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1          CDG Roaming Document

2                    CDG Document CDG117

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1CDG Roaming DocumentInter-Standard Roaming White Paper                                                                   ...
1CDG Roaming DocumentInter-Standard Roaming White Paper                                                                   ...
CDG Roaming DocumentInter-Standard Roaming White Paper
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1   1.
2                                                                      ntroduction
1.1 Purpose
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4The obje...
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       Acronym /             ...
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2                                                                 SR Feature
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1If we take a closer look at b...
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2.4 Conversion Platform
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T...
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                   Countr...
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2                      T...
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If it is not possible to dial ...
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1         CDMA network, the su...
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1             •   Use of GSM ...
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Network.?? The subscriber must...
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1Other differences between the...
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2SMS is fairly straight f...
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1the fraudsters themselves and...
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1and to the home network only)...
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1storage, new menus, pre-recor...
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1(NOT TRUE – WE MAY NEED TO EL...
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18.7 Security
2A SIM/R-UIM is ...
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1Cons: 1) There must be a cent...
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19.3 Activation
2After the con...
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1     •   Secured SMS-based Pr...
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1    10.
2                                                 esting on ISR (SKT)
310.1 Overview
4CDMA networks based o...
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           CDG Reference Docu...
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1Due to technical differences ...
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1The IIF described in X.S0023-...
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2The availability of mult...
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1Samsung A790 - This phone sup...
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2                        ...
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1     •   WAP 2.0, M-IMAP, BRE...
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1                  Appendix ...
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1The Standards development pro...
CDG Roaming Document
CDG Roaming Document
CDG Roaming Document
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  1. 1. 1 1 CDG Roaming Document 2 CDG Document CDG117 3 Version 1.02 4 p 5 CDMA Development Group 6 575 Anton Boulevard, Suite 560 7 Costa Mesa, California 92626 8 PHONE +1 888 800-CDMA 9 +1 714 545-5211 10 FAX +1 714 545-4601 11 http://www.cdg.org 12 cdg@cdg.org 13 14 15 Notice 16 Each CDG member acknowledges that CDG does not review the 17 disclosures or contributions of any CDG member nor does CDG verify 18 the status of the ownership of any of the intellectual property rights 19 associated with any such disclosures or contributions. Accordingly, 20 each CDG member should consider all disclosures and contributions as 21 being made solely on an as-is basis. If any CDG member makes any 22 use of any disclosure or contribution, then such use is at such CDG 23 member's sole risk. Each CDG member agrees that CDG shall not be 24 liable to any person or entity (including any CDG member) arising out of 25 any use of any disclosure or contribution, including any liability arising 26 out of infringement of intellectual property rights.
  2. 2. 1 1 Contents 2 CDG Roaming Document.............................................................................................................i 3 CDG Document CDG117...............................................................................................................i 4 Version 1.02...................................................................................................................................i 5 p......................................................................................................................................................i 6 Contents.......................................................................................................................................ii 71. Introduction..............................................................................................................................1 8 1.1 Purpose............................................................................................................................1 9 1.2 Referenced Documents....................................................................................................1 10 1.3 Acronyms and Abbreviations............................................................................................1 2. ISR Feature Description (VODA) ............................................................................................4 11 12 2.1 Inter-Standard Roaming Feature Description...................................................................4 13 2.2 Service Description..........................................................................................................5 14 2.3 Added Value.....................................................................................................................5 15 2.4 Conversion Platform.........................................................................................................6 3. Network Infrastructure (VERI/SYNIVERSE)...........................................................................7 16 17 3.1 Architecture......................................................................................................................7 18 3.2 Signaling Conversion.......................................................................................................7 19 3.3 Numbering Plans..............................................................................................................7 4. Network Services (IMC/Veri/Syni).........................................................................................11 20 21 4.1 Network Services and Features.....................................................................................11 5. Billing (CIBERNET)................................................................................................................15 22 23 5.1 Billing Record Exchange................................................................................................15 24 5.2 Settlement......................................................................................................................17 6. Service Options (SYN)...........................................................................................................18 25 26 6.1 Feature Description........................................................................................................18 2Ref Doc p, Ver 1.02 2-9-2005 ii
  3. 3. 1CDG Roaming DocumentInter-Standard Roaming White Paper Contents 17. Fraud Management (FAIRISAACS).......................................................................................20 2 7.1 Introduction.....................................................................................................................20 3 7.2 What is Roaming Fraud?................................................................................................20 4 7.3 CDMA International Roaming Fraud Prevention............................................................21 5 7.4 GSM International Roaming Fraud Prevention...............................................................21 6 7.5 Revenue Impact.............................................................................................................21 7 7.6 Inter-Standard Roaming Fraud.......................................................................................22 88. Subscriber Identification (VODA/G+)...................................................................................23 9 8.1 SIM Cards......................................................................................................................23 10 8.2 SIM/R-UIM Functions.....................................................................................................23 11 8.3 SIM Types......................................................................................................................24 12 8.4 Supporting Access to GSM Networks............................................................................24 13 8.5 RUIM Advantages for Inter-Standard Roaming..............................................................24 14 8.6 Subscription-Related Information...................................................................................25 15 8.7 Security..........................................................................................................................26 16 8.8 SIM/RUIM Lock (ME Personalization)............................................................................26 9. Provisioning (VODA/G+)........................................................................................................28 17 18 9.1 R-UIM/SIM Provisioning.................................................................................................28 19 9.2 Pre-Activation.................................................................................................................28 20 9.3 Activation........................................................................................................................29 21 9.4 Connection and Disconnection.......................................................................................29 22 9.5 Provisioning Types.........................................................................................................29 23 9.6 Entities Provisioned on RUIMs.......................................................................................30 10. Testing on ISR (SKT)...........................................................................................................31 24 25 10.1 Overview......................................................................................................................31 26 10.2 Testing Environment....................................................................................................31 27 10.3 Comparison between CDMA and GSM test items........................................................31 28 10.4 Recommended Test Items...........................................................................................32 29 10.5 Other topics..................................................................................................................33 11. Worldwide Roaming from CDMA (LUCENT)......................................................................34 30 12. Handsets (QCT/VODA).........................................................................................................36 31 32 12.1 Handset Fulfillment ......................................................................................................36 33 12.2 World Phones...............................................................................................................37 13. Roaming Agreements (Vodafone/IMC................................................................................41 34 14. Trouble Resolution (SYNI)...................................................................................................42 35 36 14.1 Trouble Resolution – Introduction.................................................................................42 2Ref Doc CDG117p, Ver 1.0 06-23-2005p iii
  4. 4. 1CDG Roaming DocumentInter-Standard Roaming White Paper Contents 115. Glossary................................................................................................................................43 2 Appendix A. Standardization Bodies.......................................................................................44 3 A.1 TIA.................................................................................................................................44 4 A.2 TR-45.2 Wireless Inter-system Technology...................................................................44 5 A.3 ITU-T..............................................................................................................................45 6 A.4 American National Standards Institute (ANSI)...............................................................45 7 A.5 IFAST.............................................................................................................................45 8 A.6 Association of Radio Industries and Businesses (ARIB)................................................45 9 A.7 CIBERNET.....................................................................................................................46 10 A.8 GSM Association...........................................................................................................46 11 A.9 CTIA...............................................................................................................................46 12 A.10 3GPP2.........................................................................................................................47 13 A.11 CDG.............................................................................................................................47 14 15 Figures Figure 1 – Number of subscribers (x 1 mi) by technology .......................................................4 16 Figure 2 - CIBER to TAP Conversion.........................................................................................16 17 Figure 3 - TAP to CIBER Conversion.........................................................................................16 18 19 20 Tables Table 1-1: Acronyms and Abbreviations.....................................................................................1 21 Table 2 - Number structure for geographic area........................................................................8 22 Table 3 - Number structure for networks....................................................................................8 23 Table 4 - Number structure for global services..........................................................................9 24 25 2Ref Doc CDG117p, Ver 1.0 06-23-2005p iv
  5. 5. CDG Roaming DocumentInter-Standard Roaming White Paper 1 Contents 1 Revision History Date Version Description August 1st, 2005 1.0 First draft distribution August 15th, 2005 1.1 Second draft with editorial changes Initial CDG release Ref Doc CDG117p, Ver 1.0 2 06-23-2005p v
  6. 6. 1 1 1. 2 ntroduction 1.1 Purpose 3 4The objective of this white paper is to guide CDMA operators who want to launch inter- 5standard roaming services through the various steps required. Its aim is also to provide 6information related to inter-standard roaming that will be helpful as a reference. 1.2 Referenced Documents 7 Ref Standard Description 1. C.S0024-0v4.0 cdma2000 High Rate Packet Data Air Interface Specification 2. 3GPP2 specification One-Way Roaming from X.S0004 to GSM X.S0003-0 3. 3GPP2 specification Network Interworking Between GSM MAP and TIA-41 MAP- X.S0023-B cdma2000 Support 4. 3GPP2 specification Introduction to TIA-41 X.S0004-000E 1.3 Acronyms and Abbreviations 8 9 Table 1-1: Acronyms and Abbreviations Acronym / Description Abbreviation 3GPP2 Third Generation Partnership Project 2 ARIB Association of Radio Industries and Businesses Ref Doc p, Ver 1.02 2 2-9-2005 1
  7. 7. 11. CDG Roaming DocumentInter-Standard Roaming White PaperEntities Provisioned on RUIMs Acronym / Description Abbreviation ANSI American National Standards Institute AuC GSM Authentication Center AC CDMA Authentication Center CDG CDMA Development Group CDMA Code Division Multiple Access CIBER Cellular Intercarrier Billing Exchange Roamer record GSM Global System for Mobile GSMA GSM Association HLR Home Location Register HUR High Usage Reporting IFAST International Forum on ANSI-41 Standards Technology IIF Inter-standard Inter-working Function IMF International Monetary Fund IMSI-M MIN-based IMSI IMSI-T True IMSI ITU International Telecommunication Union Kc Encryption key used in GSM encryption MSRN Mobile Subscriber Roaming Number RAND Random Number used in GSM subscriber authentication RUIM Removable User Identity Module SIM Subscriber Identity Module SN Serial Number SMS Short Messaging Service SRES Signed Response used in GSM subscriber authentication TAP Transferred Account Procedure Ref Doc CDG117p, Ver 1.0 2 06-23-2005p 2
  8. 8. 11. CDG Roaming DocumentInter-Standard Roaming White PaperEntities Provisioned on RUIMs Acronym / Description Abbreviation TIA Telecommunications Industry Association TLDN Temporary Local Directory Number USIM Universal SIM USSD Unstructured Supplementary Services Data VLR Visitor Location Register 1 Ref Doc CDG117p, Ver 1.0 2 06-23-2005p 3
  9. 9. 1 1 2. 2 SR Feature 3 Description (VODA) 42.1 Inter-Standard Roaming Feature Description 5Inter-standard roaming is roaming between mobile technology standards. A quarter of 6the total mobile telephony market is non-GSM. CDMA is the second most prevalent 7technology with a share of 24 (I think it’s correct to say “24”, not “15) % of the total 8mobile subscriber base worldwide. 2.500 2.000 1.500 1.000 500 0 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 CDMA TDMA GSM/WCDMA PDC iDEN Analog 9 10 Figure 1 – Number of subscribers (x 1 mi) by technology Gustaaf: we need source and date for this diagram. 11 12Thus, the most logical choice to interconnect mobile technologies is to implement 13seamless roaming between GSM and CDMA. These technologies represent 86% of the 14total mobile market size. 2Ref Doc p, Ver 1.02 2-9-2005 4
  10. 10. 12. CDG Roaming DocumentInter-Standard Roaming White PaperEntities Provisioned on RUIMs 1If we take a closer look at both technologies we see that GSM was originally designed 2for roaming while CDMA for high speed data. Regarding the coverage CDMA is not 3available in Western Europe at all; therefore, this is the most important place to 4introduce roaming capabilities for CDMA customers. 52.2 Service Description 6 Inter-standard Roaming allows CDMA wireless operators to offer their customers 7 worldwide roaming. This international roaming solution is welcome news for international 8travelers who need to stay in touch, virtually anywhere in the world, instantaneously. 9This solution gives CDMA operators a competitive edge that will protect their valuable 10global customers as well as help them attract new ones. 11CDMA operators who implement inter-standard roaming give their subscribers a very 12valuable productivity tool. Work never needs to stop while key players are traveling. And 13with all charges appearing on the company’s regular monthly statement, business travel 14is easier to manage and budget. Leisure travelers will also appreciate the convenience 15this service offers. Subscribers can make and receive calls using their existing wireless 16numbers. That means subscribers will use their wireless service more often and talk 17longer than when they use a rental phone and do not keep their own number. 2.3 Added Value 18 The Inter-standard Roaming service delivers added value to the home operator and to 19 the end-users. 20 Added value for the home operators: 21 22 • Enhances their competitive position through connectivity to international 23 markets 24 • Enables them to obtain new revenues from activations, airtime and monthly 25 fees 26 • Lets them retain high-end corporate subscribers by satisfying the needs of 27 this key customer segment 28 • Improves customer service and roaming management through timely online 29 information 30 • Allows them to choose a roaming partner regardless of technology Added value for end-users: 31 32 • Enables them to view all charges on one home operator bill in their 33 currency 34 • Provides the convenience of two-way wireless calling 35 • Delivers calls automatically to their existing home wireless phone number 36 • Enables them to communicate easily with no complicated dialing 37 procedures or language barriers (CLARIFY THIS STATEMENT) 2Ref Doc CDG117p, Ver 1.0 06-23-2005p 5
  11. 11. 12. CDG Roaming DocumentInter-Standard Roaming White PaperEntities Provisioned on RUIMs 2.4 Conversion Platform 1 The conversion platform (connecting GSM and CDMA networks) includes automatic call 2 delivery on the home cellular number and home wireless system billing. 3 The conversion platform provides technical interoperability that is transparent to the 4 user, including: 5 6 • Location of roamers abroad 7 • Link between GSM SIM card and home cellular number 8 • Conversion from GSM-format (TAP) to ANSI-41-format (CIBER) 9 • Clearing house functionality Ref Doc CDG117p, Ver 1.0 2 06-23-2005p 6
  12. 12. 12. CDG Roaming DocumentInter-Standard Roaming White PaperEntities Provisioned on RUIMs 1 3. 2 etwork Infrastructure 3 (VERI/SYNIVERSE) 43.1 Architecture 5The CDMA operator or service bureau must be able to network both ANSI-41 (CDMA) 6and GSM. This may be done with network infrastructure or by partnering with network 7providers. For GSM, arrangements may also need to be in place to handle ITU to ANSI 8GSM conversion. 93.2 Signaling Conversion 10The conversion device must be able to handle conversion of CDMA messaging to GSM 11and GSM messaging to CDMA. However, there is not always a one-to-one mapping for 12each message. 13Implementation of standards on the CDMA side is rather loose. Individual operators 14have implemented their networks with their own interpretation of the CDMA standards. 15This creates some difficulties with inter-standard roaming and may require custom code) 16EXPLAIN WHAT CUSTOM CODES ARE. 17GSM standards are somewhat tighter but there is still some implementation that is left to 18the operator’s discretion. Voice mail is a good example of this. In GSM, a call to a phone 19that is busy or not answered is forwarded to the called subscribers own number for voice 20mail. Some CDMA operators also do this but some use a unique number. Depending on 21the home operator’s voice mail set up, software must be adjusted to allow for different 22routing. 23Some CDMA operators use “steering digits” to forward to voice mail. For example, if a 24subscriber’s number is 888 555-1234, the call forward number in the signaling record is 25something like #8885551234. This will not work in GSM as the GSM VLR will not allow a 26registration with a non-numeric call forward number. Therefore, for these operators, 27software must be available to allow this implementation. 3.3 Numbering Plans 28 Both the international numbering plan and the North American numbering plan must be 29 considered. 30 The international public telecommunication numbering plan (ITU-E.164) 31 2Ref Doc CDG117p, Ver 1.0 06-23-2005p 7
  13. 13. 12. CDG Roaming DocumentInter-Standard Roaming White PaperEntities Provisioned on RUIMs 1 Country National Destination Code Subscriber Code (optional) Number cc=1-3 digits maximum 15-cc digits National (significant) number International public telecommunication number for geographic areas (maximum 15 digits) 2 Table 2 - Number structure for geographic area 3 Country Code Identification Code Subscriber Number cc=3 digits x=1-4 digits maximum 12-x digits International public telecommunication number for networks (maximum 15 digits) 5 6 7 Country Code Global Subscriber Number 8 cc=3 digits maximum 12 digits 9 Table 3 - 10 Number International public telecommunication number for global 11 structure for services (maximum 15 digits) 12 networks 13 14 15 2Ref Doc CDG117p, Ver 1.0 06-23-2005p 8
  14. 14. 12. CDG Roaming DocumentInter-Standard Roaming White PaperEntities Provisioned on RUIMs 1 2 Table 4 - Number structure for global services 3For each of the categories, it details the components of the numbering structure and the 4digit analysis required to successfully route the calls. Annex A provides additional 5information on the structure and function of E.164 numbers. Annex B provides 6information on network identification, service parameters, calling/connected line identity, 7dialing procedures, and addressing for geographic based ISDN calls. Specific E.164 8based applications which differ in usage are defined in separate recommendations. 9Country codes for numbers that can be dialed: e.g. 31 = Netherlands International identification plan for mobile terminals and mobile users (ITU-E.212) 10 11This recommendation defines an identification plan for land mobile stations in 12international harmonized public land mobile networks (PLMN). It establishes the 13principles for allocation of international mobile station identities (INMSI) to stations. It 14defines an IMSI consisting of: 15 • a mobile country code (MCC) of three digits 16 • a national mobile station identity (NMSI), consisting of: 17 • a mobile network code (MNC) 18 • a mobile station identification number (MSIN) 19An IMSI is required so that a visited network can identify a roaming mobile terminal or 20mobile user, e.g., in order to query a subscriber's home network for subscription and 21billing information. Example: MCC 204 = The Netherlands, MNC 04 = Vodafone 22 North American Numbering Plan (NANP) 23 24The NANP is the numbering plan for the Public Switched Telephone Network in the 25United States and its territories, Canada, Bermuda, and many Caribbean nations, 26including Anguilla, Antigua & Barbuda, Bahamas, Barbados, British Virgin Islands, 27Cayman Islands, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Grenada, Jamaica, Montserrat, St. 28Kitts and Nevis, St. Lucia, St. Vincent and the Grenadines, Trinidad and Tobago, and 29Turks & Caicos. The area served by the NANP is divided into smaller areas, each identified by a three- 30 digit Numbering Plan Area (NPA) code, commonly called an area code. 31 TLDN/MSRN-ranges 32 33For the Inter-standard Roaming service to work, it is necessary that the CDMA operator 34makes sure that all the TLDN / MSRN ranges of the GSM markets, where the service 35should work, are configured in its network. Also any international barring should be 36removed at the CDMA operator’s network. 2Ref Doc CDG117p, Ver 1.0 06-23-2005p 9
  15. 15. 12. CDG Roaming DocumentInter-Standard Roaming White PaperEntities Provisioned on RUIMs If it is not possible to dial from the CDMA operator to the visited country, then the Inter- 1 standard Roaming Service will not work. 2 Ref Doc CDG117p, Ver 1.0 2 06-23-2005p 10
  16. 16. 12. CDG Roaming DocumentInter-Standard Roaming White PaperEntities Provisioned on RUIMs 1 4. 2 etwork Services 3 (IMC/Veri/Syni) 44.1 Network Services and Features 5The TIA/EIA standard J038B specifies the network services to be performed by the IIF in 6order to offer seamless voice and data roaming between ANSI and GSM networks. This 7section details service and feature support for one-way roaming from ANSI to GSM 8networks. 9In the case of GSM foreign, SOMETHING IS MISSING HERE: 10 • ANSI-41 VLR - To the subscriber’s home network, the IIF makes the GSM world 11 appear simply as another ANSI VLR to which the subscriber has roamed. The 12 IIF can be set up to look like a foreign VLR (using a foreign’s MSCID) or like a 13 local VLR belonging to the CDMA operator’s network (MSCID assigned by the 14 CDMA operator). 15 • GSM HLR - To the visited GSM network, the IIF makes the ANSI world appear 16 as another GSM HLR from which the subscriber has roamed. 17 • GSM AuC - The IIF also performs full subscriber authentication as required by 18 the visited GSM network. GSM Authentication algorithm A3 versions 1 and 2 19 must be fully supported. 20 • A diagram is needed The IIF supports the following services and features in the above setup: 21 22 • Authentication: The IIF, acting as the GSM AuC, handles the subscriber’s 23 authentication in GSM foreign mode. Upon receiving an authentication request 24 (GSM MAP message “SAI” or “Send parameters”) from the GSM VLR, the IIF 25 AuC generates the authentication triplets (RAND, SRES, Kc) and sends them to 26 the GSM VLR. The GSM VPLMN performs the actual authentication using the 27 GSM A3 algorithm COMP128. The GSM authentication is, typically, not 28 translated back to CDMA authentication. 29 • Location Management: The IIF acting as the CDMA VLR and GSM HLR is 30 responsible for the subscriber’s location management in GSM foreign mode. 31 When a CDMA subscriber first roams into a GSM network, a location update 32 message is sent from the serving GSM VLR to the IIF, which is acting as a GSM 33 HLR for the CDMA subscriber. The IIF translates this into an ANSI-41 MAP 34 message “REGNOT” and sends it to the home HLR with IIF MSCID as the VLR 35 address. From the CDMA home networks point of view, the CDMA subscriber is 36 now located in a foreign CDMA VLR. When the subscriber roams back into the 2Ref Doc CDG117p, Ver 1.0 06-23-2005p 11
  17. 17. 12. CDG Roaming DocumentInter-Standard Roaming White PaperEntities Provisioned on RUIMs 1 CDMA network, the subscriber’s home CDMA HLR sends an ANSI 41 MAP 2 message “REGCANC” to the last registered CDMA VLR, which is the IIF. This 3 causes the IIF to de-register the subscriber from the last real GSM VLR that the 4 subscriber was registered in. 5 • Call routing: The CDMA subscriber in foreign mode appears to be roaming in a 6 foreign CDMA market identified by the MSCID of the IIF. When receiving an 7 incoming call, the CDMA home network requests a TLDN for call routing from the 8 IIF. In turn, the IIF, acting as the GSM HLR, requests an MSRN from the visited 9 GSM VLR. The IIF is responsible for handling the MSRN-to-TLDN conversion 10 number formatting to accommodate both ANSI 41 A- and ANSI 41 C- compliant 11 networks. The call is routed directly between the home MSC and the visited GSM 12 MSC. 13 • Voice Mail Deposit: Due to dissimilar implementation of voice mail call delivery 14 in GSM and ANSI markets as well as non-implementation of optimal routing in 15 most GSM networks, the call delivery to voice mail in GSM foreign mode is a 16 problem. The J038 standard has left the implementation of the voice mail delivery 17 solution up to the service provider and IIF vendor. Different solutions are 18 available from such Inter-Standard Roaming service bureau providers as IMC 19 Inc., VCS and Syniverse to address this issue. 20 • Subscriber Profile Translation: The IIF translates the CDMA subscriber’s HLR 21 service profile to the corresponding GSM profile. This is done during initial 22 registration and upon any change in profile that is network- or subscriber- 23 initiated. Below is a list of some the services supported in GSM foreign mode and 24 the corresponding features in a CDMA home network. 25 CDMA Feature Translated Feature in GSM foreign mode Call waiting Call waiting Call hold Call Hold CFNA CFNRy and CFNRc 3 way calling Multiparty CFD CFU CNIP CLIP CNIR CLIR 26 27 • Subscriber Control of Supplementary Services: The IIF enables the 28 subscriber control of supplementary services in GSM foreign mode in two ways: 29 2Ref Doc CDG117p, Ver 1.0 06-23-2005p 12
  18. 18. 12. CDG Roaming DocumentInter-Standard Roaming White PaperEntities Provisioned on RUIMs 1 • Use of GSM or dual-mode phone menu functions where the IIF maps the 2 GSM MAP messages “Register_SS”, “Interrogate_SS”, “Erase_SS” to 3 corresponding ANSI MAP “FEATREQ” 4 • Use of CDMA-specific service codes (*codes) in GSM foreign mode using 5 USSD 6 The IIF vendor or the service bureau provider should support both of the above in 7 order to enable a seamless control of supplementary services in GSM foreign mode. ANSI-41 - IIF - GSM GSM Home Signaling Sponsor Visited Operator Conversion Operator Operator MSC Platform MSC MSC GSM GSM ANSI-41 MAP MAP HLR VLR 8 9 For inter-standard roaming, the home operator (CDMA) should establish a business 10agreement with a sponsor operator (GSM). This agreement allows the CDMA 11subscribers to leverage the roaming agreements the GSM operator has already 12established with the many potential serving/visited operators. It also simplifies the 13network architecture in that the CDMA operator need only establish a network link 14between the IIF and the GSM operator. The CDMA operator must also install their own 15signaling conversion platform or utilize a 3rd party’s conversion platform. 16 17A network between the CDMA operator and the conversion systems, as well as, 18between the GSM operator and the conversion systems, must be established for 19signaling messages to be routed between each of the parties. When in a GSM network, 20the CDMA operator’s subscribers will use the IMSI (GSM equivalent to MIN) and 21MSISDN (GSM equivalent to MDN) of the GSM operator and look like an end subscriber 22of the GSM operator. To facilitate the air interface, the CDMA operator’s subscribers 23must use a GSM-capable handset while in GSM countries. 24 25When the CDMA operator’s subscriber powers on the handset in the visited GSM 26network, the validation and authentication messages are routed to the signaling 27conversion platform (IIF) via the GSM operator. Signaling for validation is translated into 28ANSI-41 and the registration request is forwarded to the CDMA network while 29authentication occurs between the signaling conversion platform (IIF) and the Serve 2Ref Doc CDG117p, Ver 1.0 06-23-2005p 13
  19. 19. 12. CDG Roaming DocumentInter-Standard Roaming White PaperEntities Provisioned on RUIMs Network.?? The subscriber must pass authentication and receive a positive registration 1 from the CDMA network before being validated in the Serve system and allowed service. 2 Ref Doc CDG117p, Ver 1.0 2 06-23-2005p 14
  20. 20. 12. CDG Roaming DocumentInter-Standard Roaming White PaperEntities Provisioned on RUIMs 1 5. 2 illing (CIBERNET) 35.1 Billing Record Exchange 4CDMA operators use CIBER (Cellular Intercarrier Billing Exchange Roamer) record for 5the exchange of subscriber roaming usage. GSM operators use TAP (Transferred 6Account Procedure) for the same purpose 7 The Serving Carrier produces records in the format that its billing system uses. If the 8 Home Carrier cannot accept the format, then it is responsible for conversion into a 9format that it can process. Several vendors have the ability to convert between CIBER 10and TAP. 11 2Ref Doc CDG117p, Ver 1.0 06-23-2005p 15
  21. 21. 12. CDG Roaming DocumentInter-Standard Roaming White PaperEntities Provisioned on RUIMs 1 Figure 2 - CIBER to TAP Conversion 2 3 Figure 3 - TAP to CIBER Conversion 4Occasionally, information is lost during conversion from TAP to CIBER or from CIBER to 5TAP. For example, many TAP records do not separate air and toll in the call records, 6so CIBER-using home carriers may not be able to distinguish air charges from toll when 7the records arrive in the their billing systems. During network testing, the CDMA carrier 8and the GSM operator should exchange records to test their billing systems and ensure 9billing system compatibility with the conversions and formatting. 10Many other differences between the TAP and CIBER formats and processing must be 11resolved in order for GSM and CDMA operators to exchange roaming billing information. st st 12For instance, the settlement cycle for GSM operators using TAP is from the 1 -31 of the 13calendar month; while the standard settlement cycle for CDMA operators exchanging th th 14CIBER records is the 16 - 15 of the calendar month. This means that the dollar value 15of a TAP settlement cycle will not be equivalent to the value of a CIBER settlement cycle 16and balancing procedures must be implemented to accommodate this difference. 17Another significant difference between TAP and CIBER is that CIBER supports only the 18US dollar as a valid currency; while TAP supports the US Dollar, the Euro and the SDR 19(Special Drawing Rights) which is an exchange currency created by the International 20Monetary Fund (IMF). If a GSM operator uses either the Euro or the SDR, then a 21conversion to US Dollars is required. 2Ref Doc CDG117p, Ver 1.0 06-23-2005p 16
  22. 22. 12. CDG Roaming DocumentInter-Standard Roaming White PaperEntities Provisioned on RUIMs 1Other differences between the clearing and settlement of TAP and CIBER include the 2following: 3Frequency of processing – CIBER files are processed once per day; while TAP files are 4processed many times throughout the day. 5Sequential Processing – CIBER files must be processed by sequence number; while 6TAP files are not required to be processed in sequence. 7 SID/BID vs. PMN – CIBER uses a SID/BID (DEFINE ACRONYM), which is a market- 8 level identifier of the serving market. TAP uses a PMN (Public Mobile Network) code to 9identify the visited operator. Because GSM operators in North America also use 10SID/BID to identify the visited market, version TAP 3.0 and later include a field for 11SID/BID. For roaming outside of North America, a table must be maintained for 12conversion of PMN to SID/BID. 13Flexibility of Validation – For CIBER records, an industry-defined set of edits are 14performed on all records. GSM operators have defined a standard set of validations to 15be performed on TAP records. However, operators can bilaterally agree to different 16validation rules. 17Billing records should be exchanged using Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) unless 18otherwise agreed by the carriers or their vendor(s). Roaming agreements should 19describe fallback procedures for transfer failures or other delays in exchanging records. 20TAP and CIBER allow record exchange up to 30 days after the call date. However, 21according to generally accepted procedures for TAP processing, the record must be 22returned to the home operator within 36 hours of the end of the call. Most home carriers, 23however, expect records more quickly. Carriers should agree on file exchange 24timescales. 25Rejected records or batches must be returned to the Serving Carrier in the Serving 26Carrier’s (we should define “serving operator” at the beginning of the document) in its 27own record format. 5.2 Settlement 28 Invoicing requirements vary by country, so partners should agree on invoicing 29 procedures when establishing the roaming agreement. 30 31Settlement may be in direct payment or may involve netting bilateral positions, as agreed 32to by the partners. Payment will be in the receiver’s currency as indicated in the invoice. 33In the case of records originally sent in TAP using SDR (???), the receiver’s home 34currency will be converted from SDR using the rate on the GSM operator’s invoice for 35the period. Partners may settle directly or via a financial clearinghouse or other agent, as 36agreed to by the parties The invoice and the billing records will indicate applicable taxes according to the serving 37 carrier’s regulations. 38 2Ref Doc CDG117p, Ver 1.0 06-23-2005p 17
  23. 23. 12. CDG Roaming DocumentInter-Standard Roaming White PaperEntities Provisioned on RUIMs 1 6. 2 ervice Options 3 (SYN) 46.1 Feature Description 5CDMA operators now consider many formerly optional features as part of their standard 6business and expect these features to work in GSM. These features are presented 7below: 8Call Forward Unconditional 9Call Forward Busy Call Forward No Answer 10 Voice mail 11 Call waiting 12 Multi party calling 13 Caller ID 14 SMS 15 Packet data 16 17Many GSM operators do not allow features such as call forwarding and multi party 18calling while roaming. Blocking call forwarding also renders voice mail useless in those 19GSM areas. 20The testing of special features between GSM roaming partners is not standard and is left 21up to the agreement between the roaming partners. The testing of special features is 22more common with CDMA operators. 23Many different implementations of special feature codes in CDMA create special 24mapping problems. For example, some larger CDMA operators use different feature 25codes in different markets for the same feature. (CF B may be *71, *81, and *91 for 26different markets). 27The passing of caller ID information is not consistent through international operators 28Therefore caller ID may not be available in some coverage areas or may be dropped by 29the international long distance carrier. 2Ref Doc CDG117p, Ver 1.0 06-23-2005p 18
  24. 24. 12. CDG Roaming DocumentInter-Standard Roaming White PaperEntities Provisioned on RUIMs 1 2SMS is fairly straight forward between CDMA and GSM. One exception is the SMS for 3voice mail message notification. In CDMA there is a “call back number parameter”. 4There is no such parameter in GSM. Therefore, based on mapping standards, 5information in this parameter gets dropped. 6Packet data roaming from CDMA 1x/EVDO for GPRS/UMTS requires a “dual 7registration” on the GSM side. In GSM, registration occurs both in the GSM VLR and the 8SGSN (AAA equivalent in GSM). Of course, IP networks must be connected (radius and 9bearer links) as well as signaling. 10 2Ref Doc CDG117p, Ver 1.0 06-23-2005p 19
  25. 25. 12. CDG Roaming DocumentInter-Standard Roaming White PaperEntities Provisioned on RUIMs 1 7. 2 raud Management 3 (FAIRISAACS) 47.1 Introduction 5 International CDMA roaming is growing rapidly, but is still generally considered to be in 6 the formative stages of development when looking at the overall industry. For instance, 7international roaming for the GSM community is ubiquitous, mature, and gaining in 8complexity. Due to this wide-spread availability of GSM roaming and the inherent 9weaknesses in the GSM international roaming model, fraudsters have currently focused 10their attention on GSM rather than CDMA. For criminals and fraudsters, GSM offers 11opportunities that are “easier” for financial gain at the operator’s expense. As a result, 12CDMA operators have an opportunity to learn some “lessons” from what has taken place 13in the GSM roaming environment. The CDMA and GSM operator communities have 14chosen to adopt fundamentally different approaches to tackling roaming fraud. This has 15led to serious consequences for the GSM community that today is experiencing 16unprecedented levels of roaming fraud losses ($millions per month). By contrast, CDMA 17operators are largely protected from the exposure. However, the introduction of inter- 18standard roaming means CDMA operators are opening themselves up to the same 19serious roaming fraud risk experienced by GSM operators today. As such, it is important 20that the CDMA community understands and addresses the new fraud risk introduced by 21inter-standard roaming 7.2 What is Roaming Fraud? 22 23In today’s GSM world, the predominant method for fraudsters is to begin by using 24subscription fraud to gain access to the home network. Often fraudsters work with 25corrupt dealers or internal groups within the operator in order to create the subscriber 26accounts. They obtain roaming privileges, for example by posing as a small company or 27by behaving as a good paying customer for a period of time (known as a “sleeper”). The 28fraudster then roams to a foreign network and generates a high volume of lengthy calls 29in quick succession, usually on multiple handsets. 30Typically, the delay in the home operator receiving the roamer call data to properly 31detect this activity can be anywhere from one to several days because roamer call 32records and High Usage Reports (HURs) have to be processed by partner operators and 33the clearinghouse. This overall time delay insulates the fraudster from current detection 34technologies and leaves an exposure that is exploited to make as many high value calls 35as possible with no intention of paying. 36Organized roaming fraud typically involves calling to international premium rate service 37numbers or revenue share numbers in obscure locations. These numbers are owned by 2Ref Doc CDG117p, Ver 1.0 06-23-2005p 20
  26. 26. 12. CDG Roaming DocumentInter-Standard Roaming White PaperEntities Provisioned on RUIMs 1the fraudsters themselves and they collect their money and disappear before they can 2be identified and captured. Taking advantage of the lack of visibility with methods like 3this are the primary reasons why roaming fraud has grown to as much as 50% of a GSM 4operator's overall fraud rate in recent times. 57.3 CDMA International Roaming Fraud Prevention 6 Most CDMA operators in North and South America tackle roaming fraud by exchanging 7 roamer CDRs in near real-time using the RoamEx network. This network has existed 8over 10 years and is the leading proven solution for detecting and preventing roaming 9fraud. RoamEx provides immediate visibility of a roaming subscriber’s calling activity by 10collecting raw CDRs from the serving operator network and delivering them to the home 11network, bypassing the clearinghouse. The roamer CDRs are automatically fed into the 12home operator’s fraud management system, providing a holistic view of the subscriber’s 13account and activity. This allows the home operator to analyze roaming call details for 14fraud and address suspicious behavior immediately. It eliminates the exposure of the 15delay in clearinghouse and HUR roaming data. 7.4 GSM International Roaming Fraud Prevention 16 17The GSM community has chosen to implement High Usage Reporting (HUR) as the 18standard approach to addressing roaming fraud. Unfortunately, the HUR has a number 19of drawbacks, not least an inherent fraud exposure. HURs alert the home operator when 20one of their roamers has exceeded a high usage threshold, indicating possible fraud. 21This HUR policy is a manual, cumbersome process that requires the exchange of 22hundreds of daily reports between operators, via faxes and emails, which contain only 23summary information that is difficult to diagnosis without a detailed profile of the related 24account. It does reduce the clearinghouse delay from several days to between 24 and 2548 hours. But the delay still exists and the fraudsters are aware of it. Using multiple 26handsets and the HUR delay, many roaming fraud incident losses over $500,000 have 27been reported. It is important to note that the home operator is liable for roaming fraud 28losses. The home operator still has to pay the serving operator for fraud incurred by the 29home operator’s subscribers while roaming. 30This situation makes roaming a hard dollar loss for the home operators since they 31actually have to pay the foreign operator for allowing the fraudster to roam. When a 32premium rate number is used, the foreign operator does not generate revenue from the 33fraud. The revenue ends up with the premium number provider who is working with the 34fraudster. 35It is worthwhile noting that some GSM operators have tried to use SS7 MAP messaging 36to track visibility of their roaming subscribers. Unfortunately, this does not provide the 37call detail information that is provided by CDR exchange. Call detail information is 38important for detecting high roaming usage and roaming calls to suspicious destinations. 7.5 Revenue Impact 39 40Operator often adopt measures to mitigate this type of fraud. These measures include 41operator determined barring, “touristic” roaming (roamers can call within a visited country 2Ref Doc CDG117p, Ver 1.0 06-23-2005p 21
  27. 27. 12. CDG Roaming DocumentInter-Standard Roaming White PaperEntities Provisioned on RUIMs 1and to the home network only), taking mandatory deposits or establishing good payment 2history prior to allowing subscribers to make international calls when roaming. All of 3these measures only serve to reduce a home operator’s retail roaming revenues and 4serving operator’s wholesale revenues, since they introduce restrictions on the vast 5majority of customers who are legitimate subscribers, wanting to make roaming calls and 6willing to pay for them. Eliminating these call restrictions for subscribers who roam can 7increase roaming minutes of use by about 5% to 10%, which in turn, increases the 8revenues for roaming. Exchanging roamer CDRs using RoamEx enables the lifting of 9restrictions and the realization of these roaming revenues. 7.6 Inter-Standard Roaming Fraud 10 11When CDMA operators negotiate roaming agreements with their GSM counterparts, the 12GSM operators will likely only be able to offer HUR reports for roaming fraud detection. 13CDMA operators need to understand that this creates a roaming fraud risk for their 14subscribers roaming on the GSM network. In order to mitigate the risk, the CDMA 15operator has various options. One option is to implement call barring restrictions on 16roamers to GSM networks. While this prevents calls to fraudulent destinations, it also 17reduces revenues (for example, barring roaming calls to international numbers) and 18does not prevent calls to newly created fraudulent numbers. Another option is to request 19more frequent and faster delivery of clearinghouse roamer CDRs – known as 20“accelerated TAP”. While this is a good idea in principle, in practice not many serving 21operators can deliver TAP records much quicker than an HUR due to the mandatory 22billing and clearing processes that have to take place. The third and best option is to 23request that the GSM roaming partner delivers roamer CDRs back to the home operator 24in near real-time, such as those delivered by RoamEx. This has proved to be the most 25effective method of addressing the roaming fraud problem in CDMA networks and will 26continue to do the same job preventing roaming fraud in the inter-standard roaming 27environment. 2Ref Doc CDG117p, Ver 1.0 06-23-2005p 22
  28. 28. 12. CDG Roaming DocumentInter-Standard Roaming White PaperEntities Provisioned on RUIMs 1 8. 2 ubscriber 3 Identification (VODA/ 4 G+) 5Subscribers of a mobile network should be identified and authorized to use the network. 6The authentication process allows the operator to charge the right customer for the right 7service but also to prevent fraud. 8 In CDMA, the identification and authorization is done with a fixed subscriber module 9 inside the handset. The MIN and ESN are being used for this process. Other mobile 10technologies like GSM and iDEN use a removable smartcard (SIM or Subscriber Identity 11Module) for the purpose of subscriber identification (IMSI) and authentication (Security 12algorithm and Ki). This allows the subscriber to easily swap the smart card between 13different handsets and maintain the same identity. Additionally, many GSM operators 14print an ICCID, or SIM serial number on the back of the SIM card to provide the 15subscriber with a unique identifier to customer care in case of a mobile station issue. 16The CDMA version of the SIM card is called the R-UIM or Removable User Identity 17Module. The difference between a SIM card and an RUIM is that the first is only used in 18GSM, while an R-UIM supports multiple technologies’ operating systems, such as GSM 19and CDMA, iDEN, W-CDMA, etc. 8.1 SIM Cards 20 A SIM or R-UIM card is a secure smart card specifically designed for wireless 21 telecommunications 22 23Like other types of smart cards, SIMs/R-UIMs are credit card-sized plastic cards 24embedded with small metal-coated microprocessor silicon chips capable of storing data 25and adding, deleting, or manipulating information in the card's memory. However, unlike 26other types of smart cards, SIMs/R-UIMs are inserted into mobile phones or terminals to 27provide secure user authentication, international or inter-standard roaming (if dual mode) 28and a platform for value-added services. The advantage of SIM cards is that they 29contain both the data and the means to process to-and-from a network without divulging 30the sensitive information stored on the card. 8.2 SIM/R-UIM Functions 31 32Providing a convenient platform that can be optimized for specific market requirements 33and configured to support multiple applications, SIMs/R-UIMs enable operators to plan 34and build new generations of services and applications. These include phonebook 2Ref Doc CDG117p, Ver 1.0 06-23-2005p 23
  29. 29. 12. CDG Roaming DocumentInter-Standard Roaming White PaperEntities Provisioned on RUIMs 1storage, new menus, pre-recorded numbers for speed dialing, and the ability to query 2databases or secure transactions. SIMs/R-UIMs also enable operators to customize 3mobile phones for a full range of standards including GSM, CDMA, iDEN, GAIT, TETRA, 4or W-CDMA. 5Today, SIMs/R-UIMs are available as open, Java-compatible high-memory cards with up 6to 64 MB capacity that perform mission-critical background network security and 7administration functions, enabling enhanced security, improved logistics, and new 8marketing opportunities. In summary, SIM functions include the following: 9 • Subscriber authorization-enabling secure usage of the wireless network 10 • Speech/data encryption-enciphering information on the radio path 11 • SIM personalization-storing subscribers' personal information 12 • Access to additional value-added features 13 • Support for international and inter-standard roaming 8.3 SIM Types 14 According to the Gartner Group, there are three basic types of SIM cards: 15 16 • GSM Subscriber Identity Module (GSM SIM) - smart card that supports 17 access to the GSM network, including subscriber features and services 18 • Removable User Identity Module (R-UIM) - smart card that supports 19 access to the CDMA and/or GSM networks as well as other technologies. 20 It also supports storage of phone numbers, applications, and services. 21 • Universal SIMs (USIMs) - smart cards that support access to other 3G 22 networks such as W-CDMA 8.4 Supporting Access to GSM Networks 23 24The GSM provisioning data on the SIM contains a unique SIM serial number. In the 25subscriber’s provisioning process, the SIM serial number will be linked to a unique 26subscriber number: the International Mobile System Identifier (IMSI). This IMSI is used 27for international identification and cannot be changed once programmed in the card. 8.5 RUIM Advantages for Inter-Standard Roaming 28 29When used for inter-standard roaming purposes, the R-UIM can support multiple 30technologies in one card: GSM, CDMA, iDEN, or W-CDMA. It also stores the 31subscriber’s personal data such as phonebook, features, and services. 32For example, using a dual-mode R-UIM, a CDMA subscriber can insert the R-UIM both 33into an R-UIM-capable CDMA handset or into a GSM phone. Nokia, Motorola, Kyocera, 34Samsung and LG are only a few of the handset providers who offer R-UIM-enabled 35handsets as part of their device portfolio. Only Nokia’s R-UIM-capable handsets support 36both the 800 MHz and the 1900 MHz bands today. The R-UIM and SIM are both based on IS-835 which will make all GSM phones (which 37 support phase 2+, mainly all GSM phones developed after 1999) work with R-UIMs 38 2Ref Doc CDG117p, Ver 1.0 06-23-2005p 24
  30. 30. 12. CDG Roaming DocumentInter-Standard Roaming White PaperEntities Provisioned on RUIMs 1(NOT TRUE – WE MAY NEED TO ELIMINATE THIS STATEMENT). CDMA end-users 2are independent of their CDMA handsets and have all of their subscription data available 3in a GSM network instantly. When used with a GSM handset, the R-UIM operates like a 4GSM SIM. For international travelers, the R-UIM could also allow roaming across CDMA 5and GSM networks with the same multimode terminal. 6With the evolution of 3GPP2 and 3GPP standards, it is possible to have 7SIM/RUIM/USIM subscriptions on one single card, capable of handling different access 8technologies. 9The RUIM key benefits are as follows: 10 • Guarantees subscriber authentication on every network 11 • Enables users to program personal information one time and roam 12 between different technology networks with a multimode device or through 13 “plastic” roaming. 14 • Eliminates the need for consumers to program phones, PDAs and other 15 wireless devices multiple times with the same personal information. 16 • Provides operators with state-of-the-art security for applications like 17 mobile banking and mobile commerce 8.6 Subscription-Related Information 18 The smart card plays a vital role in holding key subscriber information. Below is some of 19 the information stored in the RUIM: 20 21 • IMSI-M and IMSI-T: indicates whether the IMSI is MIN based or a true IMSI 22 • A-Key: key used in authentication and generation of shared secret data. The A- 23 key can be dynamically generated during R-UIM personalization 24 • UIM-ID/ESN: identity of the terminal or the RUIM 25 • CDMA Home SID/NID 26 • Preferred Roaming List (PRL) The R-UIM specification (C.S0023-B) defined by 3GPP2 defines the structure and how 27 to code each file for the CDMA portion of the R-UIM. 28 29If an operator wishes to enable inter-standard roaming for its subscribers, the R-UIM 30must contain two or more valid subscriptions from different technologies. The most 31common inter-standard roaming consists of CDMA and GSM. In this case, the R-UIM 32would contain an IMSI and Ki for GSM and the IMSI-M/T, A-key, UIM-ID/ESN for CDMA. 33An inter-working and interoperability function (IIF) enables inter-standard roaming on the 34network side by providing the services, information flows and message mappings to 35support roaming between ANSI-41 MAP (CDMA) and GSM MAP networks. 2Ref Doc CDG117p, Ver 1.0 06-23-2005p 25
  31. 31. 12. CDG Roaming DocumentInter-Standard Roaming White PaperEntities Provisioned on RUIMs 18.7 Security 2A SIM/R-UIM is protected against misuse or fraud by a Personal Identification Number 3(PIN). The PIN consists of four (4) digits and can be activated or de-activated by the 4user. 5 The operator decides whether to deliver the SIM/R-UIM with an activated standard PIN 6 code. If the PIN code is activated on the SIM/R-UIM, the handset will request the user to 7enter the PIN code on each power on. When a user has typed three times a wrong PIN, 8the RUIM will be blocked for further use; consequently no calls can be made (except for 9emergency calls) or received anymore. To unblock the R-UIM, subscribers require a PIN 10Unblock (PUK) code that they can receive from the operator. The operator receives the 11PIN, PUK, and all other secret codes from the R-UIM in an encrypted output file. The R- 12UIM vendor stores the secret code information on the R-UIM in a proprietary manner to 13keep the data secure and unreadable. 14The R-UIM performs some of the secured process of key generation and ciphering via a 15special crypto processor on board. Algorithms stored in the RUIM and used in the above 16process also make the cards more secure since they are never sent over the air (OTA). 8.8 SIM/RUIM Lock (ME Personalization) 17 18The ME (Mobile Equipment) or handset personalization feature allows operators to 19protect their handset investments by restricting the handsets to operate with an R-UIM 20containing specific personalization parameters. In effect, the ME Personalization feature 21allows operators the ability to “lock” a handset to a particular R-UIM or set of R-UIMs. 22The locking feature works by storing personalization information in the handset that 23limits the R-UIMs with which it will work and by checking this information against the R- 24UIM upon power-up or insertion of an R-UIM (NOTE: We should provide information for 25the ME Personalization section from the ballot version of TIA-1009). 26Each RUIM/SIM is identified by unique numbers, including a mobile phone number, and 27it enables services to be delivered by the issuing operator. ‘SIM-lock’ is the practice 28whereby handsets are locked so that they can only be used to obtain the services of the 29cards issuing operator. It is more accurately termed ‘handset locking’. The SIM card 30itself is not actually locked, as it can be used with other handsets (that are not locked to 31other networks). SIM cards can be bought separately from handsets, though generally 32only for pre-pay tariffs. Handsets are locked by handset manufacturers, at the operators’ request. The 33 manufacturers also provide codes to unlock handsets. 34 The following are some pros and cons of handset locking. 35 36Pros: 1) This feature locks the handset to a specific operator’s MNC, so that it cannot be 37used with a competitor’s R-UIM or SIM card; 2) The subscriber must contact the home 38operator to obtain the unlock code. Once unlocked, the handset can be used with any R- 39UIM/SIM regardless of the MNC value; 3) The subscriber is forced to stick to the home 40operator; 4) If stolen, the handset will not work once the R-UIM is reported stolen and is 41disconnected. This discourages thieves. 2Ref Doc CDG117p, Ver 1.0 06-23-2005p 26
  32. 32. 12. CDG Roaming DocumentInter-Standard Roaming White PaperEntities Provisioned on RUIMs 1Cons: 1) There must be a central database containing unlock codes or a method for 2calculating unlock codes; 2) support staff must be educated on the topic; 3) the operator 3must have a company policy in place concerning distribution of unlock codes 3GPP2 anticipates publishing the ME Personalization specification before the end of 4 2005. 5 RUIM Lock is a work item in progress at 3GPP2; therefore, it is not standardized yet. 6 . 7 Ref Doc CDG117p, Ver 1.0 2 06-23-2005p 27
  33. 33. 12. CDG Roaming DocumentInter-Standard Roaming White PaperEntities Provisioned on RUIMs 1 9. 2 rovisioning 3 (VODA/G+) 49.1 R-UIM/SIM Provisioning 5To provision service on the R-UIM/SIM, it is necessary to enter the correct settings per 6subscriber on the R-UIM/SIM in order to make the service available to a specific 7subscriber. The provisioning is executed in three phases: 8 1. Pre-activation (linking the R-UIM/SIM number and the IMSI) 9 2. Activation of the R-UIM/SIM in the conversion platform 10 3. Connection (or disconnection) of the individual R-UIM/SIM by the home 11 operator 12 Linking the SN en IMSI with Activation of SIMs within Allocate a MIN/ Vodafone internal dummy nr. the IMSI range ESN combination for billing purposes determined by Vodafone to the IMSI Pre- Activation on Connection GSM-profile activation on Conversion by Home contains SN, IMSI Vodafone-nl platform Operator PIN and PUK Network Provisioning Usage of SIM Shipment of Production of or RUIM with RUIM and RUIMs Mobile RUIM details Equipment SIM or RUIM is SIM or RUIM is not useable useable (if connected) 13 14 Figure 8.1. RUIM/SIM Provisioning 9.2 Pre-Activation 15 16After the smart cards have been produced by the smart card manufacturer, the R- 17UIM/SIM contains the card’s serial number, the IMSI and the PUK-code. The R-UIM/SIM 18will be pre-activated in batches by the ISR provider before shipping. This pre-activation 19means that the R-UIM/SIM serial number and the IMSI will be linked to a GSM serving 20operator’s internal dummy number according to the North American Numbering Plan 21(NANP). This dummy number is used for billing purposes. After this batch process, the 22GSM serving operator will send a file to the conversion platform administrator and the 23home operator containing security codes (for conversion platform only) and PUK-codes. At this stage the R-UIMs/SIMs cannot be used. 24 2Ref Doc CDG117p, Ver 1.0 06-23-2005p 28
  34. 34. 12. CDG Roaming DocumentInter-Standard Roaming White PaperEntities Provisioned on RUIMs 19.3 Activation 2After the conversion platform administrator has received the security codes, the platform 3administrator activates the R-UIMs/SIMs. The cards to be activated are within the IMSI 4range determined by the GSM serving operator. The conversion platform is now ready to 5accept subscribers’ connections and disconnections from the home operator. 6The GSM serving operator will not need to load the NPA-NXX of the home operator in its 7or its partners’ network. The GSM serving operator will assign an IMSI range to the 8home operator. 9In this phase the SIMs still cannot be used. 9.4 Connection and Disconnection 10 11The home operator uses the conversion platform to make the final connection of the 12individual subscriber. In the connection process, the home operator will allocate a 13MIN/ESN combination to the IMSI in the conversion platform. The result is that the home 14operator’s subscriber keeps one number in both technologies. 9.5 Provisioning Types 15 In CDMA, the RUIM can be provisioned using the following options: 16 17 • Pre-provisioning by the card manufacturer: This method is used when the 18 operator has a definite set of data to personalize on the card and does not intend 19 to change it after card issuance. In this procedure, the operator supplies all the 20 provisioning card details to the card vendor and the card manufacturer will 21 provision the card in a secure environment and then ship it to the operator. 22 Information such as ICCID and UIM-ID are pre-provisioned in the card. 23 • Provisioning at POS: this simple method of provisioning is the most commonly 24 used. It involves provisioning the RUIMs (SIMS) at the operator’s premises. The 25 subscriber approaches the operator at specific outlets and submits his personal 26 details. The operator then personalizes the RUIMs or SIM cards in a secure 27 environment and hands them over to the subscriber, ready to use. 28 • Provisioning through OTAF: OTAF is an over-the-air functionality embedded in 29 the network and terminals to securely provision RUIMs. This type of provisioning 30 is normally followed when the terminal and RUIMs have to be sold at retail 31 outlets where the operator does not need to be involved. During this procedure, 32 the subscriber has to dial a hotline number (e.g., *288) that hooks on to the 33 operator’s IVR. He is then asked to enter the password or SSN related to this 34 subscription. After successful verification, information related to the subscription, 35 such as IMSI, Preferred Roaming List (PRL), SID/NIDs, etc., is securely 36 downloaded on the card. After this step, the subscriber is ready to use his 37 subscription. 2Ref Doc CDG117p, Ver 1.0 06-23-2005p 29
  35. 35. 12. CDG Roaming DocumentInter-Standard Roaming White PaperEntities Provisioned on RUIMs 1 • Secured SMS-based Provisioning: widely adopted in GSM/3G networks, this type 2 of provisioning involves all the parameters inside the smart card used over the 3 air. This procedure is still under study for RUIMs. (We can add some text from 4 ETSI TS 102 225 and ETSI TS 102 226 from which 3GPP2 will build the R-UIM 5 Remote Management Specifications) 69.6 Entities Provisioned on RUIMs 7Using OTAF, the following entities are provisioned on RUIMs: 8 • MIN 9 • PRL 10 • ACC-OLC 11 • SID/NID 12 • MDN Using POS and other methods, the following entities are provisioned on RUIMs: 13 14 • All other subscription-related information 15 • Authentication key 2Ref Doc CDG117p, Ver 1.0 06-23-2005p 30
  36. 36. 1 1 10. 2 esting on ISR (SKT) 310.1 Overview 4CDMA networks based on the ANSI-41 signaling system operate in a completely 5different manner from GSM networks; thus, technical limitations exist when introducing 6one-to-one mapping between these two technologies. 7This section establishes a comparison between CDMA roaming testing and GSM 8roaming testing; proposes a practical approach which can be used in CDMA-to-GSM 9one-way roaming test; and describes network inter-working issues and test items. MMS and Packet Data roaming are not covered in this document. 10 10.2 Testing Environment 11 12To test CDMA-to-GSM roaming, it is assumed that IIF with the signal conversion 13functionality and the signal link between CDMA point code routing and GSM SCCP 14routing are in place. The handset functions or interoperability issues are not covered or 15tested in this section. 10.3 Comparison between CDMA and GSM test items 16 17 • Governing Organization for Roaming test documents CDMA GSM CDG GSM Association 18 • Reference Document CDMA GSM 2Ref Doc p, Ver 1.02 2-9-2005 31
  37. 37. 13. CDG Roaming DocumentInter-Standard Roaming White PaperEntities Provisioned on RUIMs CDG Reference Document #52 Ver 1.5 GSMA IR-24 (For Voice, Supplementary Services, SMS) (For Voice, Supplementary Services, SMS)  104 Pages  42 Pages  146 Test Items  15 Test Items 1 • Test Items Covered CDMA GSM MS Location Management Common Tests Auth/Profile Info Change • Location Update Call Forwarding • Cancel Location Call Forwarding to VMS • ODB (Operator Determined Barring) SMS Individual Tests Call Waiting • Mobile Origination and Termination Three way calling • Barring Control • Call Forwarding (CFNRc, CFNRy) • SMS 2 • Test call CDRs to be re-used for billing tests CDMA GSM No Yes 3 4 510.4 Recommended Test Items 6 The use of GSMA IR-21 for CDMA-to-GSM roaming tests is recommended. The reason 7for this recommendation is to minimize industry efforts in making separate test 8documents to support CDMA-to-GSM roaming and also to acknowledge that the GSMA 9industry will not incorporate any add-ons or specially designed functionalities to support 10CDMA-to-GSM roaming. Consequently, if we use GSMA IR-21, it will be helpful for the 11CDMA industry to promote CDMA-to-GSM roaming more smoothly. (UNCLEAR) 2Ref Doc CDG117p, Ver 1.0 06-23-2005p 32
  38. 38. 13. CDG Roaming DocumentInter-Standard Roaming White PaperEntities Provisioned on RUIMs 1Due to technical differences between CDMA and GSM, not all test items of IR-21 need 2to be tested. Any additional tests can be arranged individually between the CDMA and 3the GSM operators on a case-by-case basis. 4Based on GSMA IR-21, the following items are recommended to be tested. 5 • Common Tests 6 o Location Update : To Be Tested 7 o Cancel Location : To Be Tested 8 o ODB (Operator-Determined Barring) : To Be Tested 9  ANSI-41 doesn’t have exactly equivalent parameters to GSM ODB data. 10 However, the ANSI-41 parameter “Origination Indicator” should be 11 appropriately translated to GSM ODB data by IIF. 12 • Individual Tests 13 o Mobile Origination and Termination : To Be Tested 14 o Barring Control : Not To Be Tested 15  ANSI-41 doesn’t have an equivalent function to support Barring Control 16 from mobile. 17 o Call Forwarding (CFNRc, CFNRy) : Not To Be Tested 18  To support Call Forwarding in CDMA-to-GSM roaming, IIF functionality 19 needs to be inevitably complicated (???). We recommend not to test call 20 forwarding services in CDMA-to-GSM roaming for the time being. 21 Therefore, the IIF should not send call-forwarding related parameters in 22 GSM MAP “Insert Subscriber Data” 23 o SMS : To Be Tested 24  Even though the IIF needs to have a special functionality to translate 25 CDMA short messages to GSM short messages, it is highly 26 recommended to test SMS. Implementation issues on the IIF depend on 27 IIF manufacturers. 28 10.5 Other topics 29 Test documents to support MMS, Packet Data in CDMA-to-GSM roaming are not part of 30 this white paper. 31 2Ref Doc CDG117p, Ver 1.0 06-23-2005p 33
  39. 39. 13. CDG Roaming DocumentInter-Standard Roaming White PaperEntities Provisioned on RUIMs 1 11. 2 orldwide Roaming 3 from CDMA 4 (LUCENT) 5THIS SECTION DOES NOT FLOW WITH THE REST OF THE PAPER. ALSO NEEDS 6DIFFERENT TITLE. 7The most convenient and cost-effective worldwide CDMA-GSM Roaming “On-the-Go” is 8available to your subscribers any time they travel, anywhere in the world and without the 9need to notify the home or visited service provider in advance. 10Wireless subscribers may roam anywhere in the world, at any time, to a GSM, GPRS or 11CDMA system from their home X.S0004 (might not be clear to all readers) (i.e., TIA-41 12(ANSI-41 used previously…must agree on one for consistency) system with the use of a 13dual- mode phone (i.e., GSM + CDMA) or an R-UIM/SIM card in a GSM, GPRS or 14CDMA phone. 15Service providers offer this convenient service to their most valuable, world-traveling 16subscribers without the cost or delay of pre-provisioning individual subscriber data in the 17IIF between TIA-41 MAP and GSM MAP. 18This roaming capability is described in two new 3GPP2 specifications. No changes are 19needed to existing GSM or GPRS standards. 20One 3GPP2 specification, X.S0023-B Network Interworking Between GSM MAP and 21TIA-41 MAP-cdma2000 Support, provides for the mapping of messages between TIA-41 22MAP and GSM MAP through the IIF. It describes the services available to the 23subscriber in each network. These services include SMS origination and receipt, packet 24data service and supplementary services. This specification also describes the 25interfaces to the IIF from both the CDMA and GSM/GPRS networks, the protocol 26mapping performed in the IIF and the options to placing the IIF either within or between 27the GSM or CDMA network. 28The second 3GPP2 specification is X.S0003-0 One-Way Roaming from X.S0004 to 29GSM. This specification provides for registration and authentication at the home 30X.S0004 system through the visited GSM system without changes to GSM signaling or 31X.S0004 authentication. The objective is to provide the same level of security as if the 32X.S0004 subscriber were visiting another CDMA system. The same IMSI (see ITU-T 33Rec.E.212) is used to identify the roaming subscriber in the GSM and the CDMA 34systems. 2Ref Doc CDG117p, Ver 1.0 06-23-2005p 34
  40. 40. 13. CDG Roaming DocumentInter-Standard Roaming White PaperEntities Provisioned on RUIMs 1The IIF described in X.S0023-B may be located anywhere within or between either the 2GSM/GPRS network or the X.S0004 network. It is implemented as a virtual HLR and 3Authentication Center (AC) in the GSM/GPRS network and as a virtual VLR in the home 4TIA-41 network. Signaling to and from the MSCs and Short Message Service Centers 5(SMSC) pass through the IIF. 6Visit the 3GPP2 web site to see these specifications and IIF implementation alternatives. 7(1) 3GPP2 specification X.S0003-0 “One-Way Roaming from X.S0004 to GSM” 8http://www.3gpp2.org/Public_html/specs/X.S0003-0_v1.0_050124.pdf 9 (2) 3GPP2 specification X.S0023-B “ Network Interworking Between GSM MAP and 10TIA-41 MAP-cdma2000 Support” http://www.3gpp2.org/Public_html/specs/X.S0023- 11B_v1.0_040707.pdf (3) 3GPP2 specification X.S0004-000E “Introduction to TIA-41” at http://www.3gpp2.org/ 12 Public_html/specs/X.S0004-000-E_v1.0_040406.pdf 13 14 2Ref Doc CDG117p, Ver 1.0 06-23-2005p 35
  41. 41. 13. CDG Roaming DocumentInter-Standard Roaming White PaperEntities Provisioned on RUIMs 1 12. 2 andsets (QCT/VODA) 312.1 Handset Fulfillment 4A major consideration for inter-standard roaming is handset fulfillment. CDMA/GSM 5roaming requires two handset technologies – GSM air interface and CDMA air interface. 6This can be achieved in several ways: 7 • With two separate handsets with separate subscriptions 8 •With two separate handsets with the same subscription 9 •A single handset with a dual mode chipset. 10In the past, and even now, operators who had subscribers traveling to countries where 11only one technology was present provided “loaner” phones. These mobile phones were 12used in that particular region or countries. Enabling this type of service proved 13complicated as customers had additional phone bills, a new phone number and were 14required to carry two phones with them. 15However, that concept seemed to prove quite profitable and had significant operator 16interest. Therefore, Vodafone developed the “twin” concept for inter-standard roaming. 17This concept allowed operators to provide their subscribers with two handsets with one 18subscription and one phone number. Each of these phones is SIM/RUIM capable and 19supports AMPS/CDMA at 800 and 1900 MHz as well as GSM/GPRS at 20900/1800/1900MHz. They are SMS, MMS and WAP 2.0 capable and include camera 21and hands free kits. 22 23 CDMA GSM 24 25 Figure 12.1 –Twin phone concept with Nokia phones (example) 2Ref Doc CDG117p, Ver 1.0 06-23-2005p 36
  42. 42. 13. CDG Roaming DocumentInter-Standard Roaming White PaperEntities Provisioned on RUIMs 1 2The availability of multimode chipsets (CDMA 2000 1x, EV-DO and GSM/GPRS) affords 3handsets providing “true” inter-standard roaming features. The multimode chipset 4developed by QUALCOMM is unique in that it provides a seamless cost effective 5solution for Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) to build a handset that enables 6both the CDMA and GSM air interfaces to be accessed with a single chipset. 7 8 9 Figure 12.2 – QUALCOMM’s MSM6500™ Chipset Diagram 10The issues around acquisition and system selection still remain and are discrete when 11each technology is in operation. Preferred roaming lists still need to be formed for each 12technology. By providing more convenience, dual-mode devices introduce the new 13issue of which technology mode to select when both are present - although this is user- 14or operator-controlled by means of geographic region menu or mode selection. In 15addition, GSM handsets use a Subscriber Identity Module (SIM) for user subscription 16management. Most CDMA handsets retain user information internal to the handset. 17These differences lead to the need for multiple handset provisioning methods. The use 18of RUIMs in CDMA handsets help address some of these provisioning and subscription 19management issues. The R-UIM follows the same specification as the SIM, so both a 20CDMA and a GSM profile can be put in one card. 12.2 World Phones 21 22The following true inter-standard handsets are available today and afford the subscriber 23one phone, one subscription and one phone number that can be accessed by multiple 24technologies anywhere in the world (except Japan): 25 2Ref Doc CDG117p, Ver 1.0 06-23-2005p 37
  43. 43. 13. CDG Roaming DocumentInter-Standard Roaming White PaperEntities Provisioned on RUIMs 1Samsung A790 - This phone supports CDMA 2000 1x at 800 and 1900 MHz as well as 2GSM at 900 and 1800MHz. It is SIM/RUIM capable and supports SMS, MMS, WAP 2.0 3and BREW applications. It includes a VGA 600k pixel camera and camcorder with 4MPEG4 including flash capability for pictures or movies taken in dark spaces as well as 5a hands free kits which allows for speech recognition without having to teach the phone 6speech patterns. The later model, Samsung A7095 will include the use of GPRS 7functionality as well. 8 Samsung’s A790 is currently used by Verizon Wireless, Sprint PCS, and China Unicom. 9 Verizon Wireless and Sprint PCS versions of this handset do not support R-UIM. China 10Unicom’s version, the SCH-W109, supports GPRS as well. 11 12 Figure 12.3 Samsung A790 13Motorola A840/A860 – This phone supports CDMA 2000 1x at 800 and 1900 MHz as 14well as GSM at 900 and 1800MHz. It is SIM/RUIM capable and supports SMS, EMS, 15MMS, WAP 2.0 and BREW applications. It includes a 1.2 Mega pixel camera and flash 16capability for pictures taken in dark spaces. It has an integrated CDMA/GSM picture 17phonebook which allows you to associate phone numbers to pictures. It has an MP3 18player with removable flash memory card as well as a hands free kit with voice 19recognition and speaker phone. Verizon Wireless uses the A840 (no R-UIM support) while China Unicom uses the A860 20 (no GPRS but supports R-UIM (dual slot). 21 2Ref Doc CDG117p, Ver 1.0 06-23-2005p 38
  44. 44. 13. CDG Roaming DocumentInter-Standard Roaming White PaperEntities Provisioned on RUIMs 1 2 Figure 12.4. Motorola A840/A860 3LG W800 – This phone supports CDMA 2000 1x at 800 and 1900 MHz as well as GSM 4at 900 and 1800MHz. It is SIM/RUIM capable and supports SMS, MMS and WAP 2.0 5applications. It includes a VGA 300k pixel camera and supports a hands free kit. 6 7 Figure 12.5. LG W800 8CMA8301 – This phone is a dual-mode, four-band clamshell. It has a rotational camera 9and the following features: 10 • 1.3M pixels CMOS Sensor: --1280 x 960 DC, QCIF Camcorder (MPEG 4) 11 • Internal: 176 x 220 pixels, 2.0", 262k colors TFT 12 • External: 96 x 64 pixels, 1.0", OLED 13 • USB, Bluetooth 1.1 14 • TransFlash Card (T Card) Slot 15 • Audio & Video streaming (MP3 & MPEG4) 2Ref Doc CDG117p, Ver 1.0 06-23-2005p 39
  45. 45. 13. CDG Roaming DocumentInter-Standard Roaming White PaperEntities Provisioned on RUIMs 1 • WAP 2.0, M-IMAP, BREW 2 • gpsOne 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Figure 12.6 CMA8301 12The issue of service access remains. The significant point is that although a single 13handset makes roaming more convenient for the user and service appears to be more 14transparent, all the issues of GSM versus CDMA network interfacing remain the same 15irrespective of whether the handset is single or dual mode. 2Ref Doc CDG117p, Ver 1.0 06-23-2005p 40
  46. 46. 13. CDG Roaming DocumentInter-Standard Roaming White PaperEntities Provisioned on RUIMs 1 13. 2 oaming Agreements 3 (Vodafone/IMC 41. To be created by IMC/Vodafone. First draft will come from IMC. Ref Doc CDG117p, Ver 1.0 2 06-23-2005p 41
  47. 47. 13. CDG Roaming DocumentInter-Standard Roaming White PaperEntities Provisioned on RUIMs 1 14. 2 rouble Resolution 3 (SYNI) 414.1 Trouble Resolution – Introduction 5Inter-standard roaming creates additional concerns for trouble resolution among CDMA 6operators. 7The following are some key items to keep in mind when dealing with trouble resolution: 8 • The IMSI, MSIDSN/MIN, MDN, and ESN relationships must be maintained for 9 signaling and billing conversion. This presents additional opportunities for human 10 error when provisioning. Tools must now be available to view and correct errors 11 for these items. Provisioning errors can account for a large number of trouble 12 tickets. Provisioning errors can also cause unsuccessful registrations 13 • Resolution of signaling issues now requires a view of both the CDMA signaling 14 and the GSM signaling with the ability to see mapping on both sides 15 • If a GSM roamer/broker relationship is used, the GSM operator has responsibility 16 for troubleshooting issues with GSM roaming partners THIS SECTION IS INCOMPLETE. ARE THESE THE ONLY PROBLEMS THEY MAY 17 FIND. MORE EXAMPLES COULD BE GIVEN. 18 2Ref Doc CDG117p, Ver 1.0 06-23-2005p 42
  48. 48. 13. CDG Roaming DocumentInter-Standard Roaming White PaperEntities Provisioned on RUIMs 1 15. 2 lossary 15.1 3 Ref Doc CDG117p, Ver 1.0 2 06-23-2005p 43
  49. 49. 13. CDG Roaming DocumentInter-Standard Roaming White PaperEntities Provisioned on RUIMs 1 Appendix A. Standardization Bodies 2A.1 TIA 3ADD CDG INFORMATION TO THIS SECTION. 4SPECIFY WHAT ASPECT OF ISR EACH BODY DEALS WITH OR STANDARDIZES 5 The Telecommunications Industry Association (TIA) is the leading trade association in 6 the communications and information technology industry with proven strengths in market 7development, trade promotion, trade shows, domestic and international advocacy, 8standards development and enabling e-business. Through its worldwide activities, the 9association facilitates business development opportunities and a competitive market 10environment. TIA provides a market-focused forum for its more than 1,100 member 11companies that manufacture or supply the products and services used in global 12communications. 13TIA represents operators of communications and information technology products and 14services for the global marketplace through its core competencies in standards 15development, domestic and international advocacy, as well as market development and 16trade promotion programs. The association facilitates the convergence of new 17communications networks while working for a competitive and innovative market 18environment. TIA strives to further members' business opportunities, economic growth 19and the betterment of humanity through improved communications. A.2 20 TR-45.2 Wireless Inter-system Technology 21This sub-committee’s goal is to develop service definition and network interface 22standards for support of interoperability and intersystem operations, for interfaces 23between those network elements that comprise the infrastructure, in support of seamless 24service to wireless subscribers, other mobile and personal communication network 25systems, auxiliary systems, and to other networks. 26Subcommittee TR-45.2 shall coordinate, for the purpose of consistency, and to promote 27efficient and timely development of standards, with other Subcommittees within TR-45, 28other TR Committees, other international, foreign or national standards bodies and 29appropriate industry organizations as their work requires. Subcommittee TR-45.2 shall 30support efforts to promote standards developed within the Subcommittee at 31international, foreign or national standards fora. 32Subcommittee TR-45.2 operates within the Mission Statement of the 33Telecommunications Industry Association and under the direct supervision and 34guidelines of Committee TR-45. 2Ref Doc CDG117p, Ver 1.0 06-23-2005p 44
  50. 50. 13. CDG Roaming DocumentInter-Standard Roaming White PaperEntities Provisioned on RUIMs 1The Standards development programs of Subcommittee TR-45.2 operate under the 2accreditation awarded to the Telecommunications Industry Association by the American 3National Standards Institute. Subcommittee TR-45.2 operates under the guidelines of 4the Telecommunications Industry Association. 5A.3 ITU-T 6 The ITU Telecommunication Standardization Sector (ITU-T) is one of the three sectors 7 of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU). ITU-T was created on 1 March 1993 8within the framework of the "new" ITU, replacing the former International Telegraph and 9Telephone Consultative Committee (CCITT) whose origins go back to 1865. 10Also created were the ITU-R, Radio communication Sector (former CCIR and IFRB) and 11the ITU-D, Telecommunication Development Sector. 12 13The ITU-T mission is to ensure an efficient and on-time production of high-quality 14standards covering all fields of telecommunications except radio aspects. 15The Telecommunication Standardization Bureau (TSB) provides secretarial support for 16the work of the ITU-T Sector and services for the participants in ITU-T work, diffuses 17information on international telecommunications worldwide and establishes agreements 18with many international Standards Development Organizations. A.4 19 American National Standards Institute (ANSI) ANSI is a private, non-profit organization (501(c)3) that administers and coordinates the 20 U.S. voluntary standardization and conformity assessment system. 21 22The Institute's mission is to enhance both the global competitiveness of U.S. business 23and the U.S. quality of life by promoting and facilitating voluntary consensus standards 24and conformity assessment systems, and safeguarding their integrity. A.5 25 IFAST 26The International Forum on ANSI-41 Standards Technology (IFAST) is not a 27standardization body. IFAST facilitates the identification and resolution of issues to 28enable the interoperability of systems between countries, operators, technologies, and 29standards, thereby protecting the investment made by the industry in the ANSI-41 family 30of standards while evolving to a seamless global network. The mission is to increase the awareness and value of ANSI - 41 networks to operators 31 and their customers. 32 A.6 33 Association of Radio Industries and Businesses (ARIB) 34ARIB is a Japanese standardization body. The objectives of ARIB are to conduct 35investigation, research & development and consultation of utilization of radio waves from 36the view of developing radio industries, and to promote realization and popularization of 2Ref Doc CDG117p, Ver 1.0 06-23-2005p 45

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