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    第0章 第0章 Presentation Transcript

    • Ch0: INTRODUCTION
      • 0.1 Mobile communications
      • 1st generation: analog voice service
        • AMPS(USA), Advances Mobile Phone Service, IS-54
        • NMTS(Europe), Nordic Mobile Telephone System
        • TACS(England), Total Access Communication System
        • NAMTS(Japan), NEC Advances Mobile Telephone System
      • 2nd generation: voice and data service
        • D-AMPS(USA), Digital-AMPS, IS-136
        • GSM(Europe), Global System for Mobile Communication
        • DCS(England), Digital Cellular System
        • PDC(Japan), Personal Digital Cellular
        • CDMA(North American), IS-95
      • 3rd generation: voice, data and multi-media service (2Mbps)
      • 4th generation: voice, data and interactive-media service (156Mbps)
    • Ch0: INTRODUCTION
      • Quality of Service in old generations:
        • Voice Quality (improved) , Coverage (world-wide seamless access) & Costs (low)
        • Quality of Service aspects : low BER and low delay time
      • New Services and Capabilities in new generations
        • Enabling new voice and data service that are not currently available with 1G and 2G technology
        • High bandwidth services (data, image, multimedia)
    • Ch0: INTRODUCTION
    • Ch0: INTRODUCTION
      • 0.2 Development of CDMA :
      • Spread spectrum communications originate from MIT Lincoln Labs since 1920’s.
      • The theory of spread spectrum communications has been well known since the late 1940's.
      • It has been used somewhat intensively in the field of secure military communications since 1950's, but in commercial applications it is a relatively new technique.
      • The spread spectrum technique has been released from military since 1970’s.
      • The first major commercial application of spread spectrum techniques was the Global Positioning System (GPS).
      • R.G. Cooper and Nettleton proposed the North American DS-CDMA systems in 1977. It is further commercialized by Qualcomm as narrowband CDMA(IS-95)
    • Ch0: INTRODUCTION
      • 0.3 3G development history :
      • In 1985 ITU (International Telecommunication Union) proposed the 3G specification, which is called FPLMTS (Future Public Land Mobile Telecommunication Systems). In 1996 it is renamed as IMT-2000 (International Mobile Telecommunication) and defines the specifications
        • 144K bps in fast moving speed
        • 384K bps in walking, slow moving speed
        • 2M bps in standstill environment
      • Proposals for 3G Standards
        • Wideband-CDMA (Europe)
        • CDMA-2000 (North American)
        • TD-SCDMA (China)
    • Ch0: INTRODUCTION
      • W-CDMA:
      • It is proposed by Ericsson (Sweden) and NTT DoCoMo (Japan) which is an extension of GSM systems. In 2001, The first W-CDMA 3G service is proposed in Japan by the DoCoMo company.
      • CDMA-2000
      • It is an extension of narrowband CDMA (IS-95)
        • CDMA-2000 1X, wideband service, 307K bps in 1.25M Hz BW
        • CDMA-2000 3X, wideband service 2M bps in 5M Hz BW
        • CDMA 2000 1X EV-DO
        • CDMA one, narrowband service, 8 voices, 64K bps/channel
        • In 2000, The telecommunication company in Korean proposed CDMA 2000 1X system and the Samsung Electronics company propose a few types of CDMA-2000 1X handsets.
      • TD-SCDMA
      • It is the combination of TDMA system and synchronization CDMA, which is proposed by the Simens (Germany) and Datang (China) in 1999.
    • Ch0: INTRODUCTION
      • 3G Telecommunication licenses
        • Taiwan : A,B,C,D for W-CDMW at 2G Hz and E for CDMA2000 at 800M Hz.
        • Japan: 2 for W-CDMA and 1 for CDMA2000
        • Korean: 3 for W-CDMA and 1 for CDMA2000
    • Ch0: INTRODUCTION
      • 0.4 International Telecommunication Union (ITU)
      • IMT-2000 :
        • International Mobile Telecommunications 2000
        • the time schedule for the first trial system : year 2000
        • the frequency range to be used : around 2000 MHz
      • The International Telecommunication Union (ITU) is responsible for the IMT-2000 specification.
        • The requirements for the 3G standardisation have been discussed under the term FPLMTS (Future Public Land Mobile Telecommunications System) since the early 1990s.
        • In the mid 1990s the term FPLMTS was changed to the term IMT-2000.
      • UMTS
        • UMTS stands for Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
        • UMTS is a member of the ITU‘s IMT-2000 global family of 3G mobile communication systems
        • The European Telecommunication Standards Institute ETSI is responsible for the UMTS standardization
        • UMTS is the successor standard to the second generation GSM.
        • UMTS will play a key role in creating the future mass market for high-quality wireless multimedia communications that will approach 2 billion users worldwide by the year 2010
    • Ch0: INTRODUCTION
      • Seamless World-wide Access
    • Ch0: INTRODUCTION
      • Air Interfaces for 3G
    • Ch0: INTRODUCTION
      • Air Interfaces for 3G
    • Ch0: INTRODUCTION
      • Spectrum Allocation for 3G
    • Ch0: INTRODUCTION
      • Evolutionary Path of GSM towards UMTS
    • Ch0: INTRODUCTION
      • 0.5 4G possible techniques
      • W-CDMA with OFDM technique -> Multi-Carrier CDMA
      • LAS-CDMA (large area synchronization CDMA by China)
      • Position CDMA
      • 4G standards will be proposed in 2010 ( NTT DoCoMo plans to propose the 4G standard in 2007).
    • Ch0: INTRODUCTION
      • 0.6 Principles of spread spectrum systems :
    • Ch0: INTRODUCTION
      • The major applications of spread spectrum communications are
        • for military purpose, which requires
          • Security or low probability of interception
          • Anti-jamming, anti-interference
        • for commercial purpose, which requires
          • Multiple access capability
          • Anti-multipath fading
      • Anti-jamming, anti-interference
    • Ch0: INTRODUCTION
      • Multiple access
        • One of the most advantageous properties of spread spectrum technique is that it can be very conveniently used as a multiple access method.
        • In the traditional multiple access schemes, the fundamental resources are frequency and time.
          • frequency division multiple access (FDMA) and
          • time division multiple access (TDMA),.
        • In CDMA, multiple users are using the same frequency band at the same time (time and frequency overlap). The key elements are the used spreading codes and their properties.
        • Show a lot of block diagrams of CDMA systems in the following.
    • Ch0: INTRODUCTION
      • Digital Communication Systems
    • Ch0: INTRODUCTION
      • Digital Communication Systems and CDMA systems
    • Ch0: INTRODUCTION
      • Text Book layout (Topics for CDMA systems)
    • Ch0: INTRODUCTION
      • CDMA with QPSK Modulation Systems
    • Ch0: INTRODUCTION
      • Uplink CDMA Systems
    • Ch0: INTRODUCTION
      • Uplink CDMA Systems with multicode transmission
    • Ch0: INTRODUCTION
      • Downlink CDMA Systems
    • Ch0: INTRODUCTION
      • 0.7 Important Topics for CDMA network systems (physical layer)
      • PN sequences
      • Code acquisition
      • Code tracking
      • Modulation/demodulation
      • Power control
      • Adaptive CDMA networks
      • Radio channel
      • Multiuser detection
      • Advanced CDMA systems, MC-CDMA, OFDM
    • Ch0: INTRODUCTION
      • 0.8 Reference
      • S.G. Glisic, “Adaptive WCDMA,” , Chapter 1
      • CDMD development group, http:// www.cdg.org
      • 3G Partnership Project 2 , http://www.3gpp2.org/
      • 3 G Partnership Project , http://www.3gpp.org/
      • 3G Today - IMT-2000 Standard , http://www.3gtoday.com/index.html
      • CDMA2000 , http:// www.ericsson.com /
      • Cellular Online , http:// www.cellular.co.za/main.htm
      • Cellular Technologies Of The World , http:// www.cellular.co.za/main.htm
      • Philips Consumer Communications , http:// www.wca.org/dgibson/index.htm
      • TDD White Paper , http:// www.tddcoalition.org /
      • TD-SCDMA White Paper , http://www.siemens-mobile.com/mobile
      • Wireless Web Features - TD-SCDMA and W-CDMA make ideal partners for 3G , http:// wireless.iop.org /
      • UMTS World , http:// www.umtsworld.com/default.htm