Git Introduction

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After talking to several Drupal followers during our last meetup, I realised quite a few people still don't employ version control. …

After talking to several Drupal followers during our last meetup, I realised quite a few people still don't employ version control.

I strongly consider this best practice when building a site, and thought it would be a good opportunity to go over its importance and how you can make it work for you.

Git offers several advantages:
• It's super fast
• It's easy.
• And no you don't need to be familiar with Command Line code (there are several great GUI's out there).

GIT Version Control works by keeping track of all successive changes you make to a site.
The biggest advantage of this is easily undoing any mistakes you might make along the way.
It's a great feeling to know Version Control has your back that you can roll back if something goes catastrophically wrong.
It's also a big bonus in collaborative development.
As soon as more than one person works on a project things get a lot more complicated.
What happens when 2 edits effect the same file? How do you know what's new, what's old and what's changed?
No worries, simply merge the variations and let GIT deal with the rest.

GIT is not just for the developers of this world but can be a life saver for themers, site maintainers and the like.

Most people will admit they should use it, but either don't know how or believe it's hard to integrate.
The reality is that it's actually pretty simple and once you start integrating GIT into your workflow you'll ask yourself "Why the hell did I keep using ftp" - I know I did.

FTP is so yesterday, its slow, it's cumbersome to use and it's a very manual method.
Switch to GIT, start using GIT, and never look back.

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Transcript

  • 1. Git Introduction Fast Version Control
  • 2. Who am I • Gareth Hall • Lead Developer and Hyundai New Zealand • Director at Communica (http://communica.co.nz)
  • 3. What is git? • Git is a distribute version control system developed by Junio Hamano & Linus Torvalds. • Git does not use a centralised server. • Git runs on major operating system like OS X, Windows, Unix & Linux
  • 4. Why it’s named git? • Quoting Linus: “I’m egotistical, and I name all my projects after myself. First Linux, now git” • Def: git - British slang for “pig headed, they are always correct , argumentative”
  • 5. What does git do? • Git tracks changes to content.
  • 6. Advantages of git • Everything is local (almost) • Fast • Every clone / branch is a backup • Work offline • No single point of failure • Lightweight • Branching is cheap and merging is easy • Many different workflows possible • Distributed • Every file and commit is checksummed • Staging area • Free and open source
  • 7. Three States
  • 8. Individual Workflow
  • 9. Collaborative Workflow
  • 10. Gitflow 1
  • 11. Gitflow II
  • 12. Basic Commands Syntax: git <subcmd>
  • 13. git init •Create an empty git repository or reinitialize an existing one #:>git init Initialized empty Git repository in /Users/garethhall/Sites/git_intro/.git/
  • 14. git status • Show the working tree status #:>git status # On branch master # # Initial commit # # Untracked files: # (use "git add <file>..." to include in what will be committed) # # includes/ # index.php nothing added to commit but untracked files present (use "git add" to track)
  • 15. git add • Add file contents to the index • git add . • git add <filename> <filenname>
  • 16. git status #:>git add . #:>git status # On branch master # # Initial commit # # Changes to be committed: # (use "git rm --cached <file>..." to unstage) # # new file: includes/helpers.php # new file: index.php #
  • 17. git commit •Record changes to the repository #:>git commit -m "first commit" [master (root-commit) 5f8a8d4] first commit 2 files changed, 48 insertions(+) create mode 100644 includes/helpers.php create mode 100644 index.php
  • 18. git log •Show commit logs #:>git log commit 5f8a8d486ae1656b51194186c0dfb97ae1ec9835 Author: Gareth Hall <gareth@communica.co.nz> Date: Sat Feb 16 14:43:40 2013 +1300 first commit
  • 19. Edit files
  • 20. #:>git status # On branch master # Changes not staged for commit: # (use "git add <file>..." to update what will be committed) # (use "git checkout -- <file>..." to discard changes in working directory) # # modified: includes/helpers.php # modified: index.php # no changes added to commit (use "git add" and/or "git commit -a")
  • 21. #:>git add index.php #:>git status # On branch master # Changes to be committed: # (use "git reset HEAD <file>..." to unstage) # # modified: index.php # # Changes not staged for commit: # (use "git add <file>..." to update what will be committed) # (use "git checkout -- <file>..." to discard changes in working directory) # # modified: includes/helpers.php #
  • 22. • #:>git commit -m "Changed output to table" [master fffacb4] Changed output to table 1 file changed, 10 insertions(+), 2 deletions(-) #:>git status # On branch master # Changes not staged for commit: # (use "git add <file>..." to update what will be committed) # (use "git checkout -- <file>..." to discard changes in working directory) # # modified: includes/helpers.php # no changes added to commit (use "git add" and/or "git commit -a")
  • 23. #:>git log commit fffacb43627c5a44850b4b1543dc359f5d95edd6 Author: Gareth Hall <gareth@communica.co.nz> Date: Sat Feb 16 16:10:45 2013 +1300 Changed output to table commit 5f8a8d486ae1656b51194186c0dfb97ae1ec9835 Author: Gareth Hall <gareth@communica.co.nz> Date: Sat Feb 16 14:43:40 2013 +1300 first commit
  • 24. #:>git diff includes/helpers.php diff --git a/includes/helpers.php b/includes/helpers.php index 5c9a1fe..002256c 100644 --- a/includes/helpers.php +++ b/includes/helpers.php @@ -1,5 +1,4 @@ <?php - /** * Pretty Print Helper * @@ -28,6 +27,12 @@ function dd($data, $die = false) { echo '<pre>'; var_dump($data); - echo '</pre>'; - $die ? die() : null; -} No newline at end of file + echo '</pre>'; + $die ? die() : null; +} + +function logger($user_id, $message) +{ + $log_entry = $user_id . ',' . $message; + return file_put_contents('log.log', $log_entry) ? true : false; +} git diff
  • 25. #:>git add . #:>git commit -m "Added logger" [master 817dee6] Added logger 1 file changed, 9 insertions(+), 4 deletions(-) #:>git log --oneline --decorate 817dee6 (HEAD, master) Added logger fffacb4 Changed output to table 5f8a8d4 first commit
  • 26. git show• Show various types of objects #:>git show fffacb4 commit fffacb43627c5a44850b4b1543dc359f5d95edd6 Author: Gareth Hall <gareth@communica.co.nz> Date: Sat Feb 16 16:10:45 2013 +1300 Changed output to table diff --git a/index.php b/index.php index f1f4a05..df11b0b 100644 --- a/index.php +++ b/index.php @@ -10,6 +10,14 @@ if (($xml = @simplexml_load_file('https://www.bnz.co.nz/XMLFeed/portal/fcs/xml') } } -pp($bnz_rates, true); - +print '<table border="1">'; + print '<tr>'; + print '<th>Code</th><th>Rate</th>'; + print '</tr>'; + foreach ($bnz_rates as $code => $rate){ + print '<tr>'; + print '<th>' . $code . '</th><th>' . $rate . '</th>'; + print '</tr>'; + } +print '</table>';
  • 27. git branch •List, create, or delete branches #:>git branch outputHelper #:>git branch * master outputHelper
  • 28. git checkout •Checkout a branch or paths to the working tree #:>git checkout outputHelper Switched to branch 'outputHelper' #:>git branch master * outputHelper
  • 29. Develop new Feature
  • 30. #:>git status # On branch outputHelper # Changes not staged for commit: # (use "git add <file>..." to update what will be committed) # (use "git checkout -- <file>..." to discard changes in working directory) # # modified: includes/helpers.php # modified: index.php # # Untracked files: # (use "git add <file>..." to include in what will be committed) # # includes/.DS_Store # includes/output_helper.php no changes added to commit (use "git add" and/or "git commit -a")
  • 31. #:>git add includes/helpers.php #:>git commit -m 'Added doc block to logger function' [outputHelper df78fc4] Added doc block to logger function 1 file changed, 8 insertions(+) #:>git commit -a -m 'Refactored with new table output helper' [outputHelper 51da4b7] Refactored with new table output helper 3 files changed, 38 insertions(+), 11 deletions(-) create mode 100644 includes/.DS_Store create mode 100644 includes/output_helper.php
  • 32. #:>git log --oneline --decorate --graph * 51da4b7 (HEAD, outputHelper) Refactored with new table output helper * df78fc4 Added doc block to logger function * 817dee6 (master) Added logger * fffacb4 Changed output to table * 5f8a8d4 first commit #:>git checkout master Switched to branch 'master' #:>git log --oneline --decorate --graph * 817dee6 (HEAD, master) Added logger * fffacb4 Changed output to table * 5f8a8d4 first commit
  • 33. git merge • Join two or more development histories together #:>git merge outputHelper Updating 817dee6..51da4b7 Fast-forward includes/.DS_Store | Bin 0 -> 6148 bytes includes/helpers.php | 8 ++++++++ includes/output_helper.php | 36 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ index.php | 13 ++----------- 4 files changed, 46 insertions(+), 11 deletions(-) create mode 100644 includes/.DS_Store create mode 100644 includes/output_helper.php
  • 34. #:>git log --oneline --decorate --graph * 51da4b7 (HEAD, outputHelper, master) Refactored with new table output helper * df78fc4 Added doc block to logger function * 817dee6 Added logger * fffacb4 Changed output to table * 5f8a8d4 first commit
  • 35. git reset • Reset current HEAD to the specified state
  • 36. git push • Update remote refs along with associated objects
  • 37. git fetch • Download objects and refs from another repository
  • 38. git merge • Join two or more development histories together
  • 39. git pull • Fetch from and merge with another repository or a local branch • fetch + merge
  • 40. How in Drupal? • Add all of Drupal to git • Use the Features module to move configuration • UUID Features to move content (alpha!)
  • 41. Git Hosting Service • Bitbucket (htt://bitbucket.org) • Github (http://github.com) • Run your own • Gitosis • Gitolite
  • 42. Deployment • Shell Access • Continous Integration • I don’t have shell access • Setup your server as a remote
  • 43. Deployment with shell
  • 44. Continous Intergration • Heroku (http://heroku.com) • Pagoda (http://pagodabox.com) • Bamboo (http://atlassian.com/software/bamboo)
  • 45. I don’t have shell • Deploy (http://www.deployhq.com)
  • 46. Server as Remote • Will need to use git hooks
  • 47. Git Hooks
  • 48. Git Hooks • #>vim post-receive • #!/bin/sh • cd .. • GIT_DIR='.git' • umask 002 && git reset --hard
  • 49. Git GUI’s
  • 50. Resources • Git (http://git-scm.com) • Wiki (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Git_(software) ) • Git Essentials (https://tutsplus.com/course/git-essentials/) • Change Management andVersion Control (http://buildamodule.com)
  • 51. Visual Version Control Gource (http://code.google.com/p/gource/)
  • 52. Questions