 Norway Netcom In Service Jun-05 127 Norway Telenor Mobil In Service Dec-04 128 Oman Nawras Telecom Planned/In Deployment Q3 2006 129 Philippines CURE Planned/In Deployment Q3 2007 130 Philippines Digitel Mobile Planned/In Deployment Q4 2006 131 Philippines Globe Telecom In Service May-06 Q4 2006 132 Philippines SMART In Service May-06 Q4 2006 133 Poland Centertel (Orange) Planned/In Deployment Q4 2005 134 Poland P4 Planned/In Deployment Q4 2006 135 Poland Polkomtel In Service Sep 204 Polska Telefonia Cyfrowa 136 Poland (Era) Pre-commercial Q4 2006 137 Portugal Optimus In Service Jun-04 50
  • 50. Start Country Operator Status Date Opening 138 Portugal TMN In Service Apr-04 139 Portugal Vodafone Telecel In Service May-04 140 Qatar Q-TEL Planned/In Deployment Q2 2006 141 Romania MobiFon In Service Apr-05 142 Romania Orange Romania In Service Jun-06 143 Saudi Arabia Etisalat Planned/In Deployment Q1 2006 144 Saudi Arabia Saudi Telecom Company In Service Jun-06 Telecom Seyshelles 145 Seychelles (AIRTEL) Planned/In Deployment Q1 2006 146 Singapore MobileOne In Service Feb-05 SingTel Mobile (3loGy 147 Singapore Live) In Service Feb-05 148 Singapore StarHub In Service Apr-05 149 Slovak Republic Orange In Service Mar-06 150 Slovak Republic T-Mobile In Service Jan-06 151 Slovenia Mobitel In Service Dec-03 152 South Africa 3C Telecom. Planned/In Deployment Q2 2006 153 South Africa MTN In Service Jun-05 154 South Africa Vodacom In Service Dec-04 155 Spain Amena In Service Oct-04 Telefónica Móviles 156 Spain (Movistar) In Service May-04 157 Spain Vodafone España In Service May-04 158 Spain Xfera Planned/In Deployment Dec-06 159 Sudan Bashair Telecom Planned/In Deployment Q2 2006 160 Sudan Mobitel Sudan Planned/In Deployment Q4 2006 161 Sweden HI3G (3) In Service May-03 162 Sweden TeliaSonera In Service Mar-04 Svenska UMTS-Nät 163 Sweden (Tele2) In Service Mar-04 164 Sweden Vodafone Sweden In Service Jul-04 165 Switzerland Orange In Service Sep-05 166 Switzerland Swisscom Mobile In Service Dec-04 167 Switzerland TDC Switzerland (sunrise) In Service Dec-05 168 Switzerland Team 3G License Awarded 169 Syria Spacetel Syria Planned/In Deployment Q4 2006 170 Syria SyriaTel Planned/In Deployment Q4 2006 171 Tadjikistan Babilon Mobile OAO In Service Jun-05 172 Tadjikistan Indigo Tadjikistan Planned/In Deployment Q4 2006 173 Tadjikistan TaCom Planned/In Deployment Q4 2006 174 Tadjikistan TT Mobile In Service Jun-05 175 Taiwan Chunghwa Telecom In Service Jul-05 176 Taiwan FarEasTone In Service Jul-05 177 Taiwan Taiwan Mobile Co. In Service Oct-05 178 Taiwan VIBO In Service Dec-05 179 Tajikistan Indigo/MCT Russia Planned/In Deployment Q1 2006 180 Tanzania Vodacom Planned/In Deployment Q3 2006 181 Thailand CAT License Awarded Q4 2006 182 Thailand TOT License Awarded Q4 2006 183 UAE Etisalat In Service Jan-04 184 UAE Du Planned/In Deployment Q4 2006 185 UK Hutchison 3G (3) In Service Mar-03 51
  • 51. Start Country Operator Status Date Opening 186 UK O2 In Service Mar-05 187 UK Orange In Service Dec-04 188 UK T-Mobile In Service Oct-05 189 UK Vodafone In Service Nov-04 190 Ukraine Ukrtelecom Planned/In Deployment Q1 2007 191 Uruguay Ancel Planned/In Deployment Q4 2006 192 USA Cingular In Service Jun-06 Networks in Trial 1 Algeria Algérie Télécom Trial 2 China - Beijing Beijing Mobile Trial 3 China - Beijing Beijing Netcom Trial 4 China - Beijing CATT Trial Dec-00 5 China - Beijing China Tietong Trial 6 China - Guangdong Guangdong Mobile Trial 7 China - Guangdong Guangdong Telecom Trial 8 China - Guangdong Guangdong Unicom Trial 9 China - Shanghai China Tietong Trial 10 China - Shanghai Shanghai Netcom Trial 11 China - Shanghai Shanghai Telecom Trial 12 China - Shanghai Shanghai Unicom Trial 13 French Polynesia Tikiphone Trial Sep-05 14 Indonesia Indosat Trial Dec-06 15 Indonesia Telkomsel Trial Jun-06 16 Thailand AIS Trial Dec-06 17 USA Edge Wireless Trial 18 Vietnam MobiFone Trial 19 Vietnam VinaPhone Trial Potential Licenses 1 Argentina CTI Movil Potential License Q1 2008 2 Argentina Telecom Personal Potential License Q1 2008 3 Argentina Telefonica Moviles Potential License Q1 2008 4 Bangladesh BTTB Potential License Dec-10 5 Bangladesh GrameenPhone Potential License Mar-10 6 Bangladesh PBTL Potential License Jun-10 7 Bangladesh Sheba Telecom Potential License Jun-10 8 Bangladesh TM International Potential License Jun-10 9 Bangladesh Warid Telecom Potential License Dec-10 10 Belgium -tba-1 Potential License Q4 2008 11 Bhutan Bhutan Telecom Potential License Dec 2013 12 Brazil CTBC Potential License Q1 2008 13 Brazil Telemar PCS (Oi) Potential License Q1 2008 Algar Telecom Leste Potential License Q1 2008 14 Brazil (Claro) 15 Brazil Telemig Cellular Potential License Q1 2008 16 Brazil Amazonia Celular Potential License Q1 2008 17 Brazil TIM Celular Potential License Q1 2008 52
  • 52. 18 Brazil Sercomtel Celular Potential License Q1 2008 19 Brazil Brasil Telecom Potential License Q1 2008 20 Bulgaria -tba-1 Potential License Q4 2009 21 Chile Entel PCS Potential License Q1 2008 22 Chile SmartCom Potential License Q1 2008 23 Chile Telefonica Moviles Potential License Q1 2008 24 Colombia Comcel Potential License Q1 2008 Telefonica Moviles 25 Colombia (Movistar) Potential License Q1 2008 26 Costa Rica ICE Telefonia Celular Potential License Q1 2008 27 Ecuador Conecel (Porta) Potential License Q1 2008 28 Ecuador Otecel (Movistar) Potential License Q1 2008 29 Egypt -tba-1 Potential License Q4 2007 30 Egypt ECMS Potential License Q4 2007 31 Egypt Vodafone Egypt Potential License Q4 2007 32 Estonia -tba- Potential License Q4 2008 33 France -tba- Potential License Q4 2008 34 Hungary -tba- Potential License Q1 2007 35 Iceland -tba-(1) Potential License Q2 2007 36 Iceland -tba-(2) Potential License Q2 2007 37 India Aircel Potential License Mar 2007 38 India Bharti Televentures Potential License Mar 2007 39 India BPL Cellular Potential License Mar 2007 40 India BSNL Potential License Mar 2007 41 India Dishnet Wireless Potential License Jun 2007 42 India Essar Spacetel Potential License Sep 2007 43 India Idea Cellular Potential License Mar 2007 44 India MTNL Potential License Mar 2007 45 Ireland -tba-(1) Potential License Q2 2007 46 Lithuania Bité Potential License Q3 2007 47 Lithuania Tele2 Potential License Q3 2007 48 Macedonia Cosmofon Potential License Q4 2009 49 Macedonia Mobimak Potential License Q4 2009 50 Malaysia DiGi Potential License Q1 2007 51 Malta -tba- Potential License Q4 2006 52 Mexico Radiomovil Dipsa Potential License Q1 2008 53 Mexico Telefonica Moviles Potential License Q1 2008 54 Mongolia Mobicom Potential License Dec 2009 55 Mongolia Skytel Potential License Dec 2009 56 Montenegro -tba-1 Potential License Q 2007 57 Montenegro Monet Potential License Q4 2007 58 Montenegro ProMonte Potential License Q1 2007 59 Morocco -tba-1 Potential License Q4 2007 60 Morocco -tba-2 Potential License Q4 2007 61 Nepal Nepal Telecom Corp Potential License Mar 2012 62 Nepal Spice Nepal Potential License Sep 2012 63 Pakistan Paktel Potential License Dec 2007 64 Pakistan PMCL Potential License Dec 2007 53
  • 53. 65 Pakistan PTML Potential License Dec 2007 66 Pakistan Telenor Potential License Dec 2007 67 Pakistan Warid Telecom Potential License Dec 2007 68 Peru America Movil - Claro Potential License Q1 2008 69 Philippines -tba- Potential License Mar 2007 70 Philippines Digitel Potential License Jun 2007 71 Philippines Globe Telecom Potential License Mar 2007 72 Philippines Smart Communications Potential License Mar 2007 73 Romania -tba-1 Potential License Q3 2007 74 Romania -tba-2 Potential License Q3 2007 75 Russia -tba-1 Potential License Q1 2007 76 Russia -tba-2 Potential License Q1 2007 77 Russia -tba-3 Potential License Q1 2007 78 Saudi Arabia -tba-1 Potential License Q2 2007 79 Serbia -tba-1 Potential License Q4 2006 80 Singapore -tba-1 Potential License Q1 2009 Slovak 81 Republic -tba-(2) Potential License Q1 2008 82 Slovenia -tba-1 Potential License Q2 2007 83 Slovenia -tba-2 Potential License Q2 2007 84 Sri Lanka Celltel Lanka Potential License Apr 2008 85 Sri Lanka Dialog Telekom Potential License Jan 2008 86 Sri Lanka Hutchison Potential License Sep 2008 87 Sri Lanka Mobitel Potential License Mar 2008 88 Turkey -tba-1 Potential License Q4 2006 89 Turkey -tba-2 Potential License Q4 2006 90 Turkey -tba-3 Potential License Q4 2006 91 Turkey Turkcell Potential License Q2 2007 92 Ukraine -tba- Potential License Q4 2008 93 Uruguay CTI Movil Potential License Dec-07 94 Uruguay Telefonica Moviles Potential License Q1 2008 95 USA T-Mobile Potential License Dec-07 License Revoked/Sold 1 Austria 3G Mobile License Revoked/Sold Q4 2003 2 Denmark Telia Denmark License Revoked/Sold Q4 2004 3 Finland Finnish 3G License Revoked/Sold Q3 2005 4 Germany Group 3G License Revoked/Sold 5 Germany MobilCom Multimedia License Revoked/Sold 6 Luxembourg Orange License Revoked/Sold Q1 2005 7 Norway Broadband Mobile License Revoked/Sold 8 Norway Tele2 Norway License Revoked/Sold 9 Portugal OniWay License Revoked/Sold 10 Slovakia Profinet License Revoked/Sold 11 Sweden Orange Sweden License Revoked/Sold Dec 2004 In Service: Operator has commercially launched its network to both consumer and enterprise market, with handsets available in retail outlets. 54
  • 54. Pre-commercial: Operator has launched limited non-commercial trials, including those with "friendly" users. This includes the recent launch of 3G data cards targeted at the enterprise market by some European operators. Planned/in deployment: Licensee is in planning stages of deploying network or is actually building the network. Trial: Operator is conducting a network trial. This is to be used when the operator has no specific license, but is conducting some sort of network trial. Most cases this is likely to be 3G. License Awarded: License has been awarded, but licensee currently shows no inclination to deploy network or has announced no roll-out. Examples of this include some UMTS operators in Europe. License Revoked/Surrendered: Licensee/operator involuntarily/voluntarily hands back license. Potential License: Small level of speculation. Government policy or privatization process indicates that licensing opportunity may become available 55
  • 55. Appendix C: Global EDGE-UMTS Operator Status & Devices Country Operator EDGE Launch UMTS Launch 1 Australia Telstra June 2006 09/2005 2 Austria Mobilkom Austria 06/2005 04/2003 3 Bahrain MTC Vodafone 01/2004 12/2003 4 Belgium Mobistar 12/2005 Q3/2006 5 Belgium BASE (Orange) Q2/2006 Q1/2006 6 Belgium Belgacom Mobile (Proximus) 12/2005 09/2005 7 Brunei DST 12/2004 Q1/2007 8 Bulgaria MobilTel 03/2005 09/ 05 9 Cambodia CamGSM (Mobitel) Q4 2006 1H 2006 10 Canada Rogers Wireless 06/2004 2006 11 Croatia T-Mobile Croatia 06/2004 Q1 2006 12 Croatia VIPNet 04/2004 11/2005 13 Cyprus Areeba / Scancom 2006 10/2005 14 Czech Republic EuroTel Praha 03/2005 12/2005 15 Czech Republic Oskar Mobil 03/2005 Q3 2007 16 Czech Republic T-Mobile 11/2004 Q1 2007 17 Denmark Sonofon EDGE-Capable Q4 2006 18 Denmark Telia Denmark 12/2005 01/2006 19 Estonia EMT 06/2004 10/2005 20 Finland Alands Mobiltelefon 03/2005 Q2 2006 21 Finland DNA Finland 12/2005 12/2005 22 Finland Elisa 11/2004 11/2004 23 Finland TeliaSonera 12/2003 10/2004 24 France Bouygues Telecom 05/2005 Q1/2007 25 France Orange 04/2005 12/2004 26 France SFR 11/2005 11/2004 27 Germany T-Mobile Mar 2006 May 2004 28 Greece STET Hellas (TIM) 2006 01/2004 29 Hong Kong CSL 09/2003 12/2004 30 Hong Kong Sunday Trial 06/2005 31 Hungary Pannon GSM 02/2005 10/2005 32 Hungary T-Mobile 10/2003 08/2005 33 India BSNL 09/2005 Mar 2007 34 India Dishnet Wireless 12/2005 Jun 2007 35 India Hutchison Max 07/2004 Mar 2007 36 India Idea Cellular 07/2004 Mar 2007 37 Indonesia Telkomsel 02/2004 Jun 2006 38 Israel Cellcom 06/2004 06/2004 39 Italy TIM 05/2004 05/2004 40 Italy Wind Jun 2006 10/2004 41 Kuwait Wataniya 08/2005 03/2006 42 Latvia Bité 10/2005 Q2 2006 43 Latvia LMT 06/2005 12/2004 44 Libya El Madar Telephone Company Planned Q1 2006 45 Libya GPTC Q1 2006 Q1 2006 46 Lithuania Bité Dec 2003 Q3 2006 47 Lithuania Omnitel Aug 2004 Q4 2006 48 Malaysia Maxis EDGE-Capable 07/2005 49 Netherlands Telfort 04/2005 Q4 2005 50 Norway Netcom 12/2004 06/2005 51 Norway Telenor Mobile 09/2004 12/2004 52 Oman Nawras 06/2005 Q3/2006 53 Philippines GLOBE 03/2004 05/2006 54 Philippines SMART 02/2004 05/2006 55 Poland Polkomtel/Plus GSM 01/2005 11/2004 56
  • 56. Country Operator EDGE Launch UMTS Launch 56 Poland Era 03/2004 Q4 2006 57 Poland Orange (Centertel) 10/2004 Q1 2006 58 Romania Orange Romania 10/2004 Q2 2006 59 Saudi Arabia Mobily (etihad Etisalat Company) 04/2005 Q1 2006 60 Slovak Republic T-Mobile Slovensko 04/2005 Q4 2006 61 Slovak Republic Orange Slovensko 01/2005 Q1 2005 62 South Africa MTN 04/2005 06/2005 63 South Africa Vodacom 11/2004 12/2004 64 Sweden TeliaSonera 01/2005 03/2004 65 Switzerland Swisscom Mobile 03/2005 12/2004 66 Switzerland TDC (Sunrise) 12/2005 12/2005 67 Thailand AIS 10/2003 Dec 2006 68 UK Orange 01/2006 12/2004 69 USA Cingular 06/2003 06/2004 70 USA T-Mobile 09/2005 2007 71 Vietnam Mobifone June 2006 Trial 57
  • 57. Appendix D: Global HSDPA Operator Status & Devices HSDPA Deployments 41 in 31 Informa Telecoms & Media IN SERVICE countries World Cellular Information Service COMMITMENTS 103 July 7, 2006 Networks in service (in red) ( * = data cards only) Country Operator Status Start date 1 Australia 3 Australia/Hutchison 3G In Deployment 2007 2 Australia Optus Planned 2007 3 Australia Telstra In Deployment Sep 2006 4 Australia Vodafone Planned Dec 2006 5 Austria 3 Austria/ Hutchison 3G Planned Dec 2006 6 Austria Connect Austria (ONE) Planned Dec 2006 7 Austria Mobilkom Austria * In Service Jan 2006 8 Austria T-Mobile * In Service Mar 2006 9 Austria Tele.ring In Deployment Dec 2006 10 Bahrain MTC Vodofone In Service May 2006 11 Belgium Mobistar In Deployment Sept 2006 June 12 Belgium Proximus In Service 2006 13 Bulgaria Mobiltel In Service Mar 2006 14 Canada Rogers In Deployment Q4 2006 15 China China Mobile In Trial 2007 16 Croatia VIPNET In Service Apr 2006 17 Czech Republic Eurotel Praha In Service Apr 2006 18 Czech Republic T-Mobile Planned 2007 19 Czech Republic Vodafone Czech (Oskar) Planned 2007 20 Denmark 3 Denmark In Deployment 2006 21 Estonia Elisa In Trial Q4 2006 22 Estonia EMT In Service April 2006 23 Finland Elisa In Service April 2006 24 Finland Finnet/ Finnish 2G In Deployment Mar 2007 25 France Bouygues Planned 1H 2007 26 France Orange In Trial Mid-2006 27 France SFR In Service May 2006 28 Germany E-Plus Planned Dec 2006 29 Germany O2 In Deployment Dec 2006 30 Germany T-Mobile * In Service Mar 2006 31 Germany Vodafone * In Service Mar 2006 32 Greece Cosmote (data card) In Service Jun 2006 33 Guernsey Cable & Wireless In Deployment 2007 34 Hong Kong CSL In Deployment 2H 2006 35 Hong Kong 3HK In Deployment Q3 2006 June 36 Hong Kong Smartone/Vodafone In Service 2006 37 Hong Kong Sunday In Deployment Jun 2006 38 Hungary Pannon In Deployment Mar 2007 39 Hungary T-Mobile (Budapest) In Service May 2006 40 Hungary Vodafone In Trial 2007 41 Ireland O2 In Deployment Sep 2006 42 Ireland Vodafone In Deployment Dec 2006 58
  • 58. Start Country Operator Status Date 43 Isle of Man Manx Telecom In Service Nov 2005 44 Israel Cellcom Israel Planned 1H 2006 45 Israel Partner Comm. (Orange) In Service Apr 2006 June 46 Italy H3G (data cards only) In Service 2006 47 Italy TIM In Service May 2006 48 Italy Vodafone Omnitel In Service Jun 2006 49 Japan BB Mobile In Deployment 2007 50 Japan eMobile Planned Mar 2007 51 Japan NTT DoCoMo In Deployment Q3 2006 52 Japan Vodafone Planned 2H 2006 53 Jersey Cable & Wireless In Deployment 2007 54 Korea KTF In Service Jun 2006 SK Telecom 3G+ 55 Korea st (1 commercial network with In Service May 2006 HSDPA handheld devices) 56 Kuwait Wataniya Telecom In Service Feb 2006 57 Latvia Bité In Deployment Dec 2006 58 Lithuania Bité In Service Jun 2006 59 Lithuania Omnitel In Trial Dec 2007 60 Malaysia Celcom In Service Jun 2006 61 Malaysia Maxis Communications In Deployment 2006 62 Malaysia Time dotCom Bhd In Trial 2007 63 Mexico Telcel In Deployment 2007 64 Netherlands KPN In Deployment Dec 2006 65 Netherlands Telfort In Deployment Dec 2006 66 Netherlands T-Mobile In Service Apr 2006 67 New Zealand Vodafone In Deployment 2006 68 Philippines GLOBE Telecom In Service Mar 2006 69 Philippines SMART Communications In Service April 2006 70 Poland Polkomtel Planned 2006 71 Poland Polska Telefonia Cyfrowa In Deployment 2006 72 Portugal Optimus * In Service Mar 2006 73 Portugal TMN In Service Apr 2006 74 Portugal Vodafone Telecel In Service Mar 2006 75 Qatar Q-Tel Planned Mar 2007 76 Romania Vodafone (Connex) In Service May 2006 77 Romania Orange Romania In Deployment 2007 78 Saudia Arabia Mobily In Service Jun 2006 79 Saudi Arabia STC / Al Jawwal In Service May 2006 80 Singapore MobileOne Planned Dec 2006 81 Slovak Republic Orange In Trial 2006 82 Slovenia Mobitel In Deployment Jun 2007 83 South Africa MTN In Service Mar 2006 84 South Africa Vodacom In Service Apr 2006 85 Spain Amena/ Orange In Service Jun 2006 86 Spain Vodafone España Pilot network Dec 2006 87 Spain Telefonica Moviles Planned Dec 2006 88 Sweden H3G In Deployment Dec 2006 89 Sweden Svenska UMTS-Nät Planned Dec 2006 90 Switzerland Orange Planned Dec 2006 91 Switzerland Sunrise In Trial Q2 2006 59
  • 59. Start Country Operator Status Date 92 Switzerland Swisscom Mobile In Service Mar 2006 93 Taiwan Taiwan Mobile Planned Dec 2006 94 Taiwan VIBO Planned Mar 2007 95 Tanzania Vodacom Planned Dec 2006 96 UAE Etilisat In Service April 2006 97 UK 3 UK / Hutchison In Deployment Sep 2006 98 UK O2 In Deployment Sep 2006 99 UK Orange Planned Dec 2006 100 UK T-Mobile In Deployment Aug 2006 101 UK Vodafone In Deployment Sep 2006 102 USA Cingular Wireless In Service Nov 2005 103 USA EDGE Wireless In Trial 2007 Source: Informa Telecoms & Media, World Cellular Information Service and public announcements HSDPA Devices PC DATA CARDS: Huawei: HSDPA E620 PC card GSM/EDGE 900/1800/1900 UMTS/HSDPA Motorola: D1100 PC card GSM/GPRS/UMTS/HSDPA Novatel Wireless: PC card devices backward compatible with 850/900/1800/1900 MHz GSM/GPRS/EDGE: - Merlin U730: 850/1900 MHz UMTS/HSDPA (North America) – - Merlin U740: 2100 MHz UMTS/HSDPA (Asia, Africa, Europe, Middle East) - Merlin U870: 850/900/2100 MHz (North America & Europe) PCI Express Mini Card modems for laptops and wireless broadband devices, backward compatible with 850/900/1800/1900 MHz GSM/GPRS/EDGE – in development phase, availability pending: - Expedite EU730: 850/1900 MHz UMTS/HSDPA (North America) - Expedite EU740: 2100 MHz UMTS/HSDPA (Asia, Africa, Europe, Middle East) - Dell Wireless 5510 ExpressCard for Cingular networks (available August 06) - Panasonic® Toughbook® Convertible Tablet PC with embedded Novatel Wireless Expedite EU730 Module Option: PC cards - Globetrotter GT MAX: 850/1900/2100 Multi-mode HSDPA/UMTS/EDGE/GPRS/GSM - GlobeTrotter HSDPA: 850/900/1800/1900/2100 MHz EDGE-UMTS-HSDPA for North America and EMEA; shipping now - GlobeTrotter 3G EDGE: 850/900/1800/1900/2100 MHz EDGE-UMTS-HSDPA-ready, available now - GlobeTrotter FUSION+: HSDPA-ready-850/900/1800/1900/2100 MHz EDGE-UMTS-Wi-Fi 802.11G-; available now - GlobeTrotter FUSION+ HSDPA: Multimode WLAN/HSDPA/UMTS/EDGE/GPRS/GSM 850/900/1800/1900 - GTM351E PCI Express Mini Card module for laptops: 850/900/1800/1900 EDGE-UMTS-HSDPA-WWAN; to ship in H1 2006 Siemens: - DC10: GSM/EDGE 850/900/1800/1900/UMTS/HSDPA 2100 Available H2 2005 - CD16 GSM/EDGE 850/900/1800/1900/UMTS/HSDPA 850/1900 Available H2 2005 Sierra Wireless: both PC cards available now - AirCard 850: 850/900/1800/1900/2100 EDGE-UMTS-HSDPA (Europe) - AirCard 860: 850/900/1800/1900 EDGE-UMTS-HSDPA (North America) - AirCard 875: 850/900/1800/1900/GPRS/EDGE 800/1900/2100 UMTS/HSDPA (Global) - MC8755 PCI Express Mini Cards 2100 MHz for use on HSDPA capable networks (Europe and Asia) - MC8765 PCI Express Mini Card 850/1900 MHz (North America) Available 2006 60
  • 60. - MC8775 PCI Express Mini Card HSDPA/UMTS 850/1900/2100 and EDGE/GPRS quad-band - MC8775V PCI Express mini Card – same as above but supports simultaneous voice & data ZTE Corporation: (China) MF330 data card scheduled for commercial availability 2006 HANDSETS BenQ-Siemens Mobile: - EF91 –GSM 900/1800/1900 UMTS HSDPA 2100 slated for commercial availability around June 2006 Fujitsu Ltd/Motorola/NEC Corp: - Developed for NTT CoDoMo Inc. -prototypes shown at 3GSM World Congreso Feb 06 LG Electronics: - GSM/ UMTS/ HSDPA device slated for commercial availability in 2006 - LG KU730 GSM/EDGE 900/1800/1900/UMTS HSDPA 2100 - LG SH100 and LGKH1000 (SK Telecom and KFT only) handset for video calls - LG CU500 GSM/EDGE 850/900/1800/1900 UMTS – HSDPA 850 Cingular Wireless NTT DoCoMo: N902iX Qtek: - Qtek S300 GSM EDGE 850 900/1800/1900 UMTS HSDPA 850 1900 2100 - Qtek 9600 GSM/EDGE/850/900/1800/1900 UMTS HSDPA 210 / WLAN Available July 2006 Samsung Electronics: - SGH-zx20: Quad-band GSM 850/1900/2100 for global and Cingular networks –Available now - SGH-Z560: GSM/EDGE 900/1800/1900 UMTS HSDPA 2100 Available 2Q 2006 - ZX20 850/900/1800/1900 MHz handset, planned availability in Q2 2006 - SCH-W200 and SPH-W2100 terrestrial DMB (digital multimedia broadcasting) HSDPA handset through KTF. MODEMS, ROUTERS and other access devices - Huawei E220 USB modem: GPRS/EDGE/UMTS/HSDPA external mini USB interface - GlobeSurfer ICON : quad band GSM/EDGE/UMTS/HSDPA 2100 – USB connector - GlobeSurfer 3G HSDPA Wireless Broadband Router: EDGE/UMTS/HSDPA 802.11 & Ethernet - Novamedia: launch2net® for Mac OS X - mobile data connecting software - ZadaCOM 3G+ ( GSM/GPRS/EDGE/UMTS/HSDPA (EMEA+North America) available now INTEGRATED LAPTOPS Acer: TravelMate 4260, Aspire 5650 upgradeable to HSDPA Dell: Dell Wireless 5505 Mobile Broadband 3G HSDPA card available in the U.K. June 2006 Fujitsu Siemens Computers: Lifebook Q2010 notebook equipped with 3G, HSDPA and WLAN (for T-Mobile networks) HP: April 06 announced global wireless for notebook PCs (UMTS/HSDPA for Cingular networks) Lenovo: ThinkPad Z60, T60, X60 laptops to incorporate HSDPA Panasonic: -Panasonic® Toughbook® Convertible Tablet PC with embedded Novatel Wireless Expedite EU730 Module (Available on Cingular BroadbandConnect and Compatible Global Networks – June 2006) Vendors A growing number of manufacturers and software providers support HSDPA. Acer Lucent Technologies Aeroflex Motorola Agere Systems NEC Agilent Technologies Nokia Alcatel Nortel Networks 61
  • 61. Analog Devices Novatel Wireless Andrew Corporation Option Anritsu Solution Panasonic Argogroup picoChip BenQ Qualcomm Broadcom Radioplan Cellular3G Rohde & Schwarz Dell Samsung Dovado Sanyo Elan Digital Systems Sharp Ericsson Siemens Fairchild Seminconductor Sierra Wireless Freescale Semiconductor Sirific Wireless Fujitsu Spirent Technologies HP Sony Ericsson Huawei Texas Instruments Icera TriQuint SemiConductor Infineon Technologies TTPCom InterDigital Communications UbiNetics IPWireless ZADAKO Lenovo ZTE Corporation LG Electronics N.B.: This list is representative of some of the many companies that are supporting HSDPA, and may not be a fully comprehensive listing of HSDPA vendors. Should you wish to add your company to the list, please send an email to 62
  • 62. Acknowledgments The mission of 3G Americas is to promote and facilitate the seamless deployment throughout the Americas of GSM and its evolution to 3G and beyond. 3G Americas' Board of Governor members include Andrew Corporation, Cingular Wireless (USA), Cable & Wireless (West Indies), Ericsson, Gemalto, HP, Lucent Technologies, Motorola, Nokia, Nortel Networks, Openwave Systems, Research In Motion, Rogers Wireless (Canada), Siemens, T-Mobile USA, Telcel (Mexico), Telefonica and Texas Instruments. We would like to recognize the significant project leadership and important contributions of Jim Seymour of Lucent Technologies and Petter Blomberg of Ericsson as well as the other member companies from 3G Americas’ Board of Governors who participated in the development of this white paper: Andrew Corporation, Cingular Wireless, Ericsson, Gemalto, Hewlett-Packard, Lucent Technologies, Motorola, Nokia, Nortel, and Siemens. 63