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Improve dsr+aa booklet

  1. 1. Gardiner CityCompetition to develop innovative design optionsfor the Gardiner Expressway andLake Shore Boulevard ReconfigurationEnvironmental AssessmentToronto, Ontario30 June 2010Diller Scofidio+RenfroNew YorkarchitectsAllianceToronto
  2. 2. ContentsIntroduction and Strategies 1Zone 1 5Moving Lake ShoreLifted NatureInfill UrbanismLightingThrough/Under/OverSproutingExpress GreenZone 2 25Density HubZone 3 33Aqua-tectureArt Drive-byDon River CrossingZone 4 43Enmeshed LandscapeDrawings and models 65Appendix 64City Building Lenses 64Comprehensive diagrams 68Analytic diagrams 77Traffic assessment and diagrams 80Master plan summaries 82Diller Scofidio+RenfroNew York, NYarchitectsAllianceToronto, ONHood DesignEmeryville, CABA Consulting Group Ltd.Toronto, ONTeamDiller Scofidio+RenfroNew YorkarchitectsAllianceTorontoGardiner CityContents
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  4. 4. 1Diller Scofidio+RenfroNew YorkarchitectsAllianceTorontoGardiner CityIntroduction and PrinciplesIntroduction and Strategies
  5. 5. 2Introduction: Gardiner CityThe Gardiner began as a triumph of speed and connectivity that has,ironically, disconnected Toronto from its waterfront. Now derided asa barrier and a blemish, the Gardiner is a necessary evil that will mostlikely remain in place for the immediate future. But what if its inherentqualities could provide the DNA for its reinvention? A drive on thehighway can be a breathtaking experience, embedding drivers withinthe matrix of downtown towers. Its broad underside can be thought ofas a giant shed roof attracting future activities and future visitors.Gardiner City seeks to remake the highway as a resident of the cityrather than an interloper. Using landscape, building, public spaceand water as the threads, the highway is woven into the city in athree-dimensional web of new neighborhoods, programs and urbanexperience. Interventions are imagined below, above, beside and acrossthe highway. New buildings congregate under the protective surfaceof the roadbed, housing artist studios, schools, galleries, and marketswhile linking neighborhoods from north to south. Public and privatespaces merge and blur. Existing tunnels and new pedestrian overpassesbecome supercharged with public programs. Dead end streets furlinto slender new towers that hang over the highway. To the east, adense mixed-use structure composed of independent bridge buildingscomingles with the highway below, framing the east entrance to the cityand emerging as a new soft icon on the skyline. Water and buildingsform a new hybrid architecture with marinas, artificial weather, andgravity-less boardwalks. The landscape features that simultaneouslyenhance space both above and below the road incubate along the LakeShore Boulevard east of the Don River and draw themselves out alongthe length of the road. Rail cars deliver trees to their new homes. TheGardiner evolves into the armature for greening the city.StrategiesGardiner City is guided by the following principles:Urban IncubatorNew programs extending adjacent development patterns areencouraged to occupy newfound land under the highway. Tax breaksand special zoning districts speed development.Green IncubatorTrees and vegetation are incubated in a new dense forest at the eastend of the highway and distributed throughout the city using the railsand roads around the Gardiner.Expressway / ParkwayThe Gardiner is transformed into a boulevard in the sky through the useof trees and greenery along its length combining the thrill of elevatedhigh speed travel with the picturesque pleasure of the tree-linedparkway.Cross-StitchNew programs line and cross the Gardiner, creating urban districts thatextend into the city and bind it with the lake.Wheels and FeetThe pedestrian, rollerblader, cyclist, and car passengers are providedwith distinct but equally compelling experiences at their respectivespeeds. Express and local bike lanes, and fast and slow sidewalks bringtraffic engineering to the human scale.Fluid ZoningThe site area is divided into 4 permeable and overlapping zones, eachwith a different relationship to the Gardiner: 1. Incubator programsfill the space under the Gardiner from Jarvis Street to Cherry Street;2. vertically stacked program bridges extend above the Gardineras it turns south towards the water; 3. an aquatic residential zoneextends the boardwalk and the water to the edge of Lake Shore; 4. anenmeshed landscape east of the Don River provides a linear nursery forgreening Toronto.
  6. 6. 3Diller Scofidio+RenfroNew YorkarchitectsAllianceTorontoGardiner CityIntroduction and Principles1 234
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  8. 8. 5Diller Scofidio+RenfroNew YorkarchitectsAllianceTorontoGardiner CityZone 1Zone 1
  9. 9. 6Zone 1
  10. 10. 7Diller Scofidio+RenfroNew YorkarchitectsAllianceTorontoGardiner CityZone 1Moving Lake ShoreThe Gardiner’s potential lies in its ability to lift traffic up into the air,liberating the ground for pedestrians. Yet with Lake Shore directlybelow, the Gardiner simply duplicates traffic rather than removes it.We therefore propose to pull Lake Shore Boulevard out from beneaththe Gardiner and open up the space beneath for new uses that enrichthe urban fabric of the city rather than detract from it. Lake ShoreBoulevard is now able to take on the character of a community street,the central spine of a new Gardiner-Don Lands neighborhood.One of the most significant barriers produced by the Gardiner is not thehighway itself, but the on and off ramps that slice off large swathes ofstreetscape from pedestrian use. Given the frequency of ramps withinthe current highway configuration, the eastbound on-ramp east ofJarvis Street, and the westbound off ramp east of Sherbourne Streetare removed, dramatically opening up this area of the city for newnorth-south connections.remove ramp move Lake Shore new street frontagerelocating lake shore boulevard
  11. 11. 8Lifted NatureBeyond a mere highway, the Gardiner is transformed into a parkwayin the sky, combining the thrill of speeding through dense urbanitywith the picturesque pleasure of the tree-lined parkway. Trees areliterally suspended in air as if uprooted by the rising of the Gardiner,held off the concrete structure within hanging containers along theExpressway edge. The edge of the Gardiner becomes a nursery whichserves a mitigation function as well as being a source for the greeningof the city. The trees are supported in place through an infrastructuralarmature that provides drip irrigation and drainage connection. Theexisting drainage of the overhead highway will be re-used, as newconnections are added interstitially. When the trees mature beyond thescale of the planters, they are transplanted down onto the ground tocreate new green streets within the city.
  12. 12. 9Diller Scofidio+RenfroNew YorkarchitectsAllianceTorontoGardiner CityZone 1
  13. 13. 10The light fixtures of the Gardiner are reimagined as bi-directional,connecting above and below in a single gesture: duplicated ground,duplicated light.Solar collectors store energy during sunny weather and light theunderside of the Gardiner on cold and cloudy days.Lighting
  14. 14. 11Diller Scofidio+RenfroNew YorkarchitectsAllianceTorontoGardiner CityZone 1
  15. 15. 12Infill UrbanismThe underside of the Gardiner is filled with vanguard community andcultural programs that will enrich existing and future neighborhoodsand transform an inhospitable space into an enlivened interior andexterior experience. General retail space is interspersed with specialtyprogram elements corresponding to three loosely defined themes foreach block: Health, Education and Arts. Instead of an opaque and hardinfrastructure visitors encounter a porous and soft architecture.The westernmost area is flanked by St. Lawrence Market to the north,and by the new Health and Wellness Campus of George Brown Collegeat the water’s edge. Uses here include an organic farmers market andflower market, and a vertical gym with a running track that arches overthe rail berm.Immediately south of the Toronto’s precedent-setting 1980s co-ophousing developments, an arts academy will be established, withstudios suspended from the Gardiner and shared workspaces in semi-conditioned interior courtyards. A campus green pokes out from underthe Gardiner, grabbing south light and views down a new linear park.The easternmost block of Zone 1 connects the Distillery District withnew development in the block between Cherry and Parliament Streets.Artist studios, shops and galleries enliven this district, with live-workspaces above grade. A live-performance theatre occupies the TrinityStreet Bridge, linking to the south with the slender “Art Tower” building– a commercial condominium housing a variety of galleries and retailart spaces. A paternoster vertical car park provides hyper-denseparking for the area and puts the car on display as a mini-landmarkalong the Gardiner.generic fill bespoke architecturehealth education arts
  16. 16. 13Diller Scofidio+RenfroNew YorkarchitectsAllianceTorontoGardiner CityZone 1
  17. 17. 14Through/Under/OverNew interventions cut across the grain of the Gardiner-Lake Shoretransit corridor, creating a connective tissue which draws togetherexisting neighborhoods north of the corridor and future communitiesenvisioned for the Don Lands. Buildings and pathways flow through,under and over the Gardiner, cross-stitching the city.under BERM over bermthrough gardiner
  18. 18. 15Diller Scofidio+RenfroNew YorkarchitectsAllianceTorontoGardiner CityZone 1Connections: ThroughInterior/exterior walkways, widened sidewalks, and green spacespermeate the building wall of the street, producing a networked urbanfabric that stitches streets together at the scale of the pedestrianinstead of the car.Art academy
  19. 19. 16Connections: UnderThe oppressive and inhospitable tunnels through the rail berm arereplaced with a generous sidewalk open to the sky and the rush oftrains passing overhead. By widening the berm opening and aligningit with slips to the south, the water’s edge becomes visible acrossthe tracks. Rather than reducing these tunnels to pure circulation,unexpected elements such as an aquarium, media gallery and espressobar are located along its edge.aquarium underplass
  20. 20. 17Diller Scofidio+RenfroNew YorkarchitectsAllianceTorontoGardiner CityZone 1Connections: OverBridge structures over the rail berm are filled with destinationprograms including a theatre, restaurant and running track that attractvisitors from the north and south sides of the tracks.flyover theatre lobby
  21. 21. 18SproutingA series of towers sprout up in the crack between the Gardiner and railberm, activating this left-over and neglected space and visually linkingit with the surrounding neighborhood. The dead-end north-southroads in this area, cut off from the rest of the city horizontally by therail berm, are instead extended vertically into the sky. Like phototropicplants seeking out light, the towers twist, turn, and open up in responseto the unique attractors of their sites.terminate streetsfind orientation
  22. 22. 19Diller Scofidio+RenfroNew YorkarchitectsAllianceTorontoGardiner CityZone 1retail cut-through/hotel tower art tower
  23. 23. 20The unused territory between the Gardiner and the rail berm istransformed into a new linear park that celebrates speed. An expressbike path along the south edge of the rail berm allows bike riders thesame unimpeded route as drivers on the Gardiner, with on and offramps between the local and express lanes that traverse the lushlyplanted south slope.Express Green
  24. 24. 21Diller Scofidio+RenfroNew YorkarchitectsAllianceTorontoGardiner CityZone 1art academy
  25. 25. 22gardiner looking west
  26. 26. 23Diller Scofidio+RenfroNew YorkarchitectsAllianceTorontoGardiner CityZone 1Zone 01lake shore looking east
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  28. 28. 25Diller Scofidio+RenfroNew YorkarchitectsAllianceTorontoGardiner CityZone 2Zone 2
  29. 29. 26Zone 2
  30. 30. 27Diller Scofidio+RenfroNew YorkarchitectsAllianceTorontoGardiner CityZone 2Density HubThe Density Hub is an interwoven building that comingles with adjacentneighborhoods and brings the public up to the level of the skyline.Extending the vertical aspirations of the Gardiner further upwards,it stacks and stitches different program types like building blocks,producing a three-dimensional urban experience unlike anything else inthe world. Condos overlooking the lake sit on top of the shared publicamenities of a hotel which in turn rests on an office tower. At the top ofthe building is a semi-enclosed year-round botanical garden, offeringpanoramic views, emerging as a green icon on the Toronto skyline anda gateway at the eastern end of the city.
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  34. 34. 31Diller Scofidio+RenfroNew YorkarchitectsAllianceTorontoGardiner CityZone 2
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  36. 36. 33Diller Scofidio+RenfroNew YorkarchitectsAllianceTorontoGardiner CityZone 3Zone 3
  37. 37. 3434 Diller Scofidio+Renfro | architectsAllianceGardiner Expressway and Lake Shore Boulevard ReconfigurationZone 3
  38. 38. 35Diller Scofidio+RenfroNew YorkarchitectsAllianceTorontoGardiner CityZone 3Aqua-tectureAquatic buildings in Zone 3 create a new architectural typology for theToronto Waterfront. These buildings restore the connection betweenthe City and water’s edge – a connection which was lost when industrialfill was used to sculpt a new shoreline for the Port Lands and divert theDon River through the Keating Channel.North-south oriented bar buildings stand with their “feet in the water”,interlaced by channels which literally and figuratively reconnect theCity and the Lake. Each building has an address on the newly realignedLake Shore to the north; on the south, boat moorings are tuckedunderneath the edge of the buildings for residents and their guests.Public space along the south base of each building extends northwardunder the Gardiner, to connect with an extended boardwalk on thenorthern edge of a newly urbanized and revitalized Keating Channel.
  39. 39. 36aqua-tecture residential units at boardwwalk
  40. 40. 37Diller Scofidio+RenfroNew YorkarchitectsAllianceTorontoGardiner CityZone 3lake shore looking south water c ourtyard
  41. 41. 38Art Drive-byAt the end of the boardwalk, an unprecedented new art museum issuspended from the underside of the Gardiner. Rather than turning itsback to the passing cars on its northern side, the museum opens upfor drive-by viewing at high speed. Below the museum docks, an “ArtBarge” carries seasonal commissioned mobile performances to thegreater Toronto waterfront.
  42. 42. 39Diller Scofidio+RenfroNew YorkarchitectsAllianceTorontoGardiner CityZone 3drive-by gallery boardwalk overlookart barge art barge route
  43. 43. 40Don River CrossingInto the cacophony of structures over the Keating Channel and the DonRiver, comes a moment of grace and clarity. Visitors are encouragedto consider movement from north to south; from historic occupancy tonew habitation; from land to water to land again.Rushing along the Gardiner-Lake Shore corridor, one is barely awareof the water below, or the relationship of river and land. Instead of theempty rhetorical gesture of a ‘signature’ bridge, a series of bridges arecreated that partake of the qualities of transparency and permeability.At night these structures of cast glass, steel and concrete areilluminated by the glow of headlights and streetlights, while during theday they reflect light from the water and sky. Seemingly made of thesame substance as their surroundings, they embody the moment oftransition itself.Individual bridges are dedicated to cars, bicycles or pedestrians,allowing the experience of crossing to be rapid or leisurely. Bridgesstitch back and forth across the Channel, drawing together the edgesof the landscape over and over again.Gardiner Expressway Pedestrian / bike bridge rail bridge 1 lane vehicular bridge Pedestrian / bike bridgeN s
  44. 44. 41Diller Scofidio+RenfroNew YorkarchitectsAllianceTorontoGardiner CityZone 3
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  46. 46. 43Diller Scofidio+RenfroNew YorkarchitectsAllianceTorontoGardiner CityZone 4Zone 4
  47. 47. 44Zone 4
  48. 48. 45Diller Scofidio+RenfroNew YorkarchitectsAllianceTorontoGardiner CityZone 4Enmeshed LandscapeAs the Gardiner winds east along the lake’s former edge, it crossesthe Don River and dives downward to grade. Here, it transforms fromhighway to parkway – from a column-supported roadbed to a dividedground-level artery with planted medians. An “Enmeshed Landscape”strengthens the transition between the elevated and ground-levelexperiences.Dense plantings produces an immersive condition where no overlookof the landscape exists. It is an environment of immediacy that lacksmiddle or background conditions. Road and pathways merge withplanting, entangling the built and natural into one landscape. Thisverdant experience is created through a shared infrastructural armaturebetween Expressway and parkway: the Bosque.The enmeshed experience begins on the elevated Gardiner highwaywhere trees propagate in hanging containers along the highway edge.This aerial nursery mitigates noise and pollution while greening thecity. The trees are held in place through an infrastructural frameworkthat provides drip irrigation and drainage connection. The existingdrainage of the overhead highway is re-used with added interstitialconnections. Along the length of the highway, trees grow between2 and 3 years. Once mature they are transplanted to ground-level,creating green streets. The existing tracks are utilized to move thetrees east to nearby cross-streets and newly reclaimed landscapeadjacent to the Don River and parkway.The landscape offers three speeds of experience. The high-speedautomobile is engulfed by green with trees, groundcover and shrubswhich densely shroud roadway edges and medians.The medium speed of the bicycle shifts sensations. Under the highwaythe bike path is a sanctuary of hanging vines, spreading groundcoverand overhead trees. This landscape is connected to the rail yard usedfor stormwater retention and as a nursery for tree and shrub planting.Lighting, aeration misters and a changing topography create a dynamicentry and exit to the newly restored Don River and the grade-levelroadways of the new Gardiner Expressway. The slow path of thepedestrian weaves through the planting, allowing visitors to experienceprincipally greenscape.
  49. 49. 46slow landscapeSlow/Medium/FastThe new enmeshed Expressway experience is varied and customizedaccording to the speed of the pedestrian, the bike, and the automobile(slow, medium, fast). The fast landscape is characterized by theexperience of a vehicle’s sudden transition in and out of an enmeshedlandscape of varying densities; a bike path provides a medium-speedlandscape as a direct path flanked on either side with vegetation, andlastly, a pedestrian has the choice to either travel along a direct pathor wind through an exaggeratedly slow path, protracted by increasingbends within dense vegetation.
  50. 50. 47Diller Scofidio+RenfroNew YorkarchitectsAllianceTorontoGardiner CityZone 4
  51. 51. 48medium landscape
  52. 52. 49Diller Scofidio+RenfroNew YorkarchitectsAllianceTorontoGardiner CityZone 4
  53. 53. 50fast landscape
  54. 54. 51Diller Scofidio+RenfroNew YorkarchitectsAllianceTorontoGardiner CityZone 4
  55. 55. 520250 Years0255025 YearsPhasingThe enmeshed landscape at Year 0 is a densely planted parkwaycorridor along Lake Shore Boulevard. Over a period of 50 years, theenmeshed green is also propagated down cross-streets, in the form ofbioswales and diverse tree plantings.
  56. 56. 53Diller Scofidio+RenfroNew YorkarchitectsAllianceTorontoGardiner CityZone 4255050 Years
  57. 57. 54
  58. 58. 55Diller Scofidio+RenfroNew YorkarchitectsAllianceTorontoGardiner CityDrawings and modelsDrawings and models
  59. 59. 56
  60. 60. 57Diller Scofidio+RenfroNew YorkarchitectsAllianceTorontoGardiner CityDrawings and models
  62. 62. 59Diller Scofidio+RenfroNew YorkarchitectsAllianceTorontoGardiner CityDrawings and modelsRESIDENCES
  63. 63. 60
  64. 64. 61Diller Scofidio+RenfroNew YorkarchitectsAllianceTorontoGardiner CityDrawings and models
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  66. 66. 63Diller Scofidio+RenfroNew YorkarchitectsAllianceTorontoGardiner CityDrawings and models
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  68. 68. 65Diller Scofidio+RenfroNew YorkarchitectsAllianceTorontoGardiner CityAppendixAppendix
  69. 69. 661 EnvironmentThe most graphic element of our Gardiner-Lake Shore transformationis the enmeshing of the Expressway in a green landscape. Wepropose that the planting of the “Suspended Forest” be the firstphase executed, to provide a powerful symbol of the ‘greening’of City infrastructure. This is no mere symbol, however; plantingsbeside and under the Gardiner will be part of an on-site tree farm thatwill generate saplings for dissemination throughout Zones 1-4 andpotentially throughout the City.Other sustainable features of our proposal include:–“Downgrading” the Lake Shore to a local street with a plantedboulevard that ‘greens’ an arid piece of City infrastructure, and restoresconsciousness of Toronto as a waterfront community–Improving cycle infrastructure by reducing dependence on carswithin the new community – a benefit that will bleed into adjacent Citycommunities where local residents work and shop–Bioswale ‘green fingers’ that reach north and south into newneighbourhoods – these are the rootstock from which future greenspaces and pathways will grow to further interlace land and waterCity Building Lenses2 EconomicsThe economic, social and cultural potential of “undevelopable” parcelscan be unlocked through the following strategies:–Pulling Lake Shore Boulevard from beneath the Expressway, andtransforming it into a new local street along which future developmentcan be organized–Creating a cultural district on the north side of the Lake Shore whichstimulates development in the same way that artist-led colonizationhas transformed West Queen West–Locating schools, community centres, and other low-rise, communaluses beneath the Gardiner, to capture unused lands and provideanchors for neighbourhood growth–Reorienting waterfront industrial sites to face northward onto apedestrianized, localized Lake Shore Boulevard–Enhancing the value of lands in the development corridor, which willexert market pressure to develop them at greater density, for highervalue uses. Development will generate the tax revenues to finance newinfrastructure and raise the tax base over the long term.3 Transportation and InfrastructureFor three generations, the Gardiner Expressway has been an iconthat defined the visual experience and identity of the City. As atransportation corridor it is a crucial element in the economic life of theCity, a principal mover of people and goods. For stressed-out officeworkers, it is a Dante-esque premonition of an afterlife of eternalcommuting.Our proposal for revitalization takes into account all of theseexperiences of the Gardiner-Lake Shore, and responds in ways thatare both practical and imaginative. As we have re-imagined thetransportation and infrastructure requirements for the precinct, ouroverarching goal is to support the economic, social and cultural healthof the City; to support both environmentally and socially sustainablegrowth; and to propose solutions which support themselves byattracting private capital to the area, and by creating the conditionsfor a significantly higher tax base that funds transportation and otherinfrastructure development.The Gardiner is transformed into an elevated Expressway sheathed ingreenery and underpinned with community-based uses. In so doing wehave embedded the Gardiner in the landscape and in the fabric of theCity, ending its long separation from life at ground level. Lake ShoreBoulevard is also pulled into the daylight, restoring it to its pre-1920sstatus as a local arterial road – a true boulevard planted with trees andedged with bicycle paths. Railway spurs, part of the site’s industrialheritage, are reused as mobile planting beds on open rail cars thattransport trees for planting throughout the Gardiner-Lake Shoreprecinct.Across the precinct, we have proposed several repeating elements thatcreate a dense weave of pedestrian, cycling, vehicular and maritimeconnections in, out and through the new precinct; these include:–Bridges over Keating Channel and over the railway berm–Underpasses beneath the rail line and the Expressway–Linear paths along the Lake Shore and the Channel–New canals around residential buildings south of the Channel–Bioswales interlacing with residential development to capture andpurify stormwater
  70. 70. 67Diller Scofidio+RenfroNew YorkarchitectsAllianceTorontoGardiner CityAppendix4 Urban DesignThe Gardiner should be embraced as a heroic piece of Cityinfrastructure. A varied set of urban design moves, built-form andlandscape conditions, together enshrine and celebrate the Expressway:–Realignment of Lake Shore Boulevard, to create a new east-west‘spine’ for residential neighbourhoods, and to free up space for newuses under the Expressway–Reorientation of south-facing industrial lands to face north onto theBoulevard and the Expressway–Bar buildings that stand in the water and include small craft dockingfacilities–Low-rise arts- and community-oriented uses under the Gardiner tocreate a funky, ‘downtown’ ambience like DUMBO in New York, orToronto’s West Queen West and Junction neighbourhoods–“Green fingers” – Bioswales that intertwine with new residentialdevelopment to draw the River further up into the communityNew connections over and under the Gardiner, and over the Don Riverare created:–Swelled-out underpasses that attract pedestrians to the water–Linear parks lined with bike and pedestrian pathways–Visually significant but intimate bridges that tie the land and watertogether, rather than standing as singular ‘signature’ built elements–Dense plantings under, around and beside the Expressway; and mobiletree farms that use rail spurs to move tree and plant materials aroundthe site.
  71. 71. 68De-linking the Lake Shore from the gardiner Disarticulate Lake Shore and the Gardiner to create an animated riverdrive and an elevated transportation device / ‘green generator’Re-engineer the Gardiner as architecture wrapped over structureUnlock previously unrealized development potential beneath theGardiner and add value to adjacent real estateCreate dual-aspect residential towers south of the Lake Shore, whichface both the City and the LakeImprove street conditions at grade, and create more efficient floor platesthat allow greater separation from the Expressway and increased publicspace around buildingsSuspend a green filter between the Gardiner and residentialdevelopment to the southCreate favorable conditions for new residential development, promotinga higher tax base for the City
  72. 72. 69Diller Scofidio+RenfroNew YorkarchitectsAllianceTorontoGardiner CityAppendixNew Shoreline Acknowledge, respond, contribute to and participate in the historicshifting and re-engineering of the City shorelineInterlace the Lake and landCreate a dynamic, didactic new waterfront community
  73. 73. 70Roads vs. Streets Return Lake Shore to a true boulevard – lush, green, active, processionalElevate Queens Quay to the status of principle east-west transit corridorAcknowledge Cherry Street as a future north-south transit lineand propose residential and commercial density to support thisinfrastructureComplement the Zone 4 ‘enmeshed landscape’ with an accompanyingsoundscape, a musical drive
  74. 74. 71Diller Scofidio+RenfroNew YorkarchitectsAllianceTorontoGardiner CityAppendixROUTES Loop the end of the Lakefront promenade back into the CityMake both recreational and commuter bike routes:–More efficient: locate at mid-height/top of the rail bed so cyclists neednot dismount to cross the street;–More dynamic: let cycle paths conform to the topography;–More experiential: misting, cycling under hanging gardens in Zone 4Consider integrating LRT lines above the elevated ExpresswayIntegrate the LRT into the downtown relief route and connect it toBroadview Avenue
  75. 75. 72neighbourhood connectors Reconfigure dark underpasses as new portals from the City to the LakeReinterpret these major north-south routes as axes, punctuated bytall towers that act as gateways and thresholds to the Lake at anurban scale‘Re-sleeve’ dark underpasses, transforming them into wide, invitingexperiential gateways for pedestrian and cyclistsReconnect the Lakeside promenade to the City with a series of‘dovetails’Reconceive the Don River crossing as an experiential stitching togetherof the east and west banks
  76. 76. 73Diller Scofidio+RenfroNew YorkarchitectsAllianceTorontoGardiner CityAppendixproposed Green Space at grade Create interior and exterior green spaces under the Gardiner blockSite recreational and commuter bike paths within linear parklandsCreate an immersive, enmeshed landscape zone that interpretsthe current area of big box retail to the east while anticipating thedevelopment of future residential neighbourhoods
  77. 77. 74proposed greenspace at Expressway level Create a dense, enmeshed landscape that is peeled back to revealthe ExpresswayCreate an accessible plantation; a new form of ‘agritecture’Flatbed cars on rail lines hold young saplings, which grow and areraised to the Expressway level, where they are suspended until neededfor landscaping in surrounding neighbourhoodsAdd a productive and kinetic aspect to landscape designPlant trees one, two or three rows deep – thinning out to reveal viewsor becoming more forest-like where views are less importantThe enmeshed landscape works at three levels: an understorey,mid-storey and large tree canopy, creating an immersive greenenvironment for pedestrians and drivers
  78. 78. 75Diller Scofidio+RenfroNew YorkarchitectsAllianceTorontoGardiner CityAppendixphasingOur phasing strategy will give the Gardiner-Lake Shore project astrong initial kick off, and let the public know that something newand exciting is happening on the Waterfront. Following this robuststart, our strategy will promote a high quality of development activityand provide the project with a sound economic base throughout thefollowing phases of growth. To support the initial and ongoing phasingstrategy, we have developed the following series of block ‘types’,which will be deployed in various configurations within each of the fourZones:activator Animates the zone with a combination of residential and commercial usesgenerator Injects immediate economic benefitincubator Encourages the genesis of a neighbourhood in a previously vestigial areaconnector Acts as ‘connective tissue’ between existing built formpropagator A landscape block planted with a variety of treesPhase 1  Greening the Elevated ExpresswayPlant the elevated Expressway with suspended trees on each sides ofthe GardinerPhase 2  The Strong Kick-offDe-link the Gardiner and Lake Shore, reorient Lake Shore between Jarvis and BoothConnector: build the new Don River crossingPhase 3Incubator: develop Gardiner block between Parliament and CherryStreetsConnector: overpass at Trinity StreetGenerators: ends of Gardiner blocksActivators: two blocks south of Lake Shore east of Cherry and west ofParliamentGenerators: two bars of density hub blockActivators: two residential bar buildings in Zone 3Propagators: two blocks immediately east of the Don RoadwayConnectors: additional pedestrian and cyclist bridge crossingsPhase 4Activators: complete the mixed-use blocks south of Lake Shore in Zone 1Incubators + Connectors: infill the Gardiner blocks between Parliamentand JarvisActivators: build the remaining residential bar buildings, and additionalbars of density hubGenerator: build the Museum of TorontoPropagator: complete plantings of trees throughout Zone 4Propagator: start building the bioswales in new residentialneighbourhoodsPhase 5Propagator: a literal “branching out” of bioswales, tree farmpropagation + planting into growing and developing neighbourhoods inZone 4Propagator: build final top of density hub (botanical garden etc.)Connector: build last signature bridge to connect east river to newZone 3 peninsulaHold a celebratory flood zone eventFutureContinue to green the City through the tree farm and propagationPrepare strategies for future increase in bike commuting / decrease incar use, global climate change, warming Lake levels, etc.Phase 1Phase 2Phase 3Phase 4Phase 5
  79. 79. 76Taking a Walk Along the New Lake Shore Create an interesting and intensely varied set of built-form andlandscape conditions which embrace the Gardiner as a piece ofinfrastructurePropose structures in a ‘soft’ language that contrasts the existingconcrete ExpresswayEngage fluid forms that wrap, hover, pierce, book-end, saddle up to andslide under the Gardiner
  80. 80. 77Diller Scofidio+RenfroNew YorkarchitectsAllianceTorontoGardiner CityAppendixSPEED DIAGRAM Consider the variety of speeds at which our interventions will be viewed– from car, bike or on footConsider building form that responds and is influenced by speed(design at 100 kph / 60 mph)
  81. 81. 78ANALYTICAL DIAGRAM #2GATEWAYS + THRESHOLDS1 NORTH/SOUTH THRESHOLDS2 RAIL CORRIDOR VIEW CONE (Occupying)3 GATEWAY TO CITY FROM EAST4 TRANSVERSE RIVER5 ENMESHED FORREST (Tube)11 122 234 5CARLAWAVBOOTHAVDONRIVERPARLIAMENTSTTRINITYSTSHERBOURNESTJARVISSTGatesways and Thresholds Create gateways and thresholds at an urban scale which:–Punctuate major north-south routes–Occupy the rail corridor–Traverse the River–Absorb travelers into a new and unfamiliar landscape
  82. 82. 79Diller Scofidio+RenfroNew YorkarchitectsAllianceTorontoGardiner CityAppendixREINTERPRETATION OF THE RAIL CORRIDORANALYTICAL DIAGRAM #1BREINTERPRETATION OF THE RAIL CORRIDOREXISTING RAIL CORRIDORPROPAGATION LINESPROPAGATION LINESGROWTH OF PROPOSED STREETSReinterpret the rail corridor and de-emphasize it as a means oftransportationView the rail corridor as an elastic piece of infrastructure that iscapable of perforation, inhabitation and reuseTake possession of uninterrupted view corridors by inserting dynamic,programmed overpasses
  83. 83. 80Traffic AssessmentThe essence of the transportation component of the Team A ConceptPlan is the realignment of Lake Shore Boulevard so that it is no longerunder the elevated Expressway. At the same time, there is a reductionin the basic cross-section of Lake Shore Boulevard from three lanes ineach direction to two lanes in each direction between the Expresswayon/off ramps east of the Don River (near the eastern limits of the studyarea) and Jarvis Street (at the western limits of the study area).Most of the existing connectivity of the network is retained. Removalof the eastbound on-ramp from Lake Shore Boulevard east of JarvisStreet and the westbound off-ramp to Lake Shore Boulevard andSherbourne Street east of Sherbourne Street occurs to maximizedevelopment opportunities.The focus of the traffic assessment undertaken in support of the TeamA Concept Plan has been to confirm that the reduction in traffic lanesand elimination of the two aforementioned ramps could occur and stillreasonably support the existing and baseline AM Peak Hour trafficvolumes.It is assumed that the future baseline traffic volumes in the area wouldgenerally be similar to the existing volumes and that the overall growthin travel demand would be offset by the development of the plannedextensive improvements to the GO Transit, local transit, cycling andpedestrian networks elements serving the area and would utilizecurrent and future underutilized capaCity in the local road network.The AM Peak Hour traffic volumes illustrated in Figure T1 have beenassembled from the best available source being the City of TorontoTransportation Services databases. The volumes have been adjustedmodestly where necessary and have been rounded upwards to thenearest 25 vehicles per hour. The traffic currently using the eastboundon-ramp from Lake Shore Boulevard east of Jarvis Street and thewestbound off-ramp to Lake Shore Boulevard and Sherbourne Streeteast of Sherbourne Street was re-assigned to the other available routesincluding the on-ramp from northbound Bay Street to the eastboundExpressway, the westbound off-ramp to Yonge Street and Lake ShoreBoulevard, the southbound off-ramp from the Don Valley Parkway toDon Roadway, the northbound on-ramp from Don Roadway to the DonValley Parkway, and the Richmond / Adelaide ramps from / to the DonValley Parkway. The resulting AM Peak Hour volumes are illustrated inFigure T2.It has long been recognized that the existing configuration of theGardiner Expressway and Lake Shore Boulevard in the section betweenJarvis Street and the Don River provides more capaCity than requiredto accommodate the prevailing traffic volume demand. Our assessmentof the impact of the re-assignment is that the shifts in traffic loadingarising from the Team A Concept can be readily accommodated bythe network and would require no significant modification of the roadnetwork and little adjustment in travel patterns. Moreover, it is clearthat the resulting AM Peak Hour volumes on Lake Shore Boulevard inthe section between Jarvis Street and the Don River could be readilyaccommodated on a conventional City street with a basic two laneconfiguration in each direction supported by left-turn lanes at selectedsignalized interaction locations.
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