Chemical equations

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trains students in the state symbols for reactants and products in a chemical equation.

Elements in their elemental form and compounds are divided into covalent and ionic compounds for classification and easier identification of relevant state symbols.

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Chemical equations

  1. 1. CHEMICAL EQUATIONSPractice your covalent bonding to find how the non-metal atoms such as the group 7 onesform molecules using covalent bonding to get octet configurationO2 and Cl2State symbol of atoms in their elemental formsWhat are the state symbols of metals from group I, II, III?SolidGroup IV What are the state symbols of carbon? carbon is usually in the form of graphite which is a solid, the state symbol is C(s).Group V nitrogen atoms form N2 molecule which isin gaseous state at room temperaturePhosphorus is a solid at room temperature. the state symbol is P(s).Group VI oxygenatoms form O2 molecule which is in gaseous state at room temperatureSulphur is a solid at room temperature. Its state symbol is S(s).Group VII flourineatoms form F2 molecule which is in gaseous stateBromine atoms form Br2 molecule which is in liquid state. Its state symbol is Br2(l).Iodine atoms form I2 molecule which is in solid state. Its state symbol is I2(s).
  2. 2. Group VIII  the noble gases are monoatomic, which means they exist as single atoms inthe gaseous state.Next you need to know the state symbol of the commonly seen compounds.Compounds are grouped into two types – ionic and covalentAs you know, ionic compounds are made up of oppositely charged ions and you must be ableto recognise from their formula that they are ionic compounds.On the other hand, covalent compounds are made up of all non-metals atoms.Insoluble ionic compounds are solids are room temperature because they have very highmelting points. But soluble ionic compounds may be in aqueous state, which means that theyare dissolved in water.Most covalent compounds are either in liquid or gaseous states, except a few exceptions likesand (SiO2). But acids (the big 3, hydrochloric acid, nitric acid and sulphuric acid) are usuallyin aqueous state.Sort the following compounds into covalent and ionic compounds and their state symbols atroom temperature.H2O HClCO2 CH4CaCO3 H2SO4CaO NaOHAl2(SO4)3 HNO3Ca(OH)2 CCl4Use the solubility table below to help you! reagents soluble insoluble Carbonates sodium, potassium & ammonium the rest Calcium, sodium, potassium & Bases hydroxides ammonium the rest Metal Oxides Group I metals’ oxides only Other metals Non-metal Oxides Most CO, NO, SiO2 chlorides the rest lead, sliver salts Nitrates ALL soluble - sulphates the rest barium, lead
  3. 3. Try to balance the following equations, the key is to balance those atoms that appear onlyonce first, and then balance hydrogen and oxygen atoms last.H2+ O2H2OCaO + HClCaCl2 + H2OCH4 + O2 CO2 + H2ON2 + O2NO2H2SO4 + NaNa2SO4 + H2OCH4 + Cl2CCl4 + HClNa2O + H2O NaOHNa + H2O NaOH + H2Write out the following chemical equationsCalcium oxide + nitric acid  calcium nitrate + water__________________________________________________________

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