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    • Project P809 Mobility in the Broadband Environment based on IN Evolution Deliverable 1 Broadband mobile multimedia requirements Suggested readers: • Strategic and Network Planners in EURESCOM Shareholder companies • Technical Experts in the Mobility, IP, IN & B-ISDN areas • Appropriate Standards groups For full publication June 1998
    • EURESCOM PARTICIPANTS in Project P809 are: • BT • Deutsche Telekom AG • FINNET Group • France Télécom • Portugal Telecom S.A. • Swisscom AG • Tele Danmark A/S • Telecom Eireann • TELECOM ITALIA S.p.a. • Telefónica S.A. This document contains material which is the copyright of certain EURESCOM PARTICIPANTS, and may not be reproduced or copied without permission. All PARTICIPANTS have agreed to full publication of this document. The commercial use of any information contained in this document may require a license from the proprietor of that information. Neither the PARTICIPANTS nor EURESCOM warrant that the information contained in the report is capable of use, or that use of the information is free from risk, and accept no liability for loss or damage suffered by any person using this information. This document has been approved by EURESCOM Board of Governors for distribution to all EURESCOM Shareholders. © 1998 EURESCOM Participants in Project P809
    • Deliverable 1 Broadband mobile multimedia requirements Preface (Prepared by the EURESCOM Permanent Staff) EURESCOM Project P809 was started in January 1998 with the main objective of enabling broadband networks, using IN, to support all forms of mobility. The Project will run until May 1999 and there are 10 companies participating in the Project – Finnet Group, BT, Swisscom, Tele Danmark, Deutsche Telekom, France Télécom, CSELT, Portugal Telecom, Telefónica and Telecom Eireann. The planned size of the Project is 15.6 man-years over 15 months. France Télécom is the Project leader. This Deliverable is the first from the Project and it contains descriptions of typical benchmark services that are relevant for broadband mobile multimedia services. In particular it identifies the new mobility requirements of broadband multimedia services on the basis of the GMM framework and existing mobility services in the narrowband environment. The requirements arising from the management of fixed- mobile convergence are also considered. This Deliverable gives a good overview of the sort of Broadband multimedia service that is likely to emerge and the demands these services will put on the Intelligent Network to provide these services while supporting terminal and personal mobility. The second Deliverable from the Project will be published in December 1998 and it will describe an architecture that will support the Broadband mobile multimedia services using IN. The third Deliverable of the Project will be published in April 1998 and it will contain an Evolution Strategy for achieving broadband multimedia mobility evolving from today’s networks. © 1998 EURESCOM Participants in Project P809 page i (xiv)
    • Broadband mobile multimedia requirements Deliverable 1 page ii (xiv) © 1998 EURESCOM Participants in Project P809
    • Deliverable 1 Broadband mobile multimedia requirements Executive Summary This Deliverable is the first produced by EURESCOM P809 Mobility in the Broadband Environment based on IN Evolution. It identifies the requirements for broadband mobile multimedia and is the foundation for the future work of the Project. The title of the Deliverable Broadband Mobile Multimedia Requirements requires some explanation: • The term Broadband is used in a wider sense than the formal ITU definition and is taken to include Wideband mobile technologies such as UMTS and IMT-2000 as well as technologies like ETSI BRAN. • The term Mobile is understood to include: • Personal Mobility: i.e., the ability of a user to access telecommunication services at any terminal on the basis of a personal telecommunications identifier, and the capability of the network to provide those services according to the user’s service profile; • Terminal Mobility: i.e., the ability of a terminal to access telecommunication services from different locations and while in motion, and the capability of the network to identify and locate that terminal or the associated user; • Roaming: i.e., the ability of a user to access wireless telecommunication services in areas other than the one where subscribed; • the Virtual Home Environment: i.e., the roaming user is presented with the same look and feel for services which is independent of location. • The term Multimedia denotes interchanged information consisting of more than one type, e.g., video, data, voice, graphics. It is understood that a multimedia service may involve multiple parties, multiple connections, and the addition/deletion of resources/users within a single communication session. Again the scope is broad, and includes services which could use circuit transfer and packet transfer modes. From the perspective of multimedia mobility, the most significant standardisation item in the foreseeable future will be the Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS). This is planned as a multi-function mobile system with wideband multimedia capabilities. From the European perspective, UMTS is planned as the European member of the ITU IMT-2000 family concept. From the world perspective, UMTS is considered as the natural upgrade path for the 239 GSM networks operated in 109 countries, which currently represent one third of the world's total market for wireless communications. At the present time, UMTS is standardised by ETSI and the globalisation of this work is overseen by a steering committee consisting of representatives of ETSI (including FMC), the GSM MoU and the UMTS Forum. With regard to services, the Deliverable identifies requirements and selected items which are representative of the different categories of application. In dealing with mobility aspects, the aim has been to mobilise fixed network services rather than address location-dependent applications, as such. Fixed Mobile Convergence will be an important issue for multimedia service provision. Convergence can occur at various levels, with the potential for a common telecommunications infrastructure supporting both mobile and fixed subscribers. In terms of structure, the Deliverable proceeds from business requirements identified by the P809 partners, to describe the service requirements and typical benchmark © 1998 EURESCOM Participants in Project P809 page iii (xiv)
    • Broadband mobile multimedia requirements Deliverable 1 services. Mobility requirements are subsequently presented and reference points are identified. This is followed by the requirements for Fixed Mobile Convergence. page iv (xiv) © 1998 EURESCOM Participants in Project P809
    • Deliverable 1 Broadband mobile multimedia requirements List of Authors Harri Hansén FINNET Group Mikko Laitinen FINNET Group Chris Fenton BT Paul Glennon BT Geoff Richman BT Nick Weinhold BT John Charles Francis Swisscom Christoph Mäder Swisscom Astrid Wilcken Tele Danmark Claudine Guedj France Télécom Rached Hazem France Télécom Gaetano Morena CSELT Ignacio Berberana Telefónica Gaspar Moreno Telefónica Bartolomé Salas-Manzanedo Telefónica Richard Collins Telecom Eireann © 1998 EURESCOM Participants in Project P809 page v (xiv)
    • Broadband mobile multimedia requirements Deliverable 1 Table of Contents Preface...........................................................................................................................................i Executive Summary....................................................................................................................iii List of Authors..............................................................................................................................v Table of Contents........................................................................................................................vi List of Figures............................................................................................................................vii Glossary of Acronyms..............................................................................................................viii Glossary of Terms.......................................................................................................................ix 1 Introduction...............................................................................................................................1 2 Business Requirements from Network Operators....................................................................3 3 Service Aspects.........................................................................................................................5 3.1 Quality of Service Considerations.....................................................................................5 3.2 Service Principles (UMTS 22.01)......................................................................................6 3.3 Typical Benchmark Services/Applications.......................................................................7 3.3.1 Multisource Retrieval Service (Enhanced World Wide Web)...................................7 3.3.2 Multimedia Messaging Service...................................................................................8 3.3.3 Broadband Video Conference Service........................................................................8 3.3.4 Video on Demand Service..........................................................................................9 3.3.5 Distributed TV Service ............................................................................................10 3.3.6 Broadband Virtual Private Network Service ...........................................................10 4 Mobility Aspects.....................................................................................................................13 4.1 Security.............................................................................................................................13 4.2 Personal Mobility.............................................................................................................13 4.3 Terminal Mobility............................................................................................................13 4.4 Roaming...........................................................................................................................15 4.5 Virtual Home Environment..............................................................................................16 4.6 Access Aspects.................................................................................................................17 4.7 Mobility Management Procedures...................................................................................17 4.8 Route Optimisation During Call Handling......................................................................18 5 Identified Reference Points.....................................................................................................19 5.1 Global Multimedia Mobility Architectural Framework .................................................19 5.2 UMTS Role Models.........................................................................................................20 6 Fixed Mobile Convergence (FMC).........................................................................................21 6.1 Relationship Between Fixed and Mobile Networks........................................................21 6.2 FMC Requirements Within P809 ....................................................................................22 6.2.1 User and Terminal Requirements.............................................................................22 6.2.2 Service Convergence Requirements.........................................................................22 6.2.3 Network Convergence Requirements.......................................................................23 References..................................................................................................................................24 page vi (xiv) © 1998 EURESCOM Participants in Project P809
    • Deliverable 1 Broadband mobile multimedia requirements List of Figures Figure 1: Classification of Broadband Services.......................................................................xiii Table 1. Business Requirements for Broadband Mobile Multimedia.........................................4 Figure 2: UMTS Service Principles Role Model (UMTS 22.01)................................................7 Figure 3: UMTS Roaming / Mobility Aspects Role Model (TG.25)........................................16 Figure 4: GMM Architectural Framework................................................................................19 Figure 5: Home Mobility Provider in the Role of Network Operator......................................20 Figure 6: Home Mobility Provider in the Role of Service Provider.........................................20 © 1998 EURESCOM Participants in Project P809 page vii (xiv)
    • Broadband mobile multimedia requirements Deliverable 1 Glossary of Acronyms 2G Second Generation Mobile System (e.g. GSM, DECT) 3G Third Generation Mobile System (e.g. UMTS) API Application Programming Interface BRAN Broadband Radio Access Network EII European Information Infrastructure ETSI European Telecommunications Standards Institute FMC Fixed Mobile Convergence GII Global Information Infrastructure GMM Global Multimedia Mobility GSM Global System for Mobile communications GSM MoU GSM Memorandum of Understanding (Association of GSM operators) ISDN Integrated Services Digital Network Iu Interface between the UMTS access and core networks HDTV High Definition TV IN Intelligent Network ITU International Telecommunication Union MPEG Motion Picture Expert Group PC Personal Computer PIN Personal Identification Number PSTN Public Switched Telephone Network QoS Quality of Service STB Set-Top Box UMTS Universal Mobile Telecommunications System SIM Subscriber Identity Module UTRAN UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network VHE Virtual Home Environment VoD Video on Demand VPN Virtual Private Network WWW World Wide Web page viii (xiv) © 1998 EURESCOM Participants in Project P809
    • Deliverable 1 Broadband mobile multimedia requirements Glossary of Terms Authentication: A property by which the correct identity of an entity or party is established with a required assurance. The party being authenticated could be a user, subscriber, service provider or network operator [UMTS 22.01]. Base station: The common name for all radio equipment located at one and the same place used for serving one or several cells [UMTS Forum]. Call: The use, or possible use, of one or more connections set up between two or more users and/or services [UMTS Forum]. Capability: The ability of an item to meet a service demand of given quantitative characteristics under given internal conditions [UMTS Forum]. Cell: The radio coverage area of a satellite spot beam or a base station, or of a subsystem (e.g. sector antenna) of that base station corresponding to a specific logical identification on the radio path, whichever is smaller. Notes: 1) Every mobile station in a cell may be reached by the corresponding radio equipment. 2) The radio coverage area of a satellite spot beam or a base station, or of a subsystem (e.g. sector antenna) of that base station corresponding to a specific logical identification on the radio path, whichever is smaller [UMTS Forum]. Charging: A function, whereby information is gathered, recorded or transferred in order to make it possible to determine and to collate usage for which the subscriber may be billed [UMTS Forum]. Circuit transfer mode: A transfer mode in which transmission and switching functions are achieved by permanent or quasi-permanent allocation of channels, bandwidth or codes between identified points of a connection [UMTS Forum]. Connectionless service: A service which allows the transfer of information among users without the need for end-to-end call establishment. Connectionless services may be used to support both interactive and distribution services [UMTS Forum]. Conversational services: Conversational services in general provide the means for bi-directional communication with real-time (no store-and-forward) end-to-end information transfer from user to user or between user and host (e.g. for data processing). The flow of the user information may be bi-directional symmetric, bi- directional asymmetric and in some specific cases (e.g. such as video surveillance), the flow of information may be unidirectional. The information is generated by the sending user or users, and is dedicated to one or more of the communication partners at the receiving site. Examples of broadband conversational services are videotelephony, video conference and high speed data transmission [ITU-T I.211]. Distribution services with user individual presentation control: Services of this class distribute information from a central source to a large number of users. However, the information is provided as a sequence of information entities (e.g. frames) with cyclical repetition. So, the user has the ability of individual access to the cyclical distributed information and can control start and order of presentation. Due to the cyclical repetition, the information entities selected by the user will always be presented from the beginning. One example of such a service is full channel broadcast videography [ITU-T I.211]. Distribution services without user individual presentation control: These services include broadcast services. They provide a continuous flow of information which is distributed from a central source to an unlimited number of authorised receivers connected to the network. The user can access this flow of information without the ability to determine at which instant the distribution of a string of information will be © 1998 EURESCOM Participants in Project P809 page ix (xiv)
    • Broadband mobile multimedia requirements Deliverable 1 started. The user cannot control the start and order of the presentation of the broadcasted information. Depending on the point of time of the user’s access, the information will not be presented from the beginning. Examples are broadcast services for television and audio programmes [ITU-T I.211]. E.164 number: a number conforming to the numbering plan and structure specified in ITU-T Recommendation E.164 [ITU-T E.164]. Encryption: A function used to transform data so as to hide its information content to prevent its unauthorised use [UMTS Forum]. Fixed network service: A service with a set of capabilities that allows service profile management but not any type of mobility [UMTS Forum]. Handover: The action of switching a call in progress from one cell to another (intercell) or between radio channels in the same cell (intracell) without interruption of the call. Note: Handover is used to allow established calls to continue when mobile stations move from one cell to another (or as a method to minimise co-channel interference) [UMTS Forum]. Home Environment: In 3rd Generation mobile systems, this denotes the expression of the overall picture of service presentation, service access and service handling procedures as seen by the user and as indirectly specified in the associated subscription. It has the background of one or more 3G networks that form the permanent technical basis for the respective service provision. It replaces the term "home network" in 2G system [TG.21]. IMT 2000: International Mobile Telecommunication 2000. FPLMTS/IMT-2000: Those systems which conform to the corresponding series of ITU Recommendations and Radio Regulations [UMTS Forum]. Integration: The act or an instance of forming, co-ordinating, or blending into a functioning or unified whole [UMTS Forum]. Intelligent network: A telecommunication network based on an architecture that provides flexibility for facilitating the introduction of new capabilities and services, including those under customer control [UMTS Forum]. Interactive service: A service which provides the means for the bi-directional exchange of information between users or between users and hosts [UMTS Forum]. Interoperability: The ability of multiple entities in different networks or systems to operate together without the need for additional conversion or mapping of states and protocols [UMTS Forum]. Interworking: The means of supporting communications and interactions between entities in different networks or systems [UMTS Forum]. Location service: A particular mobility service in which location information can be provided to authorised users or to relevant authorities in case of emergency calls or for vehicular traffic management [UMTS Forum]. Macro cells: Cells with a large cell radius, typically several tens of km. Notes: 1) The radius of a cell can be extended by the use of directional antennas. 2) Macro cells are characterised by low-to-medium traffic density, support for moderate mobile station speeds and narrow band services. 3) A typical macro cell may be situated in a rural or suburban environment with moderate building blockage, and, depending on terrain, significant foliage blockage [UMTS Forum]. Mega (satellite) cells: Cells which provide coverage to large areas and are particularly useful for remote areas with low traffic density. Due to their size, mega page x (xiv) © 1998 EURESCOM Participants in Project P809
    • Deliverable 1 Broadband mobile multimedia requirements cells will provide coverage in many kinds of environment from remote to urban, in areas without access to terrestrial communications networks and in developing countries (even in urban areas) where this may be the only type of cell available. Note: Currently satellites can only practically provide mega cell coverage (the term “satellite cell” is sometimes used interchangeably with mega cell); however, it may be possible in the future for satellites to provide macro cell coverage [UMTS Forum]. Micro cells: Cells with low antenna sites, predominantly in urban areas, with a typical cell radius of up to 1 km. Notes: 1) Micro cells are characterised by medium- to-high traffic density, low mobile station speeds and narrow band services. 2) Blockage by man-made structures may be significant in a micro cell environment [UMTS Forum]. Migration: Movement of users and/or service delivery from existing telecommunication networks to new networks [UMTS Forum]. Mobile service: A service with a set of capabilities that allows some combination of terminal mobility and service profile management [UMTS Forum]. Mobile station: A station in the mobile service intended to be used while in motion or during halts at unspecified points [UMTS Forum]. Mobility: the ability for the user to communicate whilst moving independent of location [UMTS 22.01]. Mobility manager: A repository of information and its associated processes accessed by personal mobility management or terminal mobility management. Notes: 1) A mobility manager is used for location management, terminal registration and personal registration. 2) A mobility manager is a functional concept which may be implemented in different ways, for example, as a database or in a signalling transfer point [UMTS Forum]. Multi-band terminal: Terminal equipment with the capability of accessing services using different frequency bands [UMTS Forum]. Multimedia service: A service in which the interchanged information consists of more than one type (e.g. video, data, voice, graphics). Notes: 1) Multimedia services have multivalued attributes which distinguish them from traditional telecommunication services such as voice or data. 2) A multimedia service may involve multiple parties, multiple connections, the addition/deletion of resources and users within a single communication session [UMTS Forum]. Muti-mode terminal: Terminal equipment with the capability of accessing services using different radio interfaces and/or techniques [UMTS Forum]. Network: A set of nodes and links that provides connections between two or more defined points to facilitate telecommunications between them [UMTS Forum]. Network architecture: A network configuration which identifies and defines physical entities and physical interfaces between these physical entities [UMTS Forum]. Network operator: A provider of network capabilities needed to support the services offered to subscribers [UMTS Forum]. Packet transfer mode: A transfer mode in which the transmission and switching functions are achieved by packet oriented techniques, so as to dynamically share network transmission and switching resources between a multiplicity of connections [UMTS Forum]. © 1998 EURESCOM Participants in Project P809 page xi (xiv)
    • Broadband mobile multimedia requirements Deliverable 1 Personal mobility: The ability of a user to access telecommunication services at any terminal on the basis of a personal telecommunications identifier, and the capability of the network to provide those services according to the user’s service profile. Notes: 1) Personal mobility involves the network capability to locate the terminal associated with the user for the purposes of addressing, routing, and charging of the user’s calls. 2) The word access is intended to convey the concepts of both originating and terminating services. Management of the service profile by a user is not part of personal mobility [UMTS Forum]. Pico cells: Small cells with a typical cell radius of less than 50 m that are predominantly situated indoors. Note: Pico cells are characterised by medium to high traffic density support for mobile low speed stations and wide band services [UMTS Forum]. Privacy: The right of individuals to control or influence what information related to them may be collected and stored and by whom and to whom the information may be disclosed [UMTS Forum]. Private service provider: A service provider which offers services to a closed group of subscribers, i.e. not to the general public [UMTS Forum]. Public: An attribute for services and networks accessible to everyone that wants to subscribe [UMTS Forum]. Public network operator: A provider of the network capabilities needed to support the services offered to the general public [UMTS Forum]. Public service provider: A service provider which offers services to the general public [UMTS Forum]. Quality of service: The collective effect of service performance which determine the degree of satisfaction of a user of a service. It is characterised by the combined aspects of performance factors applicable to all services, such as: service operability performance, service accessibility performance, service integrity performance; and other factors specific to each service [UMTS Forum]. Retrieval services: The user of retrieval services can retrieve information stored in information centres provided for public use. This information will be sent to the user on his demand only. The information can be retrieved on an individual basis. Moreover, the time at which an information sequence is to start is under the control of the user. Examples are broadband retrieval services for film, high resolution image, audio information, and archival information [ITU-T I.211]. Roaming: The ability of a user to access wireless telecommunication services in areas other than the one(s) where the user is subscribed [UMTS Forum]. Security: The protection of information availability, integrity and confidentiality [UMTS Forum]. Service: A set of functions offered to a user by an organisation [UMTS Forum]. Service classes: Depending on the different forms of the future broadband communication and their applications, two main service categories have been identified: interactive services and distribution services. The interactive services are subdivided into three classes of services, viz., the conversational services, the messaging services, and the retrieval services. The distribution services are represented by the class of distribution services without user individual presentation control and the class of distribution services with user individual presentation control (see Figure 1) [ITU-T I.211]. page xii (xiv) © 1998 EURESCOM Participants in Project P809
    • Deliverable 1 Broadband mobile multimedia requirements Interactive services Conversational services Messaging services Retrieval services Distribution services Distribution services without user individual presentation control Distribution services with user individual presentation control Figure 1: Classification of Broadband Services Service profile: A record containing information related to a user in order to provide that user with a defined set of services [UMTS Forum]. Service provider: A person or another entity that has the overall responsibility for the provision of a service or a set of services to the users and for negotiating network capabilities associated with the service(s) he/she provides [UMTS Forum]. Terminal: The equipment which interfaces the end user with a network [UMTS Forum]. Terminal mobility: The ability of a terminal to access telecommunication services from different locations and while in motion, and the capability of the network to identify and locate that terminal or the associated user. Notes: 1) This ability implies the availability of telecommunication services, ideally, in all areas and at all times. 2) Terminal mobility may be provided according to the mobile terminal’s or the users service profile [UMTS Forum]. Universal mobile telecommunications system: Future multi-function mobile system with wideband multimedia capabilities as well as present narrow band capabilities. UMTS is the planned European member of the ITU IMT-2000 family concept. UMTS will probably consist of a family of interworking networks, delivering the same new and innovative personal communication services to users regardless of used networks [UMTS Forum]. UMTS access network: Future multi-function mobile access network with wideband multimedia capabilities (presently under standardisation by ETSI) that will interface several core networks [UMTS Forum]. UMTS services: A set of services accessible through the UMTS access network. UMTS services will probably be limited to services that require transmission speeds less than 2 Mbit/s [UMTS Forum]. User: A person or other entity authorised by a subscriber to use some or all of the services subscribed to by that subscriber [UMTS Forum]. © 1998 EURESCOM Participants in Project P809 page xiii (xiv)
    • Broadband mobile multimedia requirements Deliverable 1 Value added service provider: A service provider which offers services that add value to other (primitive) services. A value added service cannot be used alone, but is with another primitive service [UMTS Forum]. Virtual home environment (VHE): A system concept for service portability in UMTS across network borders. In this concept, the visited network emulates, for a particular user, the behaviour of his home environment. For the user, adaptation of service handling is therefore unnecessary [TG.21]. Wireless access: A terminal access to the network which uses wireless technology [UMTS Forum]. Wireless terminal: A general term used for any mobile station, mobile terminal, personal station or personal terminal, with which non-fixed access to the network is used [UMTS Forum]. Wireline access: A terminal access to the network which uses wireline technology [UMTS Forum]. page xiv (xiv) © 1998 EURESCOM Participants in Project P809
    • 1 Introduction This Deliverable addresses the support of mobility in multimedia services based on IN evolution. As such, its scope includes UMTS and other 3rd Generation mobile system developments that address mobile multimedia service support using network intelligence. It provides the foundations for the work of P809 and, in particular, is the basis for the work to be presented in Deliverable 2. Starting from the business requirements contributed by the participant companies and the roles identified by 3rd Generation mobile standardisation fora, the requirements for the ongoing P809 work have been deduced. Benchmark services have been selected and analysed. These benchmark services are representative of 3rd Generation services and should exhaustively validate the foreseen service capabilities, however they are not intended for standardisation as such. This will allow competitive differentiation between service providers as foreseen by the UMTS standardisation fora. The mobility requirements associated with multimedia services have been identified and described to provide the basis for the ongoing work. In this context the scope for fixed-mobile convergence has also been studied. © 1998 EURESCOM Participants in Project P809 page 1 (24)
    • page 2 (24) © 1998 EURESCOM Participants in Project P809
    • 2 Business Requirements from Network Operators Based on input received from P809 partners, business requirements for broadband mobile multimedia have been derived. The derived business requirements are indicated in bold in Table 1, where for convenience of presentation they have been structured according to various categories (political, economic, social, technological, ecological, legal) and associated business environment trends. Category Business environment trends Derived requirements Political • Liberalisation • Open networks and standards • Definition of new legal roles in the • Clear definition of interfaces telecommunications business scene • Possibility to develop, implement and • Pressures towards better competitiveness offer proprietary value-added services • Globalisation, global alliances • UMTS should be suitable to set up a • GSM as defacto world standard multinational network • EU harmonisation / world harmonisation • Standards should provide the flexibility to adapt to regulatory requirements world-wide (take account of GSM MoU requirements) • Economic • Competitiveness • Customer focus and service quality • Electronic commerce • Need for secure communications • New emerging business opportunities • Availability of and accessibility to new • Decreasing revenues in traditional POTS services • Decreasing cost of data transferred per • Standardise service capabilities unit • Traditional operators need to reconsider • New players with new roles are their position in the new value chain emerging (service provider, content • Provide means to obviate bilateral provider, etc.) roaming contracts • World-wide roaming • Same basic equipment for fixed and • Integration of mobility and location mobile networks information in the products and • Mobility can be an “add on” to fixed applications generated network equipment • Decreasing costs of network equipment • The network management procedures for • Decreasing costs for maintenance and the mobile broadband services should administration be in line with the similar procedures for fixed broadband services • Freedom of choice of supplier • Well-defined charging and accounting procedures and principles for roaming and dynamic call configurations for the mobile broadband services • Open interfaces towards external applications • Definition of evolution paths and stages from current infrastructure towards future integrated broadband networks • Identification of operation environments and definition of optimised architectures for each • Improved security • Evolution to Broadband mobile services can be defined to evolve from existing infrastructure components, i.e. fixed and mobile network components • Ability to indiscriminately mix equipment from different suppliers • Flexible charging mechanisms • Support innovative billing algorithms • Social • Need for communications • Personal and service mobility © 1998 EURESCOM Participants in Project P809 page 3 (24)
    • • Need for mobility • Need for global service access • Broadband and Internet services • Adaptation towards the new media • UMTS user may obtain services from • New services several service providers • Services become technology transparent • Reachability under one address, user and easy to use control of reachability • Need for secure communications • Same touch and feel for service as user roams (VHE concept) • Fair cost of UMTS services • Definition of sets of bearer capabilities • More control over subscription and among the complete set of bearer delegated users capabilities which will be offered in each particular environment • Seamless services between wired access in the office and wireless access when on the move, even satellite access • Need of easy-configurable, intelligent terminals • Need of portability of intelligence from terminal to terminal (SIM cards). • Improved security procedures and security management • Possibility to access and reconfigure subscription / users profile • Simple complaint process for User in a multi-provider domain • Technologi • Internet • Internet connection over several technical cal • Mobile communications platforms • Shift from analogue to digital • Need to handle high volume traffic • Shift from voice to data • UMTS should be easy to evolve • Integration / Convergence of Fixed and • UMTS should support multi-standard Mobile roaming • Rapid technological change • Solutions that enable dynamic call configurations of the mobile broadband services • Management of mobile and fixed broadband services in a single framework • Global roaming • Aim for gradual reduction in QoS as resources become limited instead of catastrophic failure of connection • Allow user to customise service interface • Ecological • Increasing awareness of the environment • Exploit shared sites • Avoid polluting the environment with • Don’t over provide bandwidth high density of transmitter sites • Legal • Deregulation • Consumer rights • Competition • Laws promoting competition • Legal environment in different regions • Security of the world (including EU laws) • New ways of doing business need new legislation Table 1. Business Requirements for Broadband Mobile Multimedia page 4 (24) © 1998 EURESCOM Participants in Project P809
    • 3 Service Aspects GSM MoU Permanent Reference Document TG.21 UMTS Service Requirements and Concepts, notes that a 3rd Generation (3G) mobile subscriber may subscribe to services at different service providers, and that services should be supported in residential, public and office environments and in areas of diverse population densities. It notes that high bit-rate services may have limited coverage, at least in the initial implementation phase of 3G networks, and that service provision is unlikely to be uniform in terms of offered services and cost. For example, local cordless access may allow deployment of services with higher bandwidth requirements or at less cost than satellite access. Regarding the provision of 3G services, the following features are identified: • Flexible service definition • Personal mobility in fixed and mobile networks • Support for multi-system terminals • Capability for international roaming and internetwork roaming • Flexible charging, including pre-payment and electronic purse systems • Comprehensive real time charging information for the user • Integrated mailbox-service for voice, fax, text and other formats (in mobile and fixed networks, accessible via both networks) • Personal Assistant and intelligent agent support • Access to new multimedia and on-line services • For call-based communication, flexible call routing (screening, barring, forwarding) with a comprehensive interface across different networks. Within P809, additional service requirements have been identified: • Management of user profiles • Management of service profiles • Browsing (level 1 gateway, list of active services,...) • Ability to retrieve and manage monitoring information • Ability to capture and manage accounting information • Access control • User authentication • Number/address translation • Call re-routing • Call screening 3.1 Quality of Service Considerations Broadband Multimedia Mobility is expected to support both an advanced call set-up capability and the ability to change in-call parameters dynamically throughout the duration of the call. The dynamic changes include bandwidth, and the number of © 1998 EURESCOM Participants in Project P809 page 5 (24)
    • multi-parties and sessions. The ability to implement these scenarios could be crucial to the commercial success of Broadband Multimedia Mobility as they provide a differentiator from 2nd Generation (2G) mobile systems. For call set-up, the following parameters have been identified. • Set-up time: This parameter is the time from the completion of the user call attempt to the completion of the connection by the network. The set-up time should be shorter than current 2G systems. • Accuracy: This parameter measures the accuracy of the call set-up process. Inaccuracies include failures due to routing and wrong destination number, failure to complete set-up due to network causes. Accuracy should be as good as, or better than, 2G systems. In the case of transmission, the following parameters have been identified: • Bit error ratio: TCP-based services, in particular, are very susceptible in this regard. • Real-time delay: Face-to-face conversation services, in particular, require a low delay. • Channel bandwidth: The bearer bandwidth for an initial call set-up should be allocated according to the user/service request. This is in contrast to 2G systems where the bandwidth is implicit in the dialled number. 3.2 Service Principles (UMTS 22.01) The SMG1 Service Principles document [UMTS 22.01] identifies the specific service principles for UMTS. These are taken to be representative of the principles for Broadband Multimedia Mobility as a whole. The following actors are identified: • Subscriber: The role denoting a person or other entity which has a contractual relationship with a service provider on behalf of one or more users. A subscriber is responsible for the payment of charges due to that service provider. • User: The role in which a person or other entity authorised by a subscriber uses services subscribed to by the subscriber. • Service Provider: The role that has overall responsibility for the provision of a service or set of services to users associated with a subscription because of the commercial agreement established with a subscriber (the subscription relationship). Service provision is the result of network operator and service provider service capabilities combining. The subscriber profile is maintained by the service provider. • Network Operator: The role that combines service provider service capabilities to its own service capabilities to enable users to use services. The network operator provides capabilities to enable users to obtain services in either public and/or private environments (business or residential and possibly via unlicensed spectrum). It may be appropriate to subdivide the network operator function and interfaces may need to be identified; however such subdivisions do not appear to have any implications from a subscriber service perspective. The actor that plays the network operator role may use the radio access function provided by another actor, for example a satellite access operator. page 6 (24) © 1998 EURESCOM Participants in Project P809
    • • Value Added Service Provider: The role that provides services other than basic telecommunications service (e.g. content provision or upper layer capabilities) for which additional charges may be incurred. These may be billed directly to the subscriber or user, or may be billed via the subscriber’s service provider. The relationships between the actors are shown by the role model in Figure 2. Payment Value Added Service Provider Billing Subscription-Subscriber Profile Management Payment Service Subscriber Provider Billing Payment Delegation of User Service Profile Delegation Service Usage Management Payment Accounting of Service Provision Usage User Network Usage Operator Billing Payment Figure 2: UMTS Service Principles Role Model (UMTS 22.01) 3.3 Typical Benchmark Services/Applications Based on careful analysis and evaluation of a number of candidate services, a set of typical benchmark services/applications has been identified. As already noted, these benchmark services are representative of 3G services and should exhaustively validate the foreseen service capabilities, but they are not intended for standardisation. In choosing the services, account has been taken of the commercial relevance of the service (e.g. the rapid growth of the Internet and World Wide Web), the delay- tolerance of the service (i.e., its real-time requirements), and other criteria. The selected services include connectionless and connection-based services, distribution services, and interactive services. With regard to choosing indicative mobile services, the aim has been to mobilise existing or planned fixed network services rather than address location dependent services. 3.3.1 Multisource Retrieval Service (Enhanced World Wide Web) In the multisource retrieval service, a number of files are downloaded from media servers in the network to the user's terminal. The files may be widely distributed in the network, and each of them contain a media component (text, pictures, sounds, video clips, documents, executable programs etc.). In the terminal the multimedia components are combined to form the multimedia presentation requested by the user. The presentations may refer to other presentations, thus allowing users to quickly browse through different presentations regardless of their physical location in the network. This service is characterised by very short 'living' communication between the user terminal and the very large number of information servers in the network. The traffic generated is highly bursty and consists of data packets, ranging from short datagrams to large files. The communication is highly asymmetrical; the downlink having much © 1998 EURESCOM Participants in Project P809 page 7 (24)
    • larger bandwidth than the uplink. This service is also a good example of 'greedy' service; it can consume very large bandwidth if made available (the larger bandwidth, the shorter transfer time). The Multisource retrieval service is mainly a non-real-time service, but it is also seen as an efficient method for implementing user interfaces for real-time services (e.g., VoD, telephony, teleconference, distributed TV). This service can be regarded as an enhanced World Wide Web (WWW). WWW is currently the most popular multimedia service with tens of millions of users, a fast growing business for both network operators and service/content providers. In future, the support of mobile WWW service with the quality currently available in the Internet is clearly a minimum requirement. 3.3.2 Multimedia Messaging Service This service enables users to send multimedia messages to other users. It can also be used for providing message transmission between two applications, or between an application and a user. Electronic messaging (electronic mail) has made its break- through in business and academia. Electronic mails may carry various kinds of information as attachments such as electronic versions of traditional paper documents, video clips, audio clips, and still pictures. Attachments can be several megabytes long, and can be delivered more rapidly with broadband communications. The transmitted message could also be a "stand alone" multimedia presentation. The major difference to the multisource retrieval service is that this service typically requires the delivery of a single very large file, and the transmission of this file is not delay critical. The service is also not necessarily initiated by a human user, but the message can also be sent by an application in the network. This service is very loss critical and places significant demands on network integrity. 3.3.3 Broadband Video Conference Service The Broadband Video Conference is a multimedia, multi-party teleservice which allows end-to-end information transfer between two or more service users. It provides for real-time conferencing in which audio, video and other media types (e.g. video scanned images, data, documents, etc.) can be exchanged by individuals or groups of individuals at two or more locations. It is a typical ‘conversational service, but one in which the flow of user information may be bi-directional symmetric or bi-directional asymmetric. Users can be located in conference rooms with appropriate equipment (audio and video systems, PCs, etc.). Individual participants may use multimedia workstations. It is possible to change communication configurations during conferences; e.g. from point-to-point to point-to-multipoint etc. This facility makes the conference service particularly difficult to provide from a telecommunications point of view. Two conference types should be considered. These are known as the add-on and meet-me video-conference modes. Each mode presents a different set of network problems and so each can be regarded as a distinct service. The two modes are as follows: 1. Add-on: In an ‘add-on’ conference, a session is established in response to a request from a user who assumes the role of conference co-ordinator. The co- ordinator then inputs the participant list so that the conference can be established by the service. Alternatively, an automatic procedure using established conference profiles can be configured and invoked as required. page 8 (24) © 1998 EURESCOM Participants in Project P809
    • 2. Meet-me: The ‘meet-me’ conference is usually intended as a public forum for the discussion of a particular subject. It is open to participation in an informal manner, similar to the public audio conferencing value-added services which are widely used today. Each conference participant has to establish his/her own connection, using a pre-determined number (including the conference identifier), which is publicly announced. Potential Configurations: The multi-media conference service will normally require a multipoint-to-multipoint communication configuration supporting real-time audio and video components. The service could also require point-to-multipoint and multipoint- to-point communication configurations for the exchange of non-visual and non-audio media components. Multicast communications may be required to enable information to be sent to a selected number of participants within a conference. Typical applications: With integrated audio, video and data communication, the service will facilitate face-to-face business meetings (avoiding the need for participants to travel to a common destination). The terminals can provide the following: • ‘Workstation’ conference providing head-and-shoulder images (one participant at each service end point), • Studio-studio conference (groups of participants at each service end point), • Tele-education (remote education and training, unidirectional video from teacher to student, bi-directional audio and data). A multimedia conference session will end when the co-ordinator terminates it, the participants hang up or the service provider intervenes. 3.3.4 Video on Demand Service The Video on Demand (VoD) service provides for the transfer of digitally compressed and encoded video information across a telecommunications network. The source is usually termed a Video Server and the destination is usually called a Set-Top Box (STB). Commands from the user are relayed across a network to the video server via a control channel. The reverse video stream, following transmission across a network, is reassembled, decoded, converted to analogue format and displayed on a monitor - usually a TV set. The service, in its simplest form, allows the user to access a library of films or recorded TV programmes on a remote digital storage system. Typically, the coding employed is ‘Motion Picture Expert Group (MPEG) encoded video’. The video server acts as a repository of such MPEG encoded videos and, on request, sends the selected MPEG video on an on-demand broadband channel to the Set-Top Box (STB). Service selection could be achieved by means of an on-screen menu and a hand-held remote-control device. The initial request for a particular item is transmitted by the user via the STB. This device may have varying levels of intelligence. At a minimum, it must have the ability to decode video and signalling information and present it to the user, as well as the ability to transmit signalling messages in response to user prompts. More intelligent devices may be programmed by the user to send user- specific information to the network automatically (e.g. PIN information). The film or programme is transmitted as soon as the user is authenticated and a return path set up. The user can pause, rewind or fast-forward a film or programme in the manner of a video cassette recorder (VCR). The system is controlled using a signalling network but the incoming video stream is a broadband one and a suitable transmission medium to the STB is needed. © 1998 EURESCOM Participants in Project P809 page 9 (24)
    • The main actors are the user, network provider and service provider. There may be two levels of service provider with the first one (also called a ‘broker’) offering users access to servers controlled by another provider. The service can be provided to users who have access to a broadband transmission system. The service should be available to users by arrangement with the service provider (SP) and/or network provider (NP). The network provider may also be the service provider, as is sometimes the case in cable TV networks. However, the general case is where the NP allows choice between a number of SPs. In this case, two levels of selection exist: ‘Level-1’ selection where, by using navigation functions, an SP is chosen. This takes place in a gateway called the ‘access gateway’, ‘service gateway’ or ‘Level-1 gateway’. After choosing the SP, the user is connected to a second gateway called the ‘Level-2 gateway’ or ‘gateway content selection’ where content and video server are chosen. It is configured in this way because, usually, the SP is not the content provider. 3.3.5 Distributed TV Service The Distributive Television Service provides TV (including HDTV) channels to customers’ premises over a switched broadband network. The user can select flows of information but the flows themselves cannot be manipulated by the user. The service should provide TV programs with the quality of 525 line or 625 line NTSC, PAL SECAM or better (e.g. HDTV quality). There are two service classes defined in [I.211]: 3. No control channel present: TV channels are distributed to a customer’s premises on a permanent basis (i.e. no switching is required by the network). The selection of the TV channel is controlled by the customer and is usually performed in the terminal equipment, since no signalling channel is available. It is possible for two or more channels to be presented simultaneously, to be viewed on different sets, or to be recorded. Typically, many TV channels are available to the user from a service provider (SP) through the user’s home network and, in the mobile situation, they are to be available to him through a remote network. This means that the bandwidth demand is exceptionally high. 4. Control channel present: In this case, the TV channels are distributed to the customer’s premises over a switched network on an ‘on demand’ basis. The selection of a channel is controlled by the customer and is accomplished by signalling to the network and the service provider. As in the ‘no control channel’ case, it is possible for two or more channels to be presented simultaneously for viewing independently or for recording. In this application a signalling channel is required. Only a limited number of TV channels are distributed to the customer’s terminal and so a lower bandwidth is needed than in the case where there is no control channel. 3.3.6 Broadband Virtual Private Network Service The Virtual Private Network (VPN) provides private network functions to geographically disperse users while minimising the need for dedicated network resources. It is offered at present to customers on the PSTN and ISDN, and is used in conjunction with other services such as speech. It can therefore be considered as a value added service. Virtual Private Networks provide companies with functionality similar to those of private corporate networks based on dedicated resources (leased lines), but typically at page 10 (24) © 1998 EURESCOM Participants in Project P809
    • a lower price. A VPN consists of a set of resources offered by a service provider to a customer whose multiple sites are spread over a wide area, in order to emulate a dedicated corporate network, with increased flexibility and lower costs. Services such as ‘abbreviated’ or ‘speed’ dialling enable the end-user to dial numbers which are shorter than normal. In the mobile context, the VPN service may be an implicit feature of the Virtual Home Environment and the Service Profile. The case for studying this as a service in its own right has therefore been questioned. However, it is important to ensure that all requirements for the VPN, including the privacy of users, are in fact covered. © 1998 EURESCOM Participants in Project P809 page 11 (24)
    • page 12 (24) © 1998 EURESCOM Participants in Project P809
    • 4 Mobility Aspects A SIM (also called SIM-card, IC-card or UIM) is a fundamental requirement for public network mobility support. It is issued in association with a subscription with a (home) mobility provider. The SIM is a smart card containing a microprocessor and memory, and provides a unique means to identify the subscriber. The SIM provides the means to: • identify and address the home mobility provider, • support authentication, • store service logic and data downloaded from a service provider, etc., and to execute service logic. 4.1 Security For security reasons, authentication procedures will be executed during certain mobility management procedures. In GSM, authentication of the subscriber is based on an algorithm in the SIM card, and in future, more elaborate security procedures are anticipated which may involve mutual challenge and response of relevant actors. Encryption is a security mechanism by which the user and signalling information is encrypted over the radio interface. The purpose of the encryption feature is to protect the user and signalling information from eavesdropping. It is important that suitable mechanisms can be supported. 4.2 Personal Mobility The UMTS Forum has defined Personal Mobility as the ability of a user to access telecommunication services at any terminal on the basis of a personal telecommunication identifier, and the capability of the network to provide those services according to the users service profile. In this context, the service profile has been defined as a record containing information related to the user in order to provide the user with a defined set of services. Personal Mobility can also be defined as the ability to move the SIM from one wired or wireless terminal to the next, e.g. to personalise various terminals [TG.25]. In the context of roaming, personal mobility needs to be supported in many serving networks. 4.3 Terminal Mobility The UMTS Forum has defined Terminal Mobility as the ability of a terminal to access telecommunications services from different locations and while in motion, and the capability of the network to identify and locate that terminal and associated user. In the context of roaming, terminal mobility needs to be supported outside the home environment. The SIM is the basis for terminal mobility, to prevent a non- authenticated entity registering in a serving network. It has been noted that the mobility management service logic should be independent of the access technology [TG.25]. The UMTS Forum has defined handover as the action of switching a call in progress from one cell to another (intercell) or between radio channels in the same cell (intracell) without interruption of the call. In the context of roaming, handover needs to be supported outside the area where the user is subscribed. In terms of serving networks, the following needs to be addressed: © 1998 EURESCOM Participants in Project P809 page 13 (24)
    • • Intra-UTRAN (UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network) handover (any combination of cordless and cellular access). Possible renegotiating with the service provider of bearer capabilities, service attributes and support of the user application during, for example, handover from pico-cell to a macro cell, or between different commercial entities. Different tariffs, different capabilities etc. • UMTS to non-UMTS handover (e.g. BRAN, GSM) Re-negotiating service quality during a handover will allow the continuation of a multimedia call with less service quality in cases where the required service quality cannot be provided (e.g. a video-telephony call is continued as a voice call), and it also allows the continuation of a multimedia call with better service quality when available. Any handover required to maintain an active service while a user is mobile within the coverage area of a given serving network, should be seamless from the user’s perspective. However, handovers that occur between different radio technologies may result in a change of the quality of service experienced by the user. Handover between different serving networks will be subject to roaming/commercial agreements. The GSM MoU has noted that handover between UMTS and GSM systems (in both directions) is required, even if this necessitates changes to the GSM specifications. In addition, a generic solution may be implemented in UMTS which allows calls to be handed over between UMTS and other pre-UMTS systems in both directions. The cell selection procedure for handover will enable the terminal to select the cell that offers continuity of the service and maximum service quality. The user/subscriber must be able to define his/her own cell election criteria, e.g. by modifying a personal profile including preferences. (e.g. maximum service quality or minimum cost). In principle, cell selection procedures should be automatic and should not be noticed by the user. Cell selection will be apparent to the user in the following cases: 5. the charging basis changes, 6. access is limited or is not granted. Handover refers to the transfer of a call in progress from one point of attachment to the next. Ideally, handover should be possible between any two serving networks and this should be seamless (unnoticeable). However, the provision of handover and the handover quality may depend on cost, market demand, service quality parameter trade-offs, etc. The following requirements should be met by handover procedures from a user point of view: • Adaptation to service quality requirements: Handover should be able to cope with varying service quality requirements. Service quality parameters relevant to handover are the duration of interruption of the call due to handover, handover blocking probability, etc. Such parameters may vary according to the service provided. • Security: The level of security should not be affected by handovers. This impacts on both the authentication and the encryption procedures. • Transparency: In principle, the service provided to the subscriber should not be affected as a result of handover. If this requirement cannot be met, it should be possible to notify the user of any foreseen change in previously negotiated parameters as a result of a handover (changes in service quality, service details, services supported, tariff structure, serving network, etc.). This may page 14 (24) © 1998 EURESCOM Participants in Project P809
    • depend on the choice of the user. Such notification may involve the response of the user to determine whether to continue the call with other parameter settings. Some changes may have already been envisaged during call negotiation, thus removing the need for notification. • Subscriber controlled status: The subscriber may be given the opportunity of either including or excluding handover in a specific service subscription. This option may be related to the geographical area, nature of service or its provision. • Route optimisation: After each handover completion, the route of the call in progress should be optimal (e.g. the route with the smallest number of transfer points). 4.4 Roaming The UMTS Forum has defined Roaming as the ability of a user to access wireless telecommunication services in areas other than the one(s) where subscribed. This definition can be generalised to include wired access to services. Implicit in the roaming concept is support of Personal Mobility, Terminal Mobility and the Virtual Home Environment. It has been noted with regard to UMTS, that it must be possible for a subscriber to access services through diverse access, including private network access. However, facilities for supporting access limitations will be needed according to subscription options and authorisation. Mechanisms will also be needed to inform the user regarding a change in serving network, e.g. where the requested service is no longer available, the continuity of the service cannot be offered, or the price-basis has changed [TG.25]. Currently, the GSM system is the one and only example of a system which supports global roaming. At the present time roaming agreements may be established between 239 GSM networks operated in 109 countries. Currently, GSM roaming is implemented by means of bilateral roaming agreements between members of the GSM MoU. It has been noted [TG.25] that from the perspective of 3 rd generation mobile technology, the current GSM system has certain limitations: • GSM roaming is based on bilateral roaming agreements between operators. In principle any operator may have bilateral contracts with the remaining operators, necessitating in a worst case scenario an order of N 2 /2 bilateral roaming agreements. • GSM addresses a called subscriber by a geographic E.164 number, and therefore routes all mobile terminating calls via the home network (except where optimally routed). • GSM is designed for voice and low bit-rate data services, and therefore does not support service quality re-negotiation during an active call. Based on the experience gained with GSM, the GSM MoU has published a role model for UMTS roaming [TG.25]. It notes that UMTS must allow operators to perform identical roles to GSM, but it must also allow a flexible allocation of roles to the different players as the evolution towards a deregulated consumer market necessitates a much finer granularity of the roaming role model for UMTS than in GSM. It identifies the roles of a mobile operator as follows: 7. Home Mobility Provider: offering mobility support to its own subscribers and supporting the home function for them. © 1998 EURESCOM Participants in Project P809 page 15 (24)
    • 8. Serving Network (Provider): offering a network infrastructure including access. 9. Serving Network Mobility Provider: offering mobility support to the serving network. 10.Service Provider: offering services to subscribers. 11.Roaming Broker: offering brokerage between mobility providers in place of bilateral roaming agreements. Figure 3 shows possible relationships between these roles. N Roaming Contract Roaming Broker other Contractual Relationship N N N N N N N Home N N Serving Network Mobility Service Provider Mobility Provider Provider 1 N N N N N N N N N Serving Network Subscriber N N Figure 3: UMTS Roaming / Mobility Aspects Role Model (TG.25) 4.5 Virtual Home Environment The Virtual Home Environment (VHE) is defined in TG.21. It denotes a system concept for service portability in UMTS across network borders. In this concept, the serving (visited) network emulates, for a particular user, the behaviour of the home environment. For the user, adaptation of the service handling is therefore unnecessary. In this context, the term “Home Environment” is used to denote service presentation, service access and service handling procedures as seen by the user and as indirectly specified in the associated subscription. The concept of VHE has been proposed as the technical basis for simplification of service handling at the user’s side and for service profile portability across network borders. TG.21 notes that when using the appropriate multimode or flexible terminals, users may roam between 2G and 3G networks without any additional requirement for backward compatibility. When applying VHE technology, the serving network mobility provider will identify the home mobility provider on the basis of the SIM. This is used to check acceptance against a list of roaming partners and to perform authentication according to the principles of the home environment. Assuming positive outcome of these two steps, further information may be requested on the service profile of the respective user, the Man Machine Interface required etc. Such user specific information can be either transferred from the SIM where it is stored or, alternatively, the information can be downloaded after successful authorisation based on the SIM. With this information available, the serving network mobility provider will emulate the behaviour of the home environment to the necessary extent. TG.21 notes that although it will inevitably reduce flexibility, standardisation of basic procedures for particular service categories (along the lines of CAMEL in GSM) will help to keep signalling traffic at an acceptable level. page 16 (24) © 1998 EURESCOM Participants in Project P809
    • 4.6 Access Aspects A wide variety of mobile terminals should be supported, and setting limitations on terminals should be avoided as much as possible. Likely terminals for UMTS include hand held terminals, personal digital assistants and laptop computers. The mobile terminal types could be categorised by their service capabilities rather than by their physical characteristics (e.g. speech only, narrowband, wideband data, data and speech). In order to enhance functional split and modularity inside the mobile station, the interfaces of the mobile terminal should be identified. Interfaces like the SIM-card interface, PCMCIA-interface and other PC-interfaces, including software interfaces, should be covered by reference to the applicable interface standards. A standardised API should be defined for client/server applications in terminals and servers, allowing the development of third party applications. Mobile Terminals should be capable of supporting the wide variety of teleservices and applications foreseen in UMTS environment. Limitations may exist on mobile terminals capability to support all possible teleservices and information types (speech, narrowband data, wideband data, video, etc.) and therefore functionality to indicate the capabilities of a mobile terminal is needed as this information will be a component of efficient call handling. Mobile terminals should be capable of supporting new supplementary services without changes. Service provision when roaming outside the home environment will be facilitated by use of mobile terminals with flexible (e.g. programmable) radio interfaces, covering a wide range of variation in access networks. Application of this technology may also facilitate roaming between UMTS and pre-UMTS networks such as GSM. Users in 3G networks may roam to 2G networks and access 2G services. In the other direction users of 2G networks may access 3G networks with the limitations imposed by terminal performance and subscription. Similarly, considerations can be applied in the case of dual-band, dual-mode and multimode terminals. 4.7 Mobility Management Procedures Mobility management procedures support the mobile user and in principle these should not be noticed. Exceptions are: • the SIM is moved to a different terminal • the charging basis changes because the user has roamed into a different serving network • access to a serving network is limited or is not granted The mobility management procedures should support the possibility of explicit or predefined actions from the user to choose the desired serving network. The following requirements can be identified for the mobility management procedures: • User controlled access: Registration should support the possibility of explicit or predefined actions from the user to choose the desired service. • Access restrictions: Limitation of service selection is needed according to subscription and authorisation. © 1998 EURESCOM Participants in Project P809 page 17 (24)
    • • Service availability: A user must be informed about the availability and restrictions of services in the serving network. This information should be available before registration is made. • Multiple SIMs: Some types of UMTS terminals should provide services to more than one subscriber simultaneously. • Virtual Home Environment: As noted, services should be provided with the same ‘touch and feel’ regardless of serving network. The following call-unrelated mobility management procedures should be supported: • Location Registration: The terminal with a first subscriber registered on it notifies the network of its location, its capabilities and the service to be used. This procedure is initiated by the terminal, whenever it enters a serving network, or if the stored location information is lost. Note that a terminal without a SIM should not be allowed to register as authentication is based on the SIM. • Registration of Additional Subscribers: This procedure may be required for terminals that support multiple subscribers (SIMs). The first subscriber is registered by location registration, but every subsequent subscriber (SIM) may be registered by a different procedure. • Attach / Detach: An attach/detach procedure will notify the network whether the subscriber is reachable or not. In case of incoming calls to an unreachable (detached) subscriber the requests can be rejected at an early stage, and subsequent processing of the call set-up (e.g., forwarding the call) is immediate. Any signal from a detached subscriber will change the subscriber status to attached. At a location registration, the status of the subscriber will automatically be set to “attached”. The status of a subscriber which is not apparent to the network for a predefined period will be automatically set to “detached”. 4.8 Route Optimisation During Call Handling TG.25 notes that in principle the route(s) chosen to connect a call from the originating to the terminating subscriber should be independent of the location of the home mobility provider. page 18 (24) © 1998 EURESCOM Participants in Project P809
    • 5 Identified Reference Points 5.1 Global Multimedia Mobility Architectural Framework Global Multimedia Mobility (GMM) is a term coined by the ETSI Program Advisory Committee Chairman’s report [GMM]. The GMM Architectural Framework is shown in Figure 4 and contains a conceptual model of network architectures distinguishing four key domains, which are closely related to the roles in the GII/EII enterprise model (Global/European Information Infrastructure): 12.the terminal equipment domain 13.the access network domain 14.the core network domain 15.the application service domain The reference points are indicated in Figure 4. With regard to the encapsulation of radio interfaces, some important considerations can be derived from the GMM framework. The importance of layering and a good protocol architecture is apparent, but these considerations are outside the scope of this Deliverable. The following requirements are identified: Transparent multimedia service provisioning over a multitude of access technologies, including second generation radio interfaces (e.g. GSM). Standardisation of a Terminal and Server API. As part of the terminal virtual machine, the UMTS Terminal API could support the Virtual Home Environment (VHE) concept via the paradigm of mobile agents, and could facilitate third-party software development. Terminal Equipment Domain Access Network Domain Core Network Domain Wireless Access examples Iu Examples UMTS UMTS GSM NSS GSM GSM IWU ISDN DECT DECT IWU B-ISDN S-PCN S-PCN IWU WLAN WLAN IWU TCP / IP BRAN BRAN IWU LAN SIM Wired Access examples UMTS/FMC ISDN ISDN IWU B-ISDN B-ISDN IWU LAN LAN IWU UMTS Terminal API UMTS Server API Terminal Applications Applications / Services Application Service Domain Figure 4: GMM Architectural Framework © 1998 EURESCOM Participants in Project P809 page 19 (24)
    • 5.2 UMTS Role Models UMTS role models are described in the Service Principles document [UMTS 22.01] and in the Roaming Aspects document [TG.25]. Reference points emerge from these models as the equipment owned by the roles must communicate for real-time provision of services and mobility. The models can be mapped in the following ways: 16.The Home Mobility Provider in the Role of Network Operator: This will occur, for example, in the home market where the UMTS subscriber has a (home) network (see Figure 5) 17.The Home Mobility Provider in the role of Service Provider: This can occur where UMTS subscriptions are offered in an overseas market. In such case, there may be no home network as such (see Figure 6). Serving Network Serving Network Serving Serving Mobility Provider Mobility Provider Network Network Network Operator Network Operator (UMTS 22.01) (UMTS 22.01) Roaming No Direct Broker Roaming Direct Agreement Roaming Exists Agreement Exists Home Mobility Provider Radio Core Access Home Network Network Network for Serving Network Subscriber Serving Network Mobility Provider Network Operator (UMTS 22.01) Figure 5: Home Mobility Provider in the Role of Network Operator Serving Network Serving Network Mobility Provider Serving Mobility Provider Serving Network Network Network Operator Network Operator (UMTS 22.01) (UMTS 22.01) Roaming No Direct Direct Broker Roaming Roaming Agreement Agreement Exists Exists Home Mobility Provider Service Provider Service Provider (UMTS 22.01) Figure 6: Home Mobility Provider in the Role of Service Provider page 20 (24) © 1998 EURESCOM Participants in Project P809
    • 6 Fixed Mobile Convergence (FMC) Fixed Mobile Convergence (FMC) is concerned with the provision of network capabilities which are independent of the access technique. This does not imply necessarily the physical convergence of networks. It is concerned with the development of a converged network architecture and supporting standards. This set of standards may be used to offer fixed, mobile or hybrid services. An important feature of fixed mobile convergence is the separation of the subscriptions and services from individual access points and terminals and to allow users to access a consistent set of services from any fixed or mobile terminal via any compatible access point. An important extension of this principle is related to inter- network roaming, users should be able to roam between different networks and to be able to use the same consistent set of services through those visited networks. This feature is referred to as the Virtual Home Environment (VHE). 6.1 Relationship Between Fixed and Mobile Networks There are several major trends in the development of the telecommunication market, e.g. the increased demand for mobility, the strong growth of multi-media services (Internet). These trends are occurring more and more independently from the delivery mechanisms (e.g. underlying networks and terminals). There is an opportunity to identify elements of commonality in both fixed and mobile networks. This leads to a requirement to reconsider the approach to telecommunication standardisation. Currently, telecommunication services are classed as Fixed or Mobile. This classification refers to the behaviour of the terminals, i.e. fixed network subscriptions and services are associated with the fixed NAP (Network Access Point) to which terminals are connected, whereas, mobile network subscriptions and services are associated with mobile terminals rather than the NAP. Both fixed and mobile services may also support personal mobility which allows users to move between different fixed or mobile terminals respectively. Fixed and Mobile Convergence (FMC) is a technological trend in telecommunications in which the clear distinction between fixed and mobile networks, as well as services, is continuously fading out through increased similarities of network functions in both network types. FMC includes service provisioning for the user irrespective of the means of the users access to the network. Today, it is largely agreed that future network operators and service providers will have to offer both wired and wireless access for terminals. Any future system should be designed accordingly as a new type of network. Third generation networks may emerge as a new type of communication system with roots in fixed and in mobile networks. Good engineering requires, however, that the system should be conceptually designed first for the all-embracing configuration, i.e. the mobile network as it is understood today. If a fixed-only network is ever needed in future, it can be derived by disregarding functional entities for radio resource and, perhaps, mobility management. It follows from the above that the standards for UMTS should not assume separate mobile only networks, i.e. a variety of fixed and mobile networks should be capable of evolving to support UMTS; that is not to say that UMTS should be constrained by today’s fixed networks. Therefore, UMTS should include the features (functions, interfaces and protocols) that are required to operate in an FMC environment. The degree of integration in the actual network implementation will be decided by market forces. © 1998 EURESCOM Participants in Project P809 page 21 (24)
    • 6.2 FMC Requirements Within P809 The aim of this subsection is to identify a more detailed common set of FMC requirements relevant for the support of Broadband Mobile Multimedia services. The FMC requirements can be grouped in terms of different aspects: • User and terminal requirements • Service Convergence requirements • Network Convergence requirements • Operation & Maintenance requirements 6.2.1 User and Terminal Requirements • Users would like the same MMI (Man Machine Interface) regardless of fixed or mobile terminal, in particular for updating their Service Profile. • Users would like to access different application domain (telephony, WWW servers, File transfer, Internet services, VoD servers, fast packet data, etc.) through fixed and mobile networks in all environments (Home, Office, Public Access -cellular, cordless, satellite) with the same terminal or at least with the same SIM-card. • Many users would also like to keep their same phone number for fixed and mobile access services. • Many users would like to use only one multimedia (voice/video) mailbox for all different fixed and mobile access including their interworking with e-mail through Internet/intranet. • Users wish to receive a single bill for all services fixed and mobile • Users would like a single point of contact for procurement, customer care and support (one stop shopping) Consequently, users will require new terminal capabilities such as remote terminal programmability by Service Providers and/or Network Operators in order to introduce software enhancements and upgrades, multi-mode and multi-standard Terminal operation, intelligent multi-service SIM-cards, etc. 6.2.2 Service Convergence Requirements The main objectives of FMC service convergence are to: • increase fidelity of the current base of customers • increase the number of customers by offering a competitive set of services for fixed and mobiles • increase traffic in fixed and mobile networks page 22 (24) © 1998 EURESCOM Participants in Project P809
    • Service convergence requirements can be seen on two levels. 18.Interworking requirements for the distinct sets of fixed and mobile services 19.Integration requirements between fixed and mobile for the support of a common set of services. 6.2.2.1 Service Interworking Requirements The main requirements are related to the package and/or combination of the current fixed and mobile services (e.g. tariff discounts for fixed and mobile, customised billing, voice/video mailbox interworking, etc.) as well as those related to the role of Independent Service Providers (e.g. Service Providers may offer services either on fixed, mobile, private and/or satellite networks, without the need to run any network, just a service platform; automatic roaming between network operators and service providers, through the entity of a roaming Broker, or any other entity, not necessarily prearranged, Support of Virtual Home Environment (VHE) features, User service profile stored in Smart cards to be distributed in the networks using Java and Distributed Objects techniques (Soft Terminals)). 6.2.2.2 Service Integration Requirements The main requirements are related to the capabilities to support a common set of service features as for example: B-MVPN (Broadband Mobile Virtual Private Network), UPT numbering and addressing for fixed and mobile, smart card integration between fixed and mobile access, Optimal and flexible call routing and QoS management by the customer, Customer Care and Data management, provision of seamless services between fixed and mobile networks, etc.). 6.2.3 Network Convergence Requirements One of the most important objectives of the network convergence is to maximise the synergies for the deployment of a common infrastructure for fixed and mobile networks. It means that both fixed and mobile calls share switching, transmission, signalling and synchronisation structures, as well as operations, maintenance and billing systems. Thus, the key technology drivers enabling full fixed and mobile network integration will be IN (Network Intelligence), Internet/Intranets (WWW, etc.), TMN and CORBA, ATM and UMTS Radio access systems and other access systems like BRAN and DAWS. © 1998 EURESCOM Participants in Project P809 page 23 (24)
    • References [UMTS 22.01] ETSI Draft Technical Specification 22.01 V3.2.0, “UMTS: Service aspects; Service principles”, July ‘97. [GMM] ETSI Program Advisory Committee Chairman’s Report, “GMM: Global Multimedia Mobility A Standardisation Framework for Multimedia Mobility in the Information Society”, October ’96. [TG.21] GSM MoU Permanent Reference Document: TG.21 V3.0.0, “UMTS Service Requirements and Concepts”, January ’97. [TG.25] GSM MoU Permanent Reference Document: TG.25 V3.0.0, “UMTS Roaming / Mobility Aspects”, September ’97. [ITU-T E.164] ITU-T Recommendation E.164, “Numbering Plan for the ISDN Era”, August ’91. [ITU-T I.211] ITU-T Recommendation I.211, “B-ISDN Service Aspects”, March ’93. [UMTS Forum] UMTS Forum , “Spectrum for IMT 2000”, October ’97. page 24 (24) © 1998 EURESCOM Participants in Project P809