COMMAN
   Communication Manager System
for Data Exchange for Ship Operations

     Telematics Application Programme
      ...
COMMAN/D3.1/User Requirements & State of the Art Survey Report



                                                 COMMAN
...
COMMAN/D3.1/User Requirements & State of the Art Survey Report

                                               COMMAN
    ...
COMMAN/D3.1/User Requirements & State of the Art Survey Report
Distribution List:


Copy No Recipient                     ...
COMMAN/D3.1/User Requirements & State of the Art Survey Report

Table of Contents

0. INTRODUCTION & SUMMARY.................
COMMAN/D3.1/User Requirements & State of the Art Survey Report
          3.4.1.1. Location, place of installation Thermal ...
COMMAN/D3.1/User Requirements & State of the Art Survey Report
       3.7.8. Requirements relevant to review of TCP/IP com...
COMMAN/D3.1/User Requirements & State of the Art Survey Report
TABLE 6 TOMAS SERVICES........................................
COMMAN/D3.1/User Requirements & State of the Art Survey Report


0.     Introduction & Summary
This report is intended to ...
COMMAN/D3.1/User Requirements & State of the Art Survey Report
Obviously the requirements’ evaluation process will continu...
COMMAN/D3.1/User Requirements & State of the Art Survey Report


1.     Background Information - Project Context
Informati...
COMMAN/D3.1/User Requirements & State of the Art Survey Report



                                                        ...
COMMAN/D3.1/User Requirements & State of the Art Survey Report
base the communication manager system design, as far as pos...
COMMAN/D3.1/User Requirements & State of the Art Survey Report


Basic applications:

 E-mail with attachments
 Internet...
COMMAN/D3.1/User Requirements & State of the Art Survey Report


2.      State of the Art in Communication Technologies
Th...
COMMAN/D3.1/User Requirements & State of the Art Survey Report
The most recent developments in GSM relate to provision of ...
COMMAN/D3.1/User Requirements & State of the Art Survey Report
density applications (both indoor and outdoor). Under line ...
COMMAN/D3.1/User Requirements & State of the Art Survey Report
networks, currently based on analogue technologies, are com...
COMMAN/D3.1/User Requirements & State of the Art Survey Report
different bandwidth groupings, including a note on TV GEO s...
COMMAN/D3.1/User Requirements & State of the Art Survey Report


There are at least three systems which will provide globa...
COMMAN/D3.1/User Requirements & State of the Art Survey Report


Table (3) below summarises data of systems with potential...
COMMAN/D3.1/User Requirements & State of the Art Survey Report
have already been completed, with an additional 34 under co...
COMMAN/D3.1/User Requirements & State of the Art Survey Report



                Inmarsat 3          ICO           Iridiu...
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  1. 1. COMMAN Communication Manager System for Data Exchange for Ship Operations Telematics Application Programme Transport Sector Project No TR4006 User Requirements & State of the Art Survey report Version 1.0 Final 22/03/99
  2. 2. COMMAN/D3.1/User Requirements & State of the Art Survey Report COMMAN Communication Manager System for Data Exchange for Ship Operations D3.1/User requirements & State of the Art Copy No: 0 Deliverable: User requirements & state of the Art Work Package: WP 03 Dissemination Level : Public Nature: Report Agreed delivery date : 30/1/99 Actual delivery date : 22/03/99 Technical Abstract: This report is intended to summarise information gathered within the COMMAN project related to a state of the art survey and to user requirements for the proposed single data node system which will be studied and demonstrated, as far its basic functionality is concerned, within the project. It begins with an overview of the project original ideas and general aims, followed by an outline of requirements already identified at the planning phase. The second chapter contains the state of the art survey, covering existing and emerging maritime communication systems, terrestrial and satellite developments and discusses third generation (IMT2000--UMTS) concepts. The third chapter reports on the detailed requirements analysis carried out by project partners. The fourth chapter presents a refined system concept, in line with the results of user requirements survey and summarises conclusions from user requirements capture and the state of the art survey. A series of appendices is also included (Definitions and abbreviations, standards to be considered in the design process, 1st User Forum summary, ideas on user interface and a list of requirements relevant to the design of a system interoperable with on board Integrated ship control network, based in an open architecture). Keywords: User requirements capture, State of the Art Survey TR4006/D3.1/MARAC/NP/220399/1.0 -2-
  3. 3. COMMAN/D3.1/User Requirements & State of the Art Survey Report COMMAN Communication Manager System for Data Exchange for Ship Operations D3.1/User requirements & State of the Art Project Co-ordinator: Prof. Jens Froese ISSUS Rainvilleterrasse 4 22765 HAMBURG, Germany Phone:+49 (0)40 3807 2991; Fax:+49 (0)40 3807 2668; E-mail: froese@issus.fh- hamburg.de Produced by: Responsible Organisation Principal Authors Marac Electronics S.A N. Panagiotarakis Contributing Organisations Contributing Authors ISSUS Sylvia Ullmer DERA Peter Knight – Andrea Lewigton BAeSEMA Eddie Shaw – Brian Huston EUTELIS Rapfael Haik – Yann Depoys SINTEF Bjorn Willoch Bjanger – Anders Solhaug Authorised by: Project Co-ordinator ISSUS Prof. J. Froese Document History: Version Status/Revised Paragraph (s) Date 0.3 First draft in the final document format 18/12/98 0.4 Consolidation of partners contributions 14/1/99 0.5 Complete draft for internal project review 19/1/99 0.6 Final draft for external peer review 31/1/99 0.7 Spelling corrections according to peer reviewers 18/3/99 suggestions 1.0 First Final version 22/3/99 No. PAGES 101 FIGURES 14 TABLES 9 APPENDICES 5 Issued by Marac Electronics S.A N. Panagiotarakis TR4006/D3.1/MARAC/NP/220399/1.0 -3-
  4. 4. COMMAN/D3.1/User Requirements & State of the Art Survey Report Distribution List: Copy No Recipient Status Location 0 Generated locally S4.1 Uncontrolled Copy 1 Sylvia Ullmer C1 ISSUS 2 Alexandra Kalapoutis A1.1 TRUTh 3 Kersten Gevers S1.1 Seven Cs 4 Malcolm Plumbley C2 DERA 5 Peter Knight C2 DERA 6 Andrea Lewingdon C2 DERA 7 Brian Houston A2.1 BAeSEMA 8 Prof. Malek Pourzanjani S2.1 SI-MRC 9 Jean-Manuel Canet C3 Expertel 10 Antony Kantidakis C4 MARAC 11 Nick Panagiotarakis S4.1 HORAMA 12 Bjorn Willoch Bjanger C5 SINTEF 13 Kim Fisher X1 MSA 14 Commander John Sexton X2 CGA 15 Paul Flament DG XIII CEC 16 Christos Pipitsoulis DG XIII CEC TR4006/D3.1/MARAC/NP/220399/1.0 -4-
  5. 5. COMMAN/D3.1/User Requirements & State of the Art Survey Report Table of Contents 0. INTRODUCTION & SUMMARY...........................................................................................................................9 1. BACKGROUND INFORMATION - PROJECT CONTEXT.............................................................................11 1.1. KEY OBJECTIVES & VISION.......................................................................................................................................11 1.1.1. Strategy, services to be provided by the system and requirements identified into the planning phase of the project...................................................................................................................................................................12 1.2. VALIDATION SITES...................................................................................................................................................14 2. STATE OF THE ART IN COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES ...............................................................15 2.1. TERRESTRIAL SYSTEMS: GSM, DECT AND TETRA.................................................................................................15 2.1.1. GSM...........................................................................................................................................................15 2.1.2. DECT..........................................................................................................................................................16 2.1.3. TETRA.........................................................................................................................................................17 2.2. SATELLITE SYSTEMS / SATELLITE SYSTEM PROPOSALS & SERVICES...............................................................................18 2.2.1. Little LEOs..................................................................................................................................................19 2.2.2. Narrowband LEOs and MEOs and GEO systems......................................................................................21 2.2.3. Broadband Satellite constellations.............................................................................................................23 2.2.4. A note on Multimedia transmission over TV GEO satellites.....................................................................25 2.3. THIRD GENERATION DEVELOPMENTS (IMT2000 – UMTS).........................................................................................26 2.4. MARITIME COMMUNICATIONS...................................................................................................................................28 2.4.1. : GMDSS – The Global maritime distress & safety system........................................................................28 2.4.1.1. The COSPAS-SARSAT System..........................................................................................................................29 2.4.1.2. NAVTEX.............................................................................................................................................................29 2.4.1.3. Inmarsat...............................................................................................................................................................29 2.4.1.4. HF Radiotelephone...............................................................................................................................................30 2.4.1.5. Search and Rescue Radar Transponders (SARTs)................................................................................................30 2.4.1.6. DSC :Digital Selective Calling.............................................................................................................................30 2.4.1.7. GMDSS Areas......................................................................................................................................................30 2.4.2. Transponders/ AIS devices..........................................................................................................................31 2.5. COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY PROPOSALS WITH POTENTIAL IMPACT ON MARITIME COMMUNICATIONS .................................33 2.5.1. Maritime Enhanced Mobile Radio..............................................................................................................33 2.5.2. DSRR, E-DSRR...........................................................................................................................................33 2.5.3. TOMAS project proposal for an S-UMTS terminal and services...............................................................35 2.5.4. Proposals on data Integration afloat..........................................................................................................36 2.5.4.1. PISCES/ DISC/ COMMAN.................................................................................................................................37 2.5.4.2. ISIT.....................................................................................................................................................................40 3. PRESENTATION OF RESULTS FROM THE USER REQUIREMENTS CAPTURE & ANALYSIS PROCESS ....................................................................................................................................................................42 3.1. METHODOLOGY AND INTRODUCTION TO THE CHAPTER...................................................................................................42 3.2. COMMAN USERS AND STAKEHOLDERS & SYSTEM NON-FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENTS...................................................48 3.2.1. User Classification & Main goals..............................................................................................................48 3.2.2. Non-functional requirements......................................................................................................................51 3.3. TECHNICAL ENVIRONMENT & RELEVANT REQUIREMENTS................................................................................................53 3.3.1. General requirements.................................................................................................................................54 3.3.1.1. Bearers and basic services....................................................................................................................................54 3.3.1.2. Requirements specific to system design & architecture:.......................................................................................55 3.3.2. COMMAN User Workstation......................................................................................................................57 3.3.2.1. User Preference for Hardware .............................................................................................................................57 3.3.2.2. User preferences for Software environment ........................................................................................................58 3.3.2.3. Reference materials required either to perform tasks with system or to learn about or operate system.................59 3.3.2.4. Other requirements in relation to user station.......................................................................................................59 3.3.3. COMMAN server........................................................................................................................................59 3.3.3.1. User preferences for the Software & hardware environment in which system will run........................................59 3.3.3.2. Other technical (stake-holders) requirements relevant to server..........................................................................59 3.3.4. COMMAN Configuration Workstation.......................................................................................................60 3.3.5. COMMAN on board gateways....................................................................................................................61 3.3.6. Considerations and constraints in relation to the context of this section ..................................................61 3.4. PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT & RELEVANT REQUIREMENTS..................................................................................................63 3.4.1. User Workstations.......................................................................................................................................63 TR4006/D3.1/MARAC/NP/220399/1.0 -5-
  6. 6. COMMAN/D3.1/User Requirements & State of the Art Survey Report 3.4.1.1. Location, place of installation Thermal and atmospheric environment.................................................................63 3.4.1.2. Auditory Environment..........................................................................................................................................63 3.4.1.3. Vibration or instability.........................................................................................................................................63 3.4.1.4. Visual Environment.............................................................................................................................................64 3.4.1.5. Space....................................................................................................................................................................64 3.4.1.6. User posture.........................................................................................................................................................64 3.4.1.7. Health and Safety hazards related to system use..................................................................................................64 3.4.1.8. Protective clothing and equipment.......................................................................................................................64 3.4.1.9. Potential Standards or international/ local regulations relevant to the above........................................................64 3.4.2. COMMAN server, configuration station & gateways.................................................................................65 3.4.2.1. Usually “Indoor” Units.........................................................................................................................................65 3.4.2.1.1. Location, place of installation.......................................................................................................................65 3.4.2.1.2. Thermal and atmospheric environment.........................................................................................................65 3.4.2.1.3. Auditory Environment..................................................................................................................................65 3.4.2.1.4. Vibration or instability..................................................................................................................................65 3.4.2.1.5. Visual Environment......................................................................................................................................65 3.4.2.1.6. Space............................................................................................................................................................65 3.4.2.1.7. User posture..................................................................................................................................................66 3.4.2.1.8. Health and Safety hazards related to system use...........................................................................................66 3.4.2.1.9. Potential Standards or international/ local regulations relevant to the above................................................66 3.4.2.2. Outdoor equipment...............................................................................................................................................66 3.4.2.2.1. Thermal and atmospheric environment.........................................................................................................66 3.4.2.2.2. Auditory Environment..................................................................................................................................66 3.4.2.2.3. Vibration or instability..................................................................................................................................66 3.4.2.2.4. Visual Environment......................................................................................................................................66 3.4.2.2.5. Space............................................................................................................................................................66 3.4.2.2.6. User posture..................................................................................................................................................66 3.4.2.2.7. Health and Safety hazards related to system use...........................................................................................67 3.4.2.2.8. Potential Standards or international/ local regulations relevant to the above................................................68 3.4.3. Constraints identified relevant to the content of this section......................................................................68 3.5. SOCIAL AND ORGANISATIONAL ENVIRONMENT & PRELIMINARY ORGANISATIONAL APPROACH............................................69 3.5.1. Staff management structure and IT policy relevant requirements..............................................................69 3.5.2. Requirements relevant to assistance...........................................................................................................71 3.5.3. Requirements relevant to interruptions and stressful conditions...............................................................71 3.5.4. Requirements arising by examination of current communications structure.............................................72 3.5.5. Requirements relevant to safety, security and privacy...............................................................................72 3.5.6. Legal issues/standards................................................................................................................................72 3.5.7. Information Flows & COMMAN preliminary organisational approach...................................................73 3.5.7.1. DISC suggested information model......................................................................................................................73 3.5.7.2. Typical on board information flows (FMS guide)................................................................................................74 3.5.7.3. COMMAN preliminary organisational approach.................................................................................................74 3.6. KEY COMMUNICATION TASKS & RELEVANT REQUIREMENTS............................................................................................77 3.6.1. Passage.......................................................................................................................................................77 3.6.1.1. Pilotage, Docking.................................................................................................................................................77 3.6.1.2. Navigation............................................................................................................................................................77 3.6.1.3. Safety/Emergencies..............................................................................................................................................79 3.6.1.4. Reference data......................................................................................................................................................79 3.6.2. Shipping husbandry and operations...........................................................................................................79 3.6.2.1. Engineering..........................................................................................................................................................79 3.6.2.2. Planning...............................................................................................................................................................79 3.6.2.3. Operations............................................................................................................................................................79 3.6.2.4. Administration.....................................................................................................................................................80 3.6.3. Other miscellaneous application areas......................................................................................................80 3.6.3.1. Personal communications & distant learning........................................................................................................80 3.6.3.2. Tele-medicine services.........................................................................................................................................81 3.6.3.3. Passenger services................................................................................................................................................81 3.6.4. Requirements of a generic nature...............................................................................................................81 3.6.5. Identified technical Constraints relevant to requirements presented in this section..................................82 3.7. OTHER DESIGN IDEAS AND CONCEPTS ......................................................................................................................83 3.7.1. Requirements resulted from review of terrestrial mobile systems/ system proposals................................83 3.7.2. Requirements relevant to review of IMT2000, UMTS................................................................................83 3.7.3. Requirements relevant to review of forth-coming satellite systems/ system proposals..............................84 3.7.4. Requirements relevant of maritime communication systems & services....................................................85 3.7.5. Requirements extracted from projects dealing with on-board data integration and decision support......85 3.7.6. Requirements relevant to review of transponder/AIS equipment, systems & system proposals.................86 3.7.7. Requirements relevant to tele-medicine projects review............................................................................86 TR4006/D3.1/MARAC/NP/220399/1.0 -6-
  7. 7. COMMAN/D3.1/User Requirements & State of the Art Survey Report 3.7.8. Requirements relevant to review of TCP/IP communications over satellite..............................................86 3.7.9. Requirements relevant to review of VSATs.................................................................................................87 3.7.10. Other “Nice to have” features .................................................................................................................87 3.7.11. Identified technical constraints relevant to requirements presented in this section.................................88 4. REFINED SYSTEM CONCEPT & CONCLUSIONS.........................................................................................89 4.1. REFINED SYSTEM CONCEPT........................................................................................................................................89 4.1.1. Vision statement..........................................................................................................................................89 4.1.2. Target market planned................................................................................................................................89 4.1.3. Main users and stakeholders......................................................................................................................89 4.1.4. Mission statement, development concept....................................................................................................90 4.1.5. System overview..........................................................................................................................................90 4.1.6. System boundary.........................................................................................................................................91 4.1.7. System boundary (COMMAN demonstrator)..............................................................................................92 4.1.8. Generic functions........................................................................................................................................93 4.1.9. Basic applications ......................................................................................................................................93 4.1.10. Future basic applications.........................................................................................................................93 4.1.11. Communication channels..........................................................................................................................94 4.1.12. Maintainability..........................................................................................................................................94 4.1.13. Existing system or new development.........................................................................................................94 4.1.14. Single user or multi-user...........................................................................................................................94 4.1.15. Physical environment................................................................................................................................94 4.1.16. Basic characteristics of the COMMAN system user interface..................................................................95 4.1.17. Organisational/institutional/social aspects..............................................................................................95 4.1.18. Safety/security/privacy aspects.................................................................................................................96 4.1.19. Standards to consider...............................................................................................................................96 4.1.20. Data and information................................................................................................................................96 4.1.21. Degraded modes of operation...................................................................................................................96 4.1.22. Future expansion......................................................................................................................................96 4.1.23. Financial (system development)...............................................................................................................96 4.1.24. Financial (payment of services)................................................................................................................97 4.1.25. Technical constraints................................................................................................................................97 4.1.26. Risk............................................................................................................................................................97 4.2. OTHER GENERAL CONCLUSIONS FROM STATE OF THE ART AND USER NEEDS SURVEY. PROJECT OPINION ON THE HIGH LEVEL ARCHITECTURE OF FUTURE MARITIME COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS............................................................................................98 5. REFERENCES.......................................................................................................................................................100 APPENDICES...........................................................................................................................................................102 A1 Glossary & Abbreviations A2 Standards to consider (Informative) A3 Ideas for COMMAN graphical user interface (Informative) A4 1st User Forum Report Summary A5 Requirements to the system architecture (Informative) List of Tables TABLE 1 SATELLITE SYSTEMS OVERVIEW....................................................................................................19 TABLE 2 LITTLE LEO SERVICES PORTFOLIO................................................................................................20 TABLE 3 – LITTLE LEO SERVICES (VERSUS INMARSAT C)........................................................................21 TABLE 4 – PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEMS (EXAMPLES VERSUS INMARSAT)................23 TABLE 5 BROADBAND SATELLITE SYSTEMS (EXAMPLES).......................................................................24 TR4006/D3.1/MARAC/NP/220399/1.0 -7-
  8. 8. COMMAN/D3.1/User Requirements & State of the Art Survey Report TABLE 6 TOMAS SERVICES..................................................................................................................................35 TABLE 7 – ISIT DESIGN GOALS............................................................................................................................40 TABLE 8 SOURCES CONSULTED.........................................................................................................................47 TABLE 9 COMMAN USERS, STAKE-HOLDERS & AFFECTED USERS........................................................48 List of Figures FIGURE 1: COMMAN PROJECT VISION ON THE SHIP-BORNE MARITIME COMMUNICATION SYSTEM OF YEAR 2000+.........................................................................................................................................12 FIGURE 2 TURBO INTERNET USES SPARE SATELLITE TRANSPONDERS AND PSTN "RETURN CHANNELS" TO DELIVER HIGH SPEED TCP/IP DATA – (SOURCE: THE OFFICIAL WEB SITE OF THE DVB PROJECT..................................................................................................................................................25 FIGURE 3 GSM/ UMTS NETWORK ARCHITECTURE, SOURCE [7].............................................................27 FIGURE 4 HIGH LEVEL 3G ARCHITECTURE – SOURCE [21].......................................................................27 FIGURE 5 EIES PROJECT DUAL MODE WIRELESS PLATFORM................................................................34 FIGURE 6 ISC NETWORK OVERVIEW – SOURCE: PISCES BROCHURE..................................................37 FIGURE 7 PISCES/ COMMAN/ DISC II INTERRELATIONSHIP – SOURCE: PISCES WWW SITE........39 FIGURE 8 KEY USER-CENTRED DESIGN ACTIVITIES (FROM ISO 13407, RESPECT)...........................42 FIGURE 9 WP03- USER REQUIREMENTS CAPTURE & ANALYSIS METHODOLOGY...........................44 FIGURE 10 TYPICAL ORGANISATIONAL STRUCTURE ON BOARD A VESSEL.....................................70 FIGURE 11 DISC INFORMATION FLOW MODEL - SOURCE [41].................................................................73 FIGURE 12 SITP DATA FLOW (TYPICAL)..........................................................................................................74 FIGURE 13 COMMAN WORKING ENVIRONMENT AND SURROUNDINGS – PRELIMINARY APPROACH.................................................................................................................................................................75 FIGURE 14 VISION ON 3G HIGH LEVEL ARCHITECTURE – TERMINALS & ACCESS NETWORKS FOR MARITIME USERS...........................................................................................................................................99 TR4006/D3.1/MARAC/NP/220399/1.0 -8-
  9. 9. COMMAN/D3.1/User Requirements & State of the Art Survey Report 0. Introduction & Summary This report is intended to summarise information gathered within the COMMAN project related to a state of the art survey and to user requirements for the proposed single data node system which will be studied and demonstrated (as far its basic functionality is concerned) within the project. It has been written by authors with a variety of experience of technological and user needs. Requirements, presented in this report are extracted from the work of previous telematics projects, an extensive literature survey and world-wide web search, interviews with user representatives and domain experts and last, but not least, the 1st European User Forum. The report is written to draw together information for use within the system design and building phases of the project, and its primary objective is to act as a reference point for project partners involved in relevant future workpackages. It is anticipated that it will also be of interest to a wider audience. The report begins with an overview of the COMMAN project context i.e. key objectives, project vision, strategy and services envisages, requirements identified in project planning phase and a brief paragraph introducing project’s validation context, which will involve end-user target groups such as:  Crew on board, especially the watch at the bridge, the captain and ship’s engineers.  Secondary users ashore are e.g. ship owners, the shipping agent, the harbour masters and VTS centres. The second chapter contains a summary of the state of the art survey, covering existing and emerging maritime communication systems, terrestrial and satellite developments and discusses third generation (IMT2000--UMTS) concepts. This developmental overview is used as a context for introducing the particular niche role of COMMAN as a single data/ communication node acting as an “off-ship gateway” to and from the ship ISC and administrative networks. The third chapter reports on a detailed requirements’ analysis carried out by project partners. The project adopted an iterative methodology for user requirements’ capture and analysis, which will result in a “user centred” approach for system design. COMMAN methodological approach was based on the CODE project guidelines for user needs analysis [37],the framework for user requirements’ capture and analysis developed by the Telematics Engineering project RESPECT [36] as well as the provisions in the Technical annex of COMMAN project. It provided a systematic tool for identifying requirements based on:  User groups characteristics and goals  The technical, physical and organisational environment(s), tasks, processes and information flows  Features of applications and systems that will be using services provided by the single data node and existing/emerging bearers that should be possibly interfaced to the COMMAN system. The chapter summarises a great deal of information (at first recorded in a series of forms and an electronic database) which is presented as a series of detailed lists in a format designed to aid reference within the design and implementation phases of the COMMAN project. It should be noted that, from the COMMAN viewpoint and the methodology it follows, the system “users” are not only the “end-users” (on board user groups, visiting technicians, pilots, etc) or “affected” users (ashore personnel of the shipping companies, crew family members, VTS personnel, etc). Users can be other system “stake-holders” as well, such as application developers, communication system manufacturers, network operators and service providers. Their needs have also been captured, primarily with the aid of an extensive literature survey and worldwide web search, and recorded in this document with the form of technical requirements, technical limitations/ shortcomings, desirable and “nice-to-have” features and standards to be considered. Both end-user and stake-holders requirements have been pre- assessed, by the project team, in the light of what is feasible and possible by making use of today and emerging technologies. As a result a summary of design constraints and project opinions on how the system designers should deal/ cope/ overcome identified limitations has been included. TR4006/D3.1/MARAC/NP/220399/1.0 -9-
  10. 10. COMMAN/D3.1/User Requirements & State of the Art Survey Report Obviously the requirements’ evaluation process will continue, during the functional specification and system architecture definition phases of the project. Project’s final design choices will be recorded in the “System Architecture” deliverable D5.1. However, the adopted methodology will assist the design team to identify all the key issues relevant to COMMAN design that need to be considered during the next phases of the project. Further it has facilitated the refinement of the system concept (with respect to the original ideas recorded within the project’s technical annex). This refined concept is a major focus of the fourth and final chapter of the report, which also highlights conclusions about the potential role of COMMAN in the context of future maritime communications as well as the evolution of mobile/ satellite communication systems. The report also contains five appendices: Glossary & Abbreviations, Standards to consider (informative), ideas for the graphic user interface (informative), 1st User Forum Report Summary and, finally, requirements to the system architecture (informative) Note for the reader: Kindly note that for the presentation of the requirements (in chapter (3) of the document) bulleted lists have been used. These are identified (in order to differentiate from other bulleted lists used in the document) by a “bullet” symbol representing a “finger” indicating towards the requirement statement, as indicated below:  User requirement’s text TR4006/D3.1/MARAC/NP/220399/1.0 - 10 -
  11. 11. COMMAN/D3.1/User Requirements & State of the Art Survey Report 1. Background Information - Project Context Information recorded in this chapter is primarily based on the Technical Annex (Project programme) included in COMMAN project contract TR4006. It outlines the project context i.e. key objectives, project vision, strategy and services envisages, requirements identified in project planning phase and a brief paragraph introducing project’s validation site. 1.1. Key objectives & vision COMMAN is an R&D project co-funded by the Telematics Application programme of the European Commission. Its primary objective is the development and validation of an on board communication manager system which shall integrate existing or emerging communication bearers and enable on board users to access them seamlessly, via a common user interface incorporated into the application. Thus, it will provide on board navigators with a “single point access” to existing or future communication services and ashore users a single entry for remote login at ship’s internal network. Communication on land, and particularly data exchange in the form of the Internet, has over the last ten years, seen a very rapid pace of technological development. In the mobile domain however, radio communication at sea has evolved less quickly and precluded the communications flexibility that derives from the use of a common user network. Maritime communications still comprise disparate VHF, MF and satellite networks. Data communication is still rare and voice communication relies heavily on pre-digital technology. This is extravagant in its use of spectrum and inefficient in protecting the transmission from corruption by interference. The COMMAN project addresses the implementation of a “single data node” on board ships, functioning as a hub through which all of the ships’ external communications flow. This will centralise the communications management and give information services access to all available communication bearers. It is thus expected that the administrative load of on-board personnel will be reduced, communications management will be improved and error rates, congestion and delay problems imposed by current communications will be kept to a minimum. It is also expected that the system will provide the ship operator with a powerful tool to meet efficiency and cost drivers which will result from the expected drastic increase of maritime data communication. The demands will be driven from a range of services that will include: radio transponders, DGPS correction service, ECDIS data base access and updating, remote login into ship-borne automated systems for diagnosis, maintenance and multi-media applications. It is anticipated that the system would be installed in all types of vessels of 500 GRT or more displacement. Main customers for this type of equipment will be commercial shipping operators. The system will support ship-ship and ship-shore communication within all functional areas of the ship operation process, such as:  Passage execution, e. g. navigation support and data communication between VTS’s and vessels  Management and cargo handling  Engineering & planning operations  Safety, e. g. support of standard reporting procedures according to ISM code Additionally, the system will support personal communications, health monitoring (tele-medicine) and training applications. The single data node concept is illustrated in figure (1). TR4006/D3.1/MARAC/NP/220399/1.0 - 11 -
  12. 12. COMMAN/D3.1/User Requirements & State of the Art Survey Report GMDSS HF LEAST COST ROUTING F VH s ce vi De A IS M COMPRESSION GS / UMTS E-DSRR COMMAN SERVER OTHER?? S-PC N (IC O/IR ID IUM , etc) Multiband Multimode S- Maritime UM TS Communication Server IN M AR SA T- IN C MA R Data, Video, Messages, Audio SA T- B Voice Switch Decision Support Systems Gateway ISM Navigation, ship control Other ship Engine Control management Systems Cargo , Machinery Ballast, Fire, etc Figure 1: COMMAN project vision on the ship-borne maritime communication system of year 2000+ COMMAN will be integrated seamlessly into the on board ISC network and it will act as a gateway between all ship-borne networks and the external world. All available communication bearers (satellite, radio, etc) shall be directly accessible by the system or by safety critical services (i.e. for GMDSS use). In this context, the communication manager shall make optimum use of existing maritime bearers (such as Inmarsat) or existing mobile bearers (such as GSM) and project shall exploit the potential that arises by integrating it with emerging/ forthcoming satellite & radio/mobile systems. COMMAN will be a multi- user system that will be accessible to all clients connected to the on board networks (ISC network and administrative networks). With respect to the operation of the COMMAN server itself (e.g. for configuration of the server) there will be one single operator console 1.1.1. Strategy, services to be provided by the system and requirements identified into the planning phase of the project To support successful exploitation, in the short term after project completion, the end product must be capable of becoming an add-on to the available range of commercial systems that are in use today on board ship and not to require the replacement of such equipment. That is why the project strategy is to TR4006/D3.1/MARAC/NP/220399/1.0 - 12 -
  13. 13. COMMAN/D3.1/User Requirements & State of the Art Survey Report base the communication manager system design, as far as possible, on available or emerging standards and Commercial Off The Shelf (COTS) products and to minimise any additional hardware and software development. However, in line with the process, in Europe, for developing a third generation Universal Mobile Telecommunication System (UMTS), the project is also intending to take into account new developments within the field of mobile communications like emerging satellite systems or other cordless systems. Therefore the project is evaluating and validating proposed candidate technologies and system concepts, which are in line with the COMMAN basic objective (seamless integration of functions and seamless access of bearers, through application interface via a single communication node). It should be noted that a development concept exists and it is based on current commercial developments, in house R&D projects of the participant companies as well as research currently undergone within projects such as (list is not exclusive): POSEIDON, EIES, VTMIS-NET, GEONET-4D, TOMAS & PISCES. With respect to COMMAN system functions, one has to distinguish between generic functions of the communication manager itself and applications to be supported by the system. Generic functions are independent of specific applications forming the basic functionality of the communication manager system. Supported applications are in general not part of the communication manager system. However, it is important to study carefully the applications in order to identify functional requirements of the system. In relation to “generic” functions of COMMAN, following requirements have been already identified during the planning phase of the project:  Integration of communication bearers used today or expected in the near future  “Seamless roaming” among available carriers  System should apply effective and efficient information management techniques  System should provide operational and support information  System should include network management: resources and diagnostic tools  System should comprise network security: authorisation and protection mechanisms for validation of messages  System should be easily configurable and adaptable to the specific operation environment of a given ship  Communications routing should be based on Quality of Service criteria  System shall provide means and tools for Internet / Intranet access  Access to on board/ on shore databases with / without multimedia content should be enabled  Wireless access to terrestrial ISDN should be enabled  Wireless access of terrestrial or satellite high speed communication networks should be enabled  System should act as a gateway between the ISC network and the external world Supported applications can be divided into basic applications and specific applications. Basic applications (e.g. e-mail or Internet browser capabilities) cannot be allocated to a specific task or function. These applications are used as “tools” to execute several tasks. Specific applications (e.g. remote maintenance) are used to perform one specific task. The following paragraphs include a list of “basic” applications and “specific” applications, which should be supported by the COMMAN system. It must be noted that this list is not exhaustive or complete, it just reflects the original ideas, on the COMMAN concept, of project participants as recorded in the contract’s technical annex1: 1 One of the primary goals of the User requirements' analysis phase of the COMMAN project was to verify the validity of the list and record the user expectations on the basic and specific services which should be supported by the communication manager. However, the final selections of the basic and specific services that will be included in the demonstrator depend on the demonstrator configuration, which will be decided at a later stage. TR4006/D3.1/MARAC/NP/220399/1.0 - 13 -
  14. 14. COMMAN/D3.1/User Requirements & State of the Art Survey Report Basic applications:  E-mail with attachments  Internet / Intranet browser capabilities  Voice communications via the available (depending on system configuration) narrow band communication channels  Fax  Short messaging service via on board transponder equipment  Internet Relay Chat (IRC)  Video conference via the available (depending on system configuration) high speed communication channels  White-boarding Specific Applications: Existing today:  Delivery (Import/ Export) of ISM code relevant messages or forms  Weather, Hydrographic and Ship Movement Information Access  ECDIS on line updates  Tele-medicine  Remote Damage Survey, Remote Inspection and Fault Diagnosis - Integration of the on board component of decision support systems with their on shore component  Remote Surveillance of Safety Critical Operations or Ship Conditions  Delivery of Remote Expertise and Co-operative Work (such as tele-maintenance, distant learning)  Transmission of radar picture extracts from VT(MI)S to ships  On board logistic /management systems  Access to Value Added Port Services and port intranets  Access to passenger/ traveller information systems  Port Entry Guide (PEG)  Virtual Round Tables and Forums (if possible) Future applications/ services  Wireless access to on shore networks/ databases via UMTS, S-UMTS  Communication aids to vessel automatic berthing operations  Support to language independent communication and bridge information exchange tasks by integrating suitable language independent communicators & speech processing tools 1.2. Validation sites The system, which will be developed during the course of the project, will be validated in a real operational environment to prove its usability and to convince potential users and owners of the benefits that could accrue. The demonstration planned for COMMAN project will consist of a series of practical field trials and tests, aboard and ashore, involving professional users. The verification process is not site dependent. If the trials are successful in one area it can be assumed that this will also be the case in other areas. Only one demonstration site is planned2. This is located in the southern approaches of the UK and it covers an area from Dover to Lymington. It will consist of a series of communication nodes at control and user locations. On shore a node will be used at the DERA Fraser site and it is planned to install a COMMAN system on vessels owned by Brittany Ferries, P&O Ned Lloyd and (optionally) Red Funnel Ferries. 2 If during the course of the project other sites (or vessels) want to participate this may be possible but only on their own costs. TR4006/D3.1/MARAC/NP/220399/1.0 - 14 -
  15. 15. COMMAN/D3.1/User Requirements & State of the Art Survey Report 2. State of the Art in Communication Technologies This chapter3 is the result of an extensive literature and internet survey and sets out to provide the reader with an overview of the current state of the art in the mobile and satellite systems arena, in terms of both the technology and markets. It includes background information on technologies (existing or emerging) as well as on specific systems, system proposals and system concepts, including PISCES, ISIT and TOMAS project proposals which are of direct relevance to maritime communication users. The primary objectives of the survey were:  to identify the main technological factors which influence specific systems evolution and identify trends and commonalities in the design of mobile and satellite communication systems and terminals;  to identify targets and the “gaps” which proposed systems or technologies intend to cover;  to identify potential advantages and disadvantages of proposed systems or technologies;  to provide information on the key services and core markets addressed by each individual system or proposal and, if available, information on the marketing strategy that system developers or operators intend to follow. It should be emphasised that this investigation was made from the perspective of an industrial company developing and/or integrating communications systems for maritime and land mobile applications, wishing to obtain a clear view on current trends and developments. These may impact/affect, directly or indirectly, the future maritime communication market. Therefore, there is no reference herein to mobile technologies or concepts (such as MBS – Mobile Broadband systems or PHS) developed only or primarily for use within (or around) metropolitan areas. 2.1. Terrestrial systems: GSM, DECT and TETRA 2.1.1. GSM At the end of 1997, the GSM standard accounted for 66 million customers - 31 per cent of the world’s total market for wireless services[1]. It is the world’s leading digital platform for terrestrial mobile communications. The majority of GSM networks operate at the 900Mhz band and are based on phase I specifications, which were published by ETSI in 1990. Currently, there are 237 GSM networks, worldwide (including DCS1800 and PCS1900, which are GSM variations operating at 1.8 GHz (DCS1800) or 1.9 GHz - GSM1900 or PCS1900). The basic service supported by GSM is telephony. In addition, a variety of circuit switched narrow- band data services is offered, supporting Group 3 facsimile and data transmission at up to 9600bps. GSM may provide gateways to PSTN, ISDN, Packet Switched Public Data Networks, and Circuit Switched Public Data Networks using a variety of access methods and protocols, such as X.25 or X.32. A very useful service introduced with GSM, (not found in older analogue systems) is the Short Message Service (SMS). This is a bi-directional service for short alphanumeric (up to 160 bytes) messages. Messages are transported in a store-and-forward fashion, or are stored in the SIM card incorporated in GSM handsets for later retrieval. The Short Messaging Service (SMS) is increasingly being used for advanced features such as Internet driven e-mail delivery, while wider support for mobile-originated SMS is bound to attract many users. It is expected that single-channel rates over GSM will very soon be extended from 9.6 kbps to 14.4 Kbps, and there are manufacturers who claim that, by applying compression techniques, they will achieve data throughput of up to 36.000 bps. 3 based on a full Horama report [39], prepared on behalf of project partner Marac Electronics S.A and including valuable contributions from all the COMMAN partners TR4006/D3.1/MARAC/NP/220399/1.0 - 15 -
  16. 16. COMMAN/D3.1/User Requirements & State of the Art Survey Report The most recent developments in GSM relate to provision of higher speed data services such as HSCSD and GPRS. HSCSD is an enhancement of the current circuit-switched operation of GSM, which will soon be available to provide circuit switched data at speeds up to 76Kbit/s. GPRS is based on data packet transmission (used for the first time on GSM) and will operate at rates ranging from 14Kbit/s to 115Kbit/s. GPRS is to be introduced late in 1999. Because GPRS transmits packets, it will be more suited for bursty data applications, such as e-mail and database access services and connectivity with TCP/IP networks. However, it should be noted (as Ovum & Dataquest conclude in their recent reports [3][4]) that implementation of both HSCSD and GPRS require serious investments, and modifications to current networks (as well as to the mobile terminals). It is therefore probable that they will be restricted to certain specific metropolitan areas. GSM networks have, of course, been developed around cities, their surrounding areas and principal highways. Financial considerations preclude wider coverage and there are no firm signs that GSM networks will be expanded in order to cover extensive coastlines. GSM service is usually provided at much lower rates than Inmarsat’s. In “closed” waters (for instance the Baltic), wherever access to GSM is possible, seafarers are increasingly using it, although it is not officially accepted as a maritime communication platform. Service rates to pay for GSM are based on individual provider pricing policy. However they are usually set at a fraction of $1 per minute. 2.1.2. DECT DECT and its North American sibling (PWT) is a cordless system intended for very short range communications (typically 200 metres), operating in the 1880 to 1900 MHz band using GFSK (BT=0.5) modulation. It is mainly intended for use in indoor environments and private networks, which may involve multiple handsets and base stations. Roaming between base stations is possible. Use of a handset on different DECT private networks (e.g. business and residential) is also facilitated. DECT has a very flexible radio interface which, besides voice, will allow standard DECT equipment to handle data at 24 kbps. The air interface design permits, in theory, much higher data rates (n x 24kbps, 552 kbps data is theoretically possible) but equipment operating at this speed or with such features is not yet readily available. DECT has been designed to provide access to any type of telecommunication network, thus supporting numerous different applications and services. The range of DECT applications may include residential, PSTN and ISDN access, wireless PABX, GSM access, Wireless Local Loop, Cordless Terminal Mobility CTM, Local Area Network access supporting voice telephony, fax, modem, e-mail, Internet and X.254 Since DECT is an access technology and network-wide mobility is outside the scope of the standard, the DECT/GSM interworking profile (GIP) is a powerful addition providing mobility in DECT infrastructures distributed over multiple sites through GSM mobility functions. GIP allows a DECT terminal to be directly connected to the GSM switching centres, by passing the GSM standard access mechanism. Interworking is done in such a way that the GSM network does not know that it is being accessed through DECT. ETSI working groups have also developed specifications for the DSSI+ protocol that allows inter-working between GSM mobility functions and DECT through the ISDN. The DSSI+ protocol (DE/ SPS-05121) is based on DSSI with enhancements to support mobility functions. Another interesting enhancement for DECT will be provided by the (WRS) Wireless Relay Station, which is a cost effective infrastructure building block providing improved or extended coverage in low traffic 4 However as a representative of ERO stated in a recent paper [32], the total bandwidth requirement for DECT has been related to a voice communication scenario only and, as LAN data traffic had to share the spectrum with DECT telephony, traffic congestion soon may become a problem. That’s why “it is recommended that the licensing of wireless LAN equipment using DECT frequencies should be viewed critically by administrations, because the resulting additional traffic could cause bottlenecks in an office environment” TR4006/D3.1/MARAC/NP/220399/1.0 - 16 -
  17. 17. COMMAN/D3.1/User Requirements & State of the Art Survey Report density applications (both indoor and outdoor). Under line of sight conditions and equipped with the maximum 12 dBi gain antennas, radio ranges up to 5 km are feasible but with application of a WRS – in the same constellation – the radio range can be extended by another 5 km. The majority of DECT product sales are currently for residential and business applications. DECT has proven to be cost effective for the low-end consumer market, showing potential for further cost reductions. Most of the applications in this market segment concern single base station and single handset configurations. However, it should be noted that there are a large number of DECT radio local loop installations, supporting voice applications, used by several hundreds of thousands of subscribers and in operation all over the world (according to DECT forum data [34]). Line of sight ranges beyond 5 km with perfect speech are consistently reported. Orders had exceeded half a million lines at the end of 1996, and growth rates indicate that local loop may become a dominant DECT application. Due to its low cost and primarily the (theoretical today) possibility of enabling services on higher data rates it is thought that DECT could be used in short range maritime applications (within harbour areas). ACTS project EIES [11] intended to organise a series of such trials, based on an enhanced DECT handset which was going to be developed from ACTS COBUCO project. However such an enhanced unit was not developed from COBUCO and thus, today, there is no practical evidence about the possible use of DECT in a maritime communications scenario. 2.1.3. TETRA TETRA is the European standard, recently developed by ETSI, for digital trunked radio systems. TETRA systems focusing on the needs of Professional Mobile Radio users operating in market segments such as:  public safety & public security (police, fire & rescue, customs, ambulance, etc.);  transport (airline, port, airport, airfreight, special transport, river transport, taxi, bus, railway, etc.);  utility (gas, electricity, water, oil, etc.), Industry (manufacturing, plant, distribution, construction, small manufacturing, etc.);  non-emergency authority (government department, public health, environment protection, PTT, etc.),  support services (private telecom operator, user services, maintenance, etc.). TETRA is a fully digital system providing consistent voice quality and low bit error rate for data. There are three basic system variants of TETRA standard (Voice and Data, Packet Data Optimised, Direct Mode Operation). The basic difference between the variations is the multiple access scheme and relevant channel structure on the air interface. TETRA V+D uses a TDMA methodology which permits the use of one 25 kHz carrier by (4) users simultaneously for voice (mainly) or data applications (at a bit rate of up to 7.2 kbps, normally; up to 28.8 kbps if all four channels are reserved for the same user connection). TETRA PDO uses a statistical multiplexing/multiple access scheme (STM/STMA) which is more suitable for bursty data applications at a gross bit rate up to 36kbps while DMO uses a 4 TDMA slot/2 communication channel scheme per 25 kHz carrier. Both TETRA V+D and PDO support a wide range voice teleservices (individual call, group call, acknowledged group call, broadcast call) as well as circuit switched data and packet switched data services with a wide selection of data transmission rates and error protection levels. The frequency band of 380-400 MHz is allocated for TETRA systems by NATO for the exclusive use of Public Safety forces. There are currently no bands allocated permanently to TETRA for commercial applications. However, following the adoption of standards by ETSI, it is quite possible that national authorities will allocate frequencies for commercial TETRA applications in bands such as 450-460 / 460-470 MHz or 870-876 / 915-921 MHz. Obviously, the first users which may implement TETRA are the European land based public safety and emergency services, e.g. police, fire brigades, border control officials. These constitute about 45% of the overall market projected for TETRA for 2001, by a survey of major TETRA manufacturers, according to data included in a report of the European Commission published in 1996 [5]. The existing public safety TR4006/D3.1/MARAC/NP/220399/1.0 - 17 -
  18. 18. COMMAN/D3.1/User Requirements & State of the Art Survey Report networks, currently based on analogue technologies, are coming to the end of their economic lifetime. TETRA provides the key features like encryption, direct mode, fast call set-up time, group calls, which such users need and, on the other hand cannot be provided by other mobile nets developed in the area (such as GSM, for instance, which has a totally different service orientation, philosophy and technical platform). Other land mobile market sectors, addressed by TETRA, such as the Transport sector for instance (which according to TETRA makers projections, is about 18% of the 2001 TETRA overall market) will be much harder to penetrate. European railways for instance, decided to develop their own system, based on an enhanced GSM variation. The success or failure of TETRA, in the railways market, will primarily relate to the speed at which TETRA will develop, versus development costs and R&D speed for the railway communication system. Further, the transport sector is highly cost sensitive and shows “low-medium” interest on TETRA specific functionality (as the report of the European Commission in [5] indicates). As other mobile systems or satellite systems may serve its needs quite well, the future of TETRA will be influenced by cost efficiency and coverage considerations. It should also be noted that maritime user groups, such as the Coast Guard, with similar needs to the police forces, are not currently considered as a focus group for TETRA. There are no references in the literatur about European TETRA pilot projects which involve the coastguard or port users. Further there are no European R&D projects, known to us, conducting trials involving TETRA in maritime applications. Of course TETRA may offer a very high quality of service to coastguard users – especially for voice services. However, due to the very limited number of users, on one hand, and the costs involved in deploying a complex network such as TETRA, on the other, we conclude that there are very few chances for a coastguard to deploy such a network. Coastguard decisions would be, logically, influenced/dependent on other user group decisions (such as police or national PTTs or private operators) to deploy TETRA on wide areas covering extensive coastlines. 2.2. Satellite Systems / Satellite System Proposals & Services According to analysts, conducting research for Motorola, the total telecommunications market in 1997 was about $650 billion. They predict that this market is going to double in 10 years time, and data communications via satellites will play a major role in this growth. Satellite based communication has played a key role in telecommunications for many years. Although still a very risky business for the potential investor (20 multimillion dollar satellites lost in space or at launch since 1990), Merrill Lynch predictions, made in April 1997, suggest that satellite communication business annual revenues will grow at a rate of 500% after the year 2000 [12]. It is not surprising, therefore, that satellite developments attract companies such as Motorola, Alcatel, Lockheed Martin, Loral, Hughes, and successful entrepreneurs like Bill Gates, who intend to invest billions of hard currency in projects like Teledesic, SkyBridge, Iridium, Globalstar, and Spaceway, Astrolink, Cyberstar, etc. We shall soon, therefore, find ourselves under the “umbrella” of a number of systems, which are going to provide a huge variety of services. From narrowband voice (Iridium, Globalstar, ICO, Ellipso,….), paging and short messages (Orbcomm, LEO One, FAISAT,..) to interactive multimedia (Spaceway, SkyBridge, Teledesic) at rates of 20-155Mbps and maybe more. However, there is a unanimous view in the satellite industry that satellite communication will not compete with the land-based fixed or mobile systems. Instead, they will complement land-based systems; offering services where it is impossible, or not economically feasible, for the terrestrial networks to establish provision. All the systems reviewed in this survey which plan, for example, to provide voice services, intend to offer, from day one, dual mode handsets (satellite/cellular) and are establishing partnerships with terrestrial network operators to distribute their services to the end users. Table (1), in the following page, provides a classification of satellite systems in terms of orbits, frequency bands used and basic service orientation. There are then subsections describing developments related to TR4006/D3.1/MARAC/NP/220399/1.0 - 18 -
  19. 19. COMMAN/D3.1/User Requirements & State of the Art Survey Report different bandwidth groupings, including a note on TV GEO satellites multimedia services 5. Tables given in these subsections include a comparison with the existing maritime Inmarsat options where relevant. More details of Inmarsat are included in subsection 2.4.1.3. System type Frequency Applications Terminal Critical Issues Examples bands type/size (usually) Fixed satellite C and Ku TV/Video delivery, 0,6m and larger Latency/ Noise Eutelsat HotBird, service (GEO) VSAT, news fixed earth PanamSat, Intelsat gathering, telephony terminals Most suitable for “broadcasting” applications Direct broadcast Ku Direct-to-home 0.3-0.6-meter Latency/ Noise DirecTV, satellite (GEO) video/audio fixed earth Echostar, USSB, terminals Astra Broadband GEO Ka and Ku Internet access, 20-cm, or more Latency/ Noise/ Spaceway, voice, video, data fixed type of Antenna Cyberstar, Most suitable for terminal usually Astrolink “broadcasting”, “push-pull” multimedia applications Narrowband L and S Voice and low-speed Fixed or mobile Latency/ Noise Inmarsat3, AMSC/ GEO data to mobile terminals (laptop TMI terminals size usually) MEOs L, S, C, X Personal Usually dual mode Space/ Ground ICO, Ellipso Communications Cellular/ Satellite segments (Cellular telephony, phones, ; fixed configuration, data, paging, etc.) phone booths, orbits portable terminals, etc. Broadband LEO Ka and Ku Internet access, Dual 20-cm Space/ Ground Teledesic, voice, video, data, tracking antennas, segments SkyBridge videoconferencing fixed configuration, More suitable for orbits, elevation interactive angle, antenna multimedia services technology Big LEO L and S Personal Usually dual mode Space/ Ground Iridium, Communications Cellular/ Satellite segments GlobalStar, (Cellular telephony, phones and pagers; configuration, data, paging, etc.) fixed phone booth, orbits, etc. Little LEO Usually VHF Position location, "As small as a Line of sight, OrbComm, LEO tracking, messaging packet of power One, E-SAT cigarettes" and omnidirectional Table 1 Satellite Systems Overview 2.2.1. Little LEOs Little LEO systems aim to complement terrestrial data services and public, private mobile radio services. Their satellites usually operate in the VHF band and orbit around earth at heights around 1000km. Target market segments usually include transportation and shipping (messaging & location), business travellers (paging – short medium length e-mail), telemetry and SCADA applications support (for industry, utilities, environment, agriculture), commercial and residential security, and personal safety. Tailor made terminals (fixed, vehicular, pocket-sized handsets) are to be offered depending on the type of application to be served. 5 As it could be, in theory used, at least on ferries or cruise liners carrying satellite TV systems with satellite autotracking facilities. Further the technical concept, implemented in such systems, is quite interesting TR4006/D3.1/MARAC/NP/220399/1.0 - 19 -
  20. 20. COMMAN/D3.1/User Requirements & State of the Art Survey Report There are at least three systems which will provide global (or near global) coverage: The Orbcomm constellation consists of 36 LEO satellites orbiting at 825km. Twenty-eight of the satellites are planned to be put in service by the third quarter of 1998, with the remaining eight planned to be launched during 1999. Twelve satellites are already in orbit. The data rate supported currently is up to 2.4 kbit/s (typically 0.3 kbit/s), though the FCC currently authorised Orbcomm to increase the number of its satellites to 48, and granted further spectrum. The increase in spectrum will allow more efficient and higher downlink data rates. The system is planned for worldwide coverage, and service in Europe is about to start. Service rates are not clear, as yet, but could start out at something like 1 (US) cent per byte or less. Transceivers are expected to cost between $500-1000. The LEO One satellite system will provide store-and-forward coverage of all points between the Arctic and Antarctic Circles. (650 North 650 South) and near real-time service to the most populated regions of the Earth, including ocean regions. Service launch is expected at year 2000. Transceivers will cost $100 to $500. Operators claim that service costs will be competitive with terrestrial-based data communication systems. The Faisat constellation will include thirty-eight (38) small satellites. Commercial operation is likely to start during the year 2000. Full operation is expected no later than 2002. The system will broadly provide worldwide coverage, but a lot of ocean areas will be under-served or excluded. (The constellation provides continuous coverage in areas from 20 to 60 degrees north and south latitude, and near continuous coverage over the other portions of the earth). Phased deployment will start with non time-critical services and will evolve to time-critical markets and value-added services. Terminal costs will vary from $100 to $500 depending on options packaging, and quantity. Service rates, according to the operator, can be as low as $0.25 per message. Table (2) summarises services offered by Little LEO systems File Asset Asset Monitor Alert Wireless Messaging Transfers Tracking & Control Notification E-mail Transportation X X X X X Utility X X X X Oil & Gas X X X X Automotive X X X X X Agribusiness X X X Environmental X X X X X X Security X X X X Emergency X X X Health X X X X X Education X X X X X Retail X X X X X X Business X X X X X X Government X X X X X X Consumers X X X X X Source : FAISAT Table 2 Little LEO services portfolio TR4006/D3.1/MARAC/NP/220399/1.0 - 20 -
  21. 21. COMMAN/D3.1/User Requirements & State of the Art Survey Report Table (3) below summarises data of systems with potential to offer messaging services on a world- wide basis. Inmarsat 3 Orbocomm LEO ONE FAISAT (Inmarsat C) Main Applications Messaging & Messaging & Messaging & Messaging & tracking tracking monitoring monitoring Type Nar GEO Little Leo Little Leo Little Leo Spectrum request L VHF VHF VHF Area World- wide World wide World-wide Near World. Ocean areas not fully covered Service launch Operational 1995 2000 2000 Full coverage Available 1999 ?? 2002 Number of satellites 5 36 to 48 48 38 Data throughput 600 baud 0.3- 2.4 kbps 2.4 – 9.6kbps Data not available (currently) uplink, 24kbps downlink Fixed terminal cost Not applicable ?? ?? $500 (est.) Portable/ vehicle $6000 ?? $500 $100-500 terminal cost (est.) Mobile terminal Not Applicable $500 - $1000 $100 $100 cost (est.) Airtime cost $0,33 per 256bits ?? Terrestrial radio $0.25 per message message compatible System cost 0,69 0.33 0.25 0.25 (billions USD) Table 3 – Little LEO services (versus Inmarsat C) 2.2.2. Narrowband LEOs and MEOs and GEO systems The narrow-band satellite constellations SPCN (Satellite Personal Communication Systems), which are currently planned, focus on the provision of a “GSM-like” portfolio of services (i.e. primarily voice services as well as data services at narrow-band rates) and are intending to “complement” terrestrial cellular systems. Operators will offer, from the very beginning, dualmode handsets which will be able to select either satellite or terrestrial modes of operation, subject to the availability of the satellite and terrestrial systems in the area where the user roams and the user's preferred service arrangements. Services will normally be offered to end–users via their local cellular operators. The most significant systems are:- Iridium: a space segment consisting of 67 operational satellites orbiting at 780km (circular), interconnected via inter-satellite links (5 of the 72 satellites launched are not functional). Each satellite carries 48 spot beams. Construction of 10 out of 12 terrestrial gateways is already complete. Iridium supports digital voice, fax and data at 2.4 kbit/s. Service launch is expected within the third quarter of 1998. Iridium will operate worldwide, including ocean regions. The core customer for Iridium will be the business traveller. Tariffs are expected to be in the range $3 to $6 per minute. A dual mode (Iridium/ GSM) subscriber terminal is expected to cost around $3000. Due to system architecture choices it is highly unlikely that Iridium will be able to offer services to maritime or mobile users at rates better than today’s Inmarsat rates. Globalstar: a constellation which will consist of 48 LEO satellites plus eight in-orbit spares. Eight satellites are already in orbit. A further 36 will be launched during 1998 and the remaining 12 in early 1999. Initial commercial operations should start by the end of the first quarter of 1999. Four gateways TR4006/D3.1/MARAC/NP/220399/1.0 - 21 -
  22. 22. COMMAN/D3.1/User Requirements & State of the Art Survey Report have already been completed, with an additional 34 under construction. The system can cover up to 70 degrees N and S latitudes, provided that gateway coverage is available. Each gateway is expected to provide mobile coverage for an area almost as large as Western Europe. The user segment will comprise fixed, mobile and personal (dual mode Globalstar/ cellular) terminals. The data rates supported are for voice, typically 2.4 kbit/s and for data: 9.6 kbit/s (maximum). Each dual mode handheld terminal is expected to cost about $750. Services prices are expected to be in the range $1.25 to $1.50 per minute. ICO: a system made up of 10 operational medium earth orbiting (MEO) satellites. The constellation has been designed to provide global coverage. Satellite launches are due to begin late in 1998. Full operation is scheduled for the year 2000. ICO will offer digital voice, data, fax and a suite of messaging services (short text-messaging service, voice mail, fax messaging). The voice rate will be 4.8 kbit/s while data rates may reach up to 38.4 kbit/s. The system is designed for global coverage. Target customers are domestic and international travellers, business and government organisations, commercial vehicles, maritime and aeronautical vessels, and residents of rural and remote areas. Service rates are expected to be $1 to $1.70 per minute, with a hand-held terminal costing around $700. Ellipso: a space segment which will consists of 17 LEO satellites in total (including spares), in two distinct constellations (one in elliptical orbit, orbiting between 520 km and 7846 km, and one circular orbiting at 8040 km). Ellipso is expected to start operational service by 2000 offering voice and data services at rates up to 9.6 kbps. Target markets include primarily the northern hemisphere. The southern hemisphere will also be served, but only as far south as 47 degrees latitude (55 degrees with reduced capacity). Ellipso is proposing a tariff of $0.12 to $0.50 per minute (retail) for mobile and fixed telephony, and claims that terminal cost will not normally exceed $1000. Thuraya: is a proposal for a regional system which will consist of one (possibly two) GEO satellites in orbit over the Indian Ocean with coverage area over the Middle East, Turkey, Iran, the Indian Sub- continent, central Asian republics, northern and central Africa, and Eastern Europe. System design is based on GSM technology with adaptations for efficient operation in the satellite environment. First launch is planned for May 2000 with commercial operation beginning in September 2000. Thuraya is planning a maritime terminal and is aiming for an average price of $0.50 per minute. Table (4), which follows, summarises data from systems which will provide personal communication services on a world wide basis, (including near world-wide) or in major parts of Europe. TR4006/D3.1/MARAC/NP/220399/1.0 - 22 -
  23. 23. COMMAN/D3.1/User Requirements & State of the Art Survey Report Inmarsat 3 ICO Iridium Globalstar Thuraya Ellipso Investors Inmarsat Inmarsat, Motorola Loral, Etisalat, Westinghous TRW and Qualcomm Arabsat, e, Harris, many other , Alcatel, Hughes and Israeli France, many other Aircraft and many Industries others Main Voice, data, Voice, data, Voice, Voice, Voice, data, fax Voice, fax, Applications fax fax paging, data, data, and data fax fax Type Nar. GEO MEO LEO LEO Nar. GEO MEO + LEO Area World-wide World-wide World-wide World- Middle east, North wide North Africa, Hemisphere Eastern Europe, and as low as Mediterranean –55 degrees South Service Operational 2000 3Q 1998 1Q 1999 3Q 2000 2001 launch Full coverage Available 2000 1999 2000 2000 ?? Number of 5 12 72 48 1 17 satellites (67 operational) Data Up to 64kbps 4.8 Kbps 2.4 Kbps Up to 9.6 Up to 9.6 Kbps Up to 9.6 throughput voice, 38.4 Kbps Kbps kbps data Access FDMA/ FDMA/ FDMA/ CDMA FDMA/ TDMA W-CDMA method TDMA TDMA TDMA Fixed $20000 ?? Not available Not ?? ?? terminal cost (Inmarsat B) available (est.) HSD +3000 Portable/ $6000 ?? ?? Not ?? ?? vehicle (Inmarsat C) available terminal cost (est.) Dual/ mode Not available $700 $3000 $750 ?? $1000 handset cost (est.) Sat only $3000 ?? $2500 Not ?? ?? handset cost (Mini M) available (est.) Airtime cost $3/min $1-$1,7 / min $3-$6 / min $1,25-1.5/ $0,5/min $0,12-$0.5 min per min System cost 0,69 4.5 4.4 2.6 1+ 0,75 (billions USD) Table 4 – Personal Communications Systems (Examples versus Inmarsat) 2.2.3. Broadband Satellite constellations During the period 1999-2004 it is expected that several satellite systems, able to support data rates between 144Kbps up to 155Mps and interactive multimedia services (data multicasting, high speed internet access, Telemedicine, etc.), will be gradually brought into service. System proposals include SkyBridge (16 Kbps - 2 Mbps in the uplink to satellite direction, 16 Kbps - 20 Mbps for downlink - to the user - direction), Cyberstar (400 Kbps up to 30 Mbps), Teledesic (up to 2.048 Mbps uplink and 16 Kbps-64 Mbps downlink,), Astrolink (384kbps up to 9.2 Mbps) and others. However most of these systems are intended to offer services to fixed users and there are no indications that transportable terminals are under development. TR4006/D3.1/MARAC/NP/220399/1.0 - 23 -

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