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  • 1. ROMAN Art & Architecture
  • 2. Roman Empire Height of power: • Spanned over 1/9th of the Earth’s surface • Covered 3 continents • Ruled over a quarter of humanity • Governed people of different races, religions, tongues, traditions and cultures
  • 3. • Before the rise of Rome: Stone Age (to 3000 BC) Bronze Age (ca. 3000 BC-1000 BC) Etruscans (ca. 1000 BC-500 BC) • Roman Republic The early period (ca. 500 BC-300 BC) The Punic Wars (ca. 275 BC-146 BC) The Civil Wars (ca. 146 BC-30 BC) • Roman Empire The Julio-Claudians (30 BC-68 AD) The Flavians (69 AD-96 AD) The Five Good Emperors (96 AD- 161 AD) • The Severans (161 AD-235 AD) The Third Century Crisis Constantine and his family (312 AD-363 AD) The Theodosians (363 AD-450 AD) The Fall of the Roman Empire (476 AD) • After the fall of Rome: The Ostrogoths The Visigoths The Franks The Vandals The Byzantines The Lombards, the Pope, and Islam
  • 4. Emperors
  • 5. Origins In the 8th century BC, Italic speakers • Latins (in the west), • Sabines (in the upper valley of the Tiber), • Umbrians (in the north-east), • Samnites (in the South), • Oscans and others — shared the peninsula with two other major ethnic groups: • the Etruscans in the North, • Greeks in the south. The Palatine Hill
  • 6. Origins Palatine Hills
  • 7. Origins • 1000 BC • Ruins of the palaces of Augustus, Tiberius and Domitian • Location of Lupercal cave Capitoline Wolf Due to the stories about Rome’s founding twins, the she- wolf (often shown with suckling boys) became an icon of the city. This she-wolf was either cast in the 5th century BCE or the 13th century CE. The twins were added by the sculptor Pollaiolo in the 15th century CE.
  • 8. Aerial view of Ancient Rome
  • 9. The Tiber River overlooking the Vatican
  • 10. Roman Empire http://www.roman-empire.net/maps/map-empire.html
  • 11. Overview • In Europe, the Middle East and Africa today, the remains of Roman civilization are everywhere. • Ancient Roman structures are being used today for other purposes. • The Roman use of art to, especially portraits and historical relief sculptures, to manipulate public opinion is similar to the carefully crafted imagery of contemporary political campaigns. • Roman mastery of concrete construction began an architectural revolution still felt today. • The Roman Empire is the bridge –in politics, arts and religion- between the ancient and the medieval and modern Western worlds.
  • 12. ROMAN ARCHITECTURE
  • 13. Foundation • Romans were expert engineers. • Developed advanced building methods and techniques despite their lack of sophisticated mathematics like calculus. • Introduced building techniques or ideas still in use today.
  • 14. Foundation Basis of Roman art and architecture • Etruscan tradition • Greek tradition • Eclectic = resulting to a distinctly Roman style Temple of Portunus 2nd century BC, dedicated to the god Portunus
  • 15. Foundation • Roman temple design is based on an eclectic use of Etruscan and Greek models. They are typically strictly frontal, on a high podium with a flight of stairs, and have a deep colonnade portico in front of the cella.
  • 16. Foundation Typical Etruscan temple plan Podium Entrance/steps Columns/colonnade 3 part Cella Greek temple plan Ionic columns Engaged half-columns at the sides and the back Distinctly Roman
  • 17. Roman Legacy • Concrete • Stucco • Arch • Vaults • Hemispherical domes Arch of Constantine, Rome
  • 18. Legacy • Concrete was an essential building material for the Romans. It is lightweight, strong, and durable and could even be used underwater. • July 2013: mixture of lime and volcanic rock/ash = mortar • calcium-aluminum-silicate- hydrate (C-A-S-H): underwater is exceptionally strong.
  • 19. Legacy Built in the 2nd century A.D., Rome's Pantheon is still the largest unreinforced concrete dome in the world.
  • 20. Legacy • Most Roman buildings were built with concrete and brick and then faced in stucco, expensive stone, or marble. • Typically consisting of crushed or burned lime or gypsum mixed with sand and water. • Modeled easily into relief or decorative forms.
  • 21. Legacy Relief with goat, 1st century A.D.; Early Imperial, Augustan Relief panel, second half of 1st century A.D.; Early Imperial
  • 22. Legacy • The arch is a quintessential architectural shape in Roman architecture. • By distributiong weight from the capstone down into the ground, the Roman arch could support massive loads and enebled the romans to construct the Coliseum, bridges, and many miles of raised aquaducts. Ancient Roman triumphal arch of Medinaceli. Province of Soria, Spain.
  • 23. Legacy Typical plan for entrances Weight or force distribution
  • 24. Legacy • Arches can be used together to create vaults (barrel and groin) and domes as well as to create unique interior spaces.
  • 25. Legacy Renaissance groin vault Upper level loggia of the Basilica Palladiana Gothic rib vault Saint-Severin Church, Paris
  • 26. ROMAN TOWN PLANNING
  • 27. Town Planning • Town-planning—the art of laying out towns with due care for the health and comfort of inhabitants, for industrial and commercial efficiency, and for reasonable beauty of buildings • An art of intermittent activity Roman Types of Settlements 1) Roman cities 2) Military camps –castrum/castra 3) Colonia- Roman outpost established in conquered territory • Oppidum-Roman commercial town.
  • 28. Town Planning • The ancient ‘ideal city’ – typified by Athens in the 5th century BC and imperial Rome (c100 BC – c400 AD) – was not planned. • The same with Etruscan town which grew with little or no planning. • Streets had no clear pattern. • Cities grew without restriction • Very organic evolution The maze like design of Rome
  • 29. Town Planning • Greek and Etruscan town plans influenced the evolution of Roman town plans. • Resulting Roman town planning used the grid pattern of streets. • It had two major streets intersecting at right angles to provide a crossroads or focal point in the town center.
  • 30. Town Planning • Roman cities were planned with two major streets running East –West and North-South intersecting at the forum, which was the center of commerce in the city. • Cardo: North-South • Decumanus: East-West • Enclosed by rectilinear walls Pompeii showing major street
  • 31. Town Planning The decumanus maximus on the site of Palmyra, Syria The cardo maxima of Apamea, Syria
  • 32. • Because of the military influences on Roman colonization, Roman planning fully integrated urban defenses with the city plan and the street system. • The walls and the streets were laid out concurrently as part of the coordinated planning of the city. • The main streets led directly from the center of town to the gates, and the ‘pomerial’ road ran around the city immediately inside the walls. 1 Forum 2 Baths 3 Amphitheater 4 Basilica 5 Christian Church 6 Temple 7 Town house/blocks of flats 8 North Gate
  • 33. Town Planning • The heart of an ancient Roman city was the Roman forum. • The forum was the religious and civic centre of the city. • An open space lined with monumental buildings and marble statues erected in honor of emperors and leading citizens. • The city’s commercial hub, a place where people exchanged money and goods.
  • 34. Town Planning Plan of the Forum, Rome
  • 35. Town Planning • The Forum Romanum, designed by the architect Vitruvius, consisted of temples, baths, basilicas and colonnades. Many of these buildings were in the classical style copied from Greece.
  • 36. --Column of Trajan --Basilica of Maxentus and Constantine --Arch of Septimus and Severus
  • 37. Town Planning • Basilica – public court building or hall normally adjacent to the forum • Roofed with a wide central area (nave) • Colonnaded • 1-2 storeys
  • 38. Town Planning • Baths (thermae) from the Greek word “thermos” (hot) • Thermae –imperial bath complexes • Facility for bathing, socializing • Offered libraries, restaurants, gymnasium and massage rooms as well as poetry reading area Baths of Caracalla 25 hectare
  • 39. Town Planning • Amphitheatre • Venue for watching spectacles like gladiator fights, public executions and animal fights • Mock naval battles and animal performances • Arena-Latin for sand • Due to their massive size, they were usually constructed on the edge of a city or directly outside its walls. • Military amphitheaters (ludi) built near forts and fortresses served as training grounds for soldiers. Amphitheater in Arles, France
  • 40. ARCHITECTURAL ACHIEVEMENTS
  • 41. Amphitheater
  • 42. Temple of Fortunus • Temple of Fortuna Virilis • Temple of Portunus • Roman god of harbors • Follows the Etruscan pattern • High podium • Deep porch • Stone (local tufa and travertine) • Ionic columns • Series of engaged Ionic half- columns • Pseudoperipteral temple • Uniquely Roman though it combines both Etruscan and Greek elements
  • 43. Aqueducts • Water distribution system • Moved water through gravity alone • Mostly buried underneath • Water piper made of concrete or lead Pont du Gard, France
  • 44. Aqueducts How Aqueducts work
  • 45. Colosseum • Colloseum, coliseum or Flavian amphitheater • Center of Rome • Stone and cement • Largest amphitheater in the world • Flavian dynasty: Vespasian, Titus and Domitian • Completed 80 AD • UNESCO World Heritage Site
  • 46. Pantheon • Commissioned by Marcus Agrippa during the reign of Augustus • Temple to all the gods of ancient Rome • Circular building with large portico • One of the best-preserved of ancient Roman buildings
  • 47. Pantheon • The Piazza dela Rotonda • Used as a Catholic church since the 7th century AD • Dedicated to Saint Mary and the Martyrs • Pantheos—all gods • Pantheon – resting place of honor for the illustrious dead
  • 48. ROMAN DRESS
  • 49. citizen, matron, curule magistrate, emperor, general, workman, slave CLOTHING DIAGRAM
  • 50. • Wool – the most commonly used fibre • Sheep of Tarentum –known for the quality of their wool • Production similar to hemp and linen • Silk and cotton –China and India
  • 51. • Tunic • Fr. Latin, tunica • Adapted from the Greek in 3rd BCE • From the Greek chiton • Worn by citizens and non- citizens alike • Indicator of status (through length, width, ornamentation, stripes) • Dyed with bright colors or bleached white Roman worker dressed in a tunic
  • 52. • Laticlave • Laticlavus • Worn by senators, with broad purple stripes, 3 inches • Adorned or set with little round plates of gold or silver, like the heads of nails • Emblem of office
  • 53. • Angusticlavia • Angustus –narrow • Clavus - nail • For the Equestrian (one of two Roman artistocratic classes) • Patrician –ruling class families • With one inch stripes • Worn under the trabea, usually in red or purple • Military men or business men
  • 54. • Toga • For male citizens only • Wool, very large • Not sewn or pinned but draped around the body and over one arm • Law: worn for public events
  • 55. • plain white toga: was worn by all adult male citizens • off-white toga: with a purple border was worn by magistrates and upper class boys • toga made of dark coloured wool: was worn after someone had died • bleached toga: worn by politicians • Candida > candidates • purple toga with gold embroidery: was worn by a victorious general and later by emperors. • In later times it became more acceptable to wear togas of different colours with embroidery but this was frowned on by those who preferred to keep to the established order. Statue of the Emperor Tiberius showing the draped toga of the 1st century AD.
  • 56. • The toga trabea was ceremonial toga of various colours. It was either wholly purple (if meant to decorate the statues of deities) or featuring purple stripes for kings, augurs and some priests.
  • 57. Draping steps of the Toga
  • 58. • Stola • For women • A long tunic reaching to the ground • Long or short-sleeved • Or sleeveless • Worn over another long tunic, the tunica interior • Instita- ornamental border on the lower hem to denote wealth
  • 59. • Stola and palla • Draped cloak over the shoulder • Similar to toga but much smaller and less unwieldy • No specific size or shape
  • 60. • Children • Wore simple belted tunics • Bulla – an amulet worn by boys until manhood or the age of 16 • Girls carried it until marriage
  • 61. End