Renaissance in italy


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Renaissance in italy

  2. 2. Renaissance • 14th-17th century Italy • Rinascimento=rebirth, revival • Nerve center: Florence, Rome • A broad intellectual movement known for its cultural achievements. • The rise of the artist as genius.
  3. 3. Architects • Brunelleschi • Leone Alberti • Andrea Palladio • Bramante Bruneslleschi Alberti
  4. 4. Artists Giotto Masaccio Pierro dela Francesca Domenico Ghirlandaio Perugino Michelangelo Raphael Botticelli Leonardo da Vinci Titian Giotto Masaccio Leonardo da Vinci
  5. 5. New Techniques • Tone contrast (Titian) • Realistic proportions (Masaccio) • Foreshortening • Sfumato • Chiaroscuro (Leonardo da Vinci and Giorgone) • The first secular themes
  6. 6. Sfumato as "without lines or borders, in the manner of smoke or beyond the focus plane.“ (da Vinci) “sfumare” (Italian) – to tone down”, “to evaporate like smoke” Leonardeschi: Corregio, Raphael, Giorgione Leonardo da Vinci, Mona Lisa 1503-1506, oil on poplar
  7. 7. Masaccio, Holy Trinity, fresco, c. 1427, Santa Maria Novella, Florence Realistic Proporitons
  8. 8. • Foreshortening refers to the visual effect or optical illusion that an object or distance appears shorter than it actually is because it is angled toward the viewer. Mantegna Dead Christ
  9. 9. Chiaroscuro – use of strong contrast of light and dark in painting or drawing that achieves 3d modeling of forms literally, light-dark Correggio, Madonna and Child, 1515
  10. 10. Four canonical painting modes of Renaissance Art • Sfumato • Unione • Cangiante • Chriaroscuro • Tenebrism Leonardo da Vinci study drawing
  11. 11. Early Renaissance (1401-1490s) Giotto Lamentation Frescoe 1304-1306 Scrovegni Chapel Giotto Panel painting, the Ognissanti Madonna Uffizi Gallery 1310
  12. 12. Masaccio, Holy Trinity, fresco, c. 1427, Santa Maria Novella, Florence
  13. 13. High Renaissance (1490s-1527) • The period in art history denoting the peak in the visual arts in the Italian Renaissance. • Begun in the 1490s, with Leonardo's fresco of The Last Supper in Milan and the death of Lorenzo de' Medici in Florence, and to have ended in 1527, with the sacking of Rome by the troops of Charles V. • Culmination of the goals of the earlier period which was the accurate representation of figures in space rendered with credible motion and in an appropriately decorous style.
  14. 14. High Renaissance Most famous painters • Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) • Michelangelo • Raphael Michelangelo Buonarroti (1475- 1564) Raphael Sanzio (1483- 1520)
  15. 15. High Renaissance Most famous works • Last Supper • The School of Athens • Sistine Chapel ceiling Leonardo da Vinci, The Last Supper 1494-1498 Tempera on gesso, pitch, and mastic Santa Maria delle Grazie, Milan
  16. 16. Michelangelo, Sistine Chapel ceiling Sistine Chapel, Vatican Fresco, 1508-1512
  17. 17. A section of the Sistine Chapel painting showing in the center the creation of Adam by God.
  18. 18. Raphael, The School of Athens, 1509-1510, Fresco, Apostolic Palace, Vatican City
  19. 19. 2: Epicurus 6: Pythagoras 12: Socrates 14: Plato (Leonardo da Vinci) 15: Aristotle (Giuliano da Sangallo) 21: Protegenes (Il Sodona, Perugino or Timoteo Viti)
  20. 20. • High Renaissance painting evolved into Mannerism, especially in Florence. • Mannerist artists, who consciously rebelled against the principles of High Renaissance, tend to represent elongated figures in illogical spaces. • Modern scholarship has recognized the capacity of Mannerist art to convey strong (often religious) emotion where the High Renaissance failed to do so. Parmigianino, Madonna with the Long Neck, 1534-40
  21. 21. Key Ideas • Humanism • Humanism was an activity of reform engaged in by scholars, writers and civic leaders in 14th century Italy. Da Vinci Vitruvian Man
  22. 22. • Humanists reacted against the utilitarian approach to education seeking to create a citizenry (frequently including women) able to speak and write with eloquence and thus able to engage the civic life of their communities. “studia humanitatis” or the "humanities": --grammar, --rhetoric, --history, --poetry and --moral philosophy.
  23. 23. • The movement was largely founded on the ideals of Italian scholar and poet Francesco Petrarca, which were often centered around humanity’s potential for achievement. 1304-1374
  24. 24. • While humanism initially began as a predominantly literary movement, its influence quickly pervaded the general culture of the time, reintroducing classical Greek and Roman art forms, leading directly to the Renaissance.
  25. 25. Donatello became renowned as the greatest sculptor of the Early Renaissance, known especially for his humanist and unusually erotic statue of David. --first unsupported standing work of bronze cast during the Renaissance -- first freestanding nude male sculpture made since antiquity. Donatello, David, ca 1440 Museo Nazionale del Bargello
  26. 26. • While medieval society viewed artists as servants and craftspeople, Renaissance artists were trained intellectuals, and their art reflected this newfound perspective. • Craftsmen to Artist • Autonomy • Genius Yale University Press
  27. 27. • In humanist painting, the treatment of the elements of perspective and depiction of light became of particular concern. Pietro Perugino Sistine Chapel fresco 1481-82 Brought Renaissance to Rome
  28. 28. Architecture • Renaissance architecture first developed in Florence in the 15th century and represented a conscious revival of classical antique styles. Started with the Gothic style, 1296, consecrated 1436 Basilica de Santa Maria del Fiore (Il Duomo di Firenze) Arnolfo di Cambio (design) Filippo Brunelleschi (dome)
  29. 29. • Filippo Brunelleschi was the first to develop the Renaissance view of architecture. • His enormous brick dome that covers the central space of Florence's Duomo or cathedral was the first dome erected since classical Rome and became a ubiquitous feature in Renaissance churches.
  30. 30. • The Renaissance style of architecture emerged in Florence not as a slow evolution from preceding styles but rather as a conscious development put into motion by architects seeking to revive the golden age of classical antiquity. Tempietto di San Pietro Montorio, Rome Bramante, 1502 Temple of Vesta Rome 205 AD
  31. 31. • The Renaissance style eschewed the complex proportional systems and irregular profiles of medieval buildings. • Placed emphasis on symmetry, proportion, geometry, and regularity of parts. Sta. Maria Novella Completed by Leon Battista Alberti in 1470 Minor basilica Style: Gothic-Renaissance
  32. 32. • 15th-century architecture in Florence popularized the use of classical antique features such as orderly arrangements of columns, pilasters, and lintels, semicircular arches, and hemispherical domes.
  33. 33. • The buildings of the early Renaissance in Florence expressed a new sense of light, clarity, and spaciousness that reflected the enlightenment and clarity of mind glorified by the philosophy of Humanism. Ospedale Degli Innocenti Florence Fillipo Brunelleschi 1424-1445
  34. 34. Sculpture • Renaissance sculpture originated in Florence in the 15th century and was deeply influenced by ancient Roman sculpture. Michelangelo David Marble 1501-1504 17 ft height
  35. 35. • Renaissance sculpture proper is often taken to begin with the famous competition for the doors of the Florence baptistry in 1403, which was won by Lorenzo Ghiberti.
  36. 36. • Ghiberti designed a set of doors for the competition, housed in the northern entrance, and another more splendid pair for the eastern entrance, named the Gates of Paradise. Both these gates depict biblical scenes. Detail, Gates of Paradise 10 panels 1452 27 years to complete
  37. 37. • Donatello's genius made him an important figure in the early Italian Renaissance period. Sculpted between 1430-32, his bronze David is an example of his mature work. It is currently located in the Bargello Palace and Museum. • Made for Cosimo de Medici
  38. 38. • Ghiberti set up a large workshop in which many famous Florentine sculptors and artists were trained. He reinvented the lost-wax casting of bronze, a technique which had been used by the ancient Romans and subsequently lost. --a duplicate metal sculpture (often silver, gold , brass or bronze is cast from an original sculpture
  39. 39. • The period was marked by a great increase in patronage of sculpture by the state for public art and by the wealthy for their homes. • Public sculpture became a crucial element in the appearance of historic city centers, and portrait sculpture, particularly busts, became hugely popular in Florence. Lorenzo de Medici, b 1449
  40. 40. Key Terms • Humanism • Oil painting • Fresco • Sfumato • Mannerism • Perspective • High Renaissance • Entablature • Pilaster • Quattrocento • Baptistry • Lost wax • Allegory • Giotto • Masaccio • Filippo Brunelleschi • Lorenzo Ghiberti • Leonardo da Vinci • Michelangelo Buonarotti • Raphael Sanzio
  41. 41. End