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The Farmers' Handbook, Part 5 - Forest, Soil and Other Topics

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The Farmers' Handbook, Part 5 - Forest, Soil and Other Topics …

The Farmers' Handbook, Part 5 - Forest, Soil and Other Topics


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  • 1. Forest, Soil, & Other TopicsThe Farmers Handbook
  • 2. CONTENTS Subject Chapter No:This Volumes Authors : Chris Evans, Laxman Rana, Hari Dhungana, Mrs Malati LakoulEdited, Designed & Produced by: Chris Evans & Jakob JespersenTranslated from Nepali by Chris Evans Introduction to this Volume .......................... 1Proof reading: thanks to Mike Feingold, Margaret Evans, Ted Albins, Rupert Greville, AndyLangford, Looby MacnamaraPhotos: Jakob Jespersen, Chris Evans Forest Management ...................................... 2Addional photo credits are given at the end of this VolumeCover illustration: Mr Motilal Phauja Soil Conservation and improvement ............ 3Typing: Chris EvansComputer Coordination: Graphics Edge, KathmanduPublished by: Chris Evans, Jakob Jespersen...... A-Frame ........................................................ 4Distributors: .......... (see p.8 for address)Printed by: Format Printing Press, Kathmandu...... Community Fund .......................................... 5First Edition (Nepali) printed June 2001, 7500 copiesThis Edition.........Farmers Handbook, ISBN 99933-615-0-X....... Land Design .................................................. 6This Volume : 99933-615-5-0 Glossary ......................................................... 7 The Farmers Handbook is about techniques for sustainable farming and this is the fifthof 5 volumes. There are 5 techniques and several miscellaneous topics presented here. In five Practical Literacy .......................................... 8volumes there are 40 techniques and approaches in total. Acknowledgements ....................................... 9 This Farmers Handbook is meant for education and awareness raising as well aspractical gardening uses. It is permitted to photocopy for such purposes, but please remember Introduction to Permaculture....................... 10that photocopying can cause pollution to the environment, is expensive & does not give a goodquality. Grihasthi Publications resources ................ 11 Chapters are separated by a yellow page
  • 3. Aims ls;fgsf] xft]lstfa - – o; efusf] main aim of this handbook is to help farmers make The Farmers Handbook kl/ro this Volumes Introduction The their own farms more successful. This is done by providing This is the fifth volume of a five volume production of information about using simple methods which strengthen,the Farmers Handbook. In all, there are forty techniques & rather than damage the environment, and help to createapproaches shown, of which six are in this fifth volume. sustainable livelihoods for future generations.Because this is the final volume, its design is slightly differentto the previous 4 volumes. At the start of this volume we Backgroundintroduce you to some of the techniques used in community The techniques described in the handbook are the resultsforests, and for regenerating land. The chapter on Land of research made by the farmers of Surkhet and JajarkotDesign then summarises all the chapters in this Farmers districts of Mid-Western Nepal. We believe these methods willHandbook. Finally, there are some miscellaneous topics. also work well for farmers of other countries. However, This Farmers Handbook has been prepared to provide around the world there are diverse climates and soils, and soinformation about sustainable farming techniques as well as we expect that small changes will need to be made in thebeing a resource to run literacy programmes. Information techniques according to this diversity. Similarly, it may beabout such programmes and how the Handbook can be used necessary to change plant species according to climatic region,is provided in this volume. As well as technical information, a but their function will remain the same. For example, theglossary of new and difficult words is also provided in this chapter on the Living Fence describes the use of thorny plantsvolume.  as a barrier. In the low altitude, hot Tarai of southern Nepal, "Babool" (Acacia nilotica) is suitable for this. But this does not grow in the higher elevations. Here, species such as wild pear, wild blackberry and Sea Buckthorn make a good living fence.  Evaluation & Feedback Comments and questions about the techniques and approaches described in this handbook will be most welcome. Suggestions for improvement will be used for future editions of this handbook and other similar publications.
  • 4. Thank You We would like to say a big thanks to all the friends who Forest Management 2helped us to complete this Farmers Handbook. Apart from those named and pictured here, there are countless others Soil Conservation and Improvement 3 who have supported us throughout the task. Various farmers A-Frame 4 groups have helped to develop and evaluate Proof the Handbook. It is for such groups that the Handbook has been produced. reader Techniques Community Fund 5 Proof Proof reader reader Land Design 6 Proof reader ?system cambi sci on um Glossary 7 Practical Literacy 8 Computer support Printer Picture Acknowledgements 9 So on behalf of the Farmers Introduction to Permaculture 10 Handbook, heres a very, very big Thank You ! From the Producers and Designers Grihasthi Publications resources 11Chris Evans Jakob Jespersen
  • 5. Appropriate Technology AsiaP.O. Box 8975 EPC 849 Distributor andKathmandu, Nepaltel: +977 1 5549774 main contactnepal@arasia.org.uk addresseswww.atasia.org.uk Permanent Publications The Sustainability Centre East MeonHampshire GU32 1HR tel: +44 1730 823311 info@permaculture.co.uk www.permaculture.co.ukPermaculture Association UKBCM Permaculture AssociationLondon WC1N 3XX Himalayan Permaculture Group, P.O.Tel: +44 845 4581805 Box 19121, Kathmandu, Nepaloffice@permacuture.org.uk lxdfn lb3f{o ;d"x, n]v˚;f{ – @, k/fgf] ufp“,www.permaculture.org.uk ;v]{t Nepal Permaculture Group P.O.Box 8132, Kathmandu, Nepal Tel: +977-1- 252597 email:- npg@earthcare.wlink.com.np Funding Support Support for the production and printing of The Farmers Handbook has come from ActionAidNepal, MSNepal, Methodist Relief & Development Fund (UK), GTZ Food for Work, Hill Agriculture Research Project (HARP). In this volume, the chapter on "Soil Conservation and Improvement has been supported by Helvetas Nepal
  • 6. What isThe Farmers Handbook - "Forest, Soil and other Topics", Chapter 2 - Forest Management Forest Management ? Forest Manage- ment is the way that forests and the trees within them are pro- tected and used to pro- vide forest products and other benefits. In order to manage a forest, the different objectives must be decided upon, and a work plan is made ac- The forest we keep, keeps us. cording to this. Just like any farm management, the work plan to manage a forest means what work to do, where, when, and how. Before start- ing forest management, the capacity and working process of those who are to do the work and benefit from it (user group) should be considered. This may be a community, family, individual, or other organisation which will work in and ben- efit from the forest. In Nepal, community forest is a resource of primary importance. Thats why its very important for communities and user groups to learn about forest management. In this chapter, information is given in particular about community and private forest mangement.
  • 7. do Forest to do Forest Why Management ? How Management ? Most people already know that the forest gives them Backgroundmany direct and indirect benefits. Daily needs such as fodder,firewood, leaf litter, timber, and various herbal medicines are A very important factor together with "how" to manageavailable in the forest. The forest not only protects and im- forests is "who" is managing them. Considering this, theproves the environment around settlements, it even helps to Nepali government has made various regulations. The Forestprovide us with safe, clean drinking water. Department, together with non-government and other organi- This is something that people have come to understand sations have participated in developing a set of regulations tosince early days. It is also why forest management has been help forest user groups manage their own forests.part of the local community for a long time. The forest law covers the management and use of reli- But for many reasons, the forest has been disappearing gious forests, leasehold forests, government managed forestsbefore our eyes. As population has continued to increase, on and protected forests. However, community forest and privateone hand more forest resources are needed, yet on the other forest are considered to be the most important types of forest. hand, population pressure has decreased In recent years, the amount of community managed the forest area and had a bad affect on forest has increased greatly. However, user groups have still the environment. With efficient and not been able to realise the benefits of truly sustainable forest appropriate ways of conserving and management. developing forest products such as trees and medicinal herbs, the well-being and Over time, there have been many ways that the forest productivity of the family and commu- has been protected, developed and its products distributed nity can increase, and poverty will de- amongst its users in homes and villages. These management crease. methods have been improved in different places and at differ- ent times, but there is still room for improvement. We should now use the lessons of experience, and take forest manage- This Chapters Author : ment forward to cater for the increasing population. Hari Prasad DhunganaFederation of Community Forest Users Groups, Nepal2 The Farmers Handbook, "Forest, Soil and Other Topics" Chapter 2 - Forest Management 3
  • 8. Community Forest Needs and abilities of the community or individual This is where national forest has come under a local The different needs of a community or individual willmanagement plan, and has been handed over from the district determine why and how to manage the forest. In communityforest office to a village committee responsible for the imple- forestry, the needs and hopes of the community are mostmentation of the management plan. important. But individual or family needs usually take prior-Private Forest ity in private forests. In managing a community forest, the opinions of all This is where trees and forest on any private, registered users of the forest are important to create the managementland may be managed. plan. This may include religious or cultural reasons for pro- Some details of registering community and private forest tecting or using the forest.are give on page 14. This a map made by the user group for a forest management plan in Kavre district, Central Nepal By planting trees on farm land, forest products are brought closer to the home. This saves time and helps to protect the forest. Read the Agroforestry chapter to learn more.Things to consider in forest managementObjectives of forest management The forest can be managed for various objectives. Themain objective of managing community forest is often tosustainably provide for the needs of firewood, fodder, timber, What is a Forest Management Plan ?etc. in the community. Management of private forest may, for A forest management plan is a written or understoodexample, be for the maximum output of good quality timber. agreement for a programme of work in the forest, in terms ofThere may be many other objectives in forest management. who does it, and where, when and how the work is done. InJust as the objectives are different, the management work in community forestry terms this can also be called an "actionthe forest will also be different. plan", and can include issues relevant to national forest law.4 The Farmers Handbook, "Forest, Soil and Other Topics" Chapter 2 - Forest Management 5
  • 9. Forest Site Conditions Finding the resources to manage the forest The condition of the forest will differ in different places. There are various resources needed in the process ofFactors such as types and species of trees and shrubs, soil type, forest management. For example, if making a plantation, ormoisture, fertility, and aspect all cause great diversity, and other activities, there must be good public participation toaffect productivity in the forest. While preparing the forest form the users group committee, and agree on the manage-management plan, an evaluation of the growing stock of pro- ment plan. This can be called the human resource. It costs toductive trees and shrubs, and their growth rates is an important produce seedlings to plant, and there are many other visiblestep. Keeping good records of this will enable the user group to and invisible costs that the people managing the forest willestimate the amount of products which can be sustainably need to bear. These human, financial and physical resourcesgathered from the forest area. have a big affect on management work in the forest. Here you can see the trees, but its not a good forest. There are no plants in the ground layer, so this space has no productivity. Important re- sources such as There are many soil are lost types of plants without the in a good forest. forest cover.6 The Farmers Handbook, "Forest, Soil and Other Topics" Chapter 2 - Forest Management 7
  • 10. In this community Naturally regener- forest, unwanted ated seedlings usually species have just been grow better than cut back, and useful planted seedlings. thinnings harvested. planted naturally regenerated The same area 1 year later, the forest has In a productive grown back well. After a and truly sustain- while it will be cut back able forest there again. Such work im- are many types of proves the forest.. trees and shrubs which fill all layers of the for- est, from ground layer to upper canopy.8 9
  • 11. Work in the ForestPlantation Bare ground, clear glades in the forest, and even terraceedges in fields can all be planted with useful trees. Appropri-ate non-timber and medicinal plants which are needed by the Forest killershousehold and community can be chosen and planted, as wellas trees grown for timber. These can be grown in a nursery, or Thinningwild plants can be collected from the forest and planted. To Thinning practice is different depending on the differentlearn about species selection, planting distance, propagation objectives of the forest management plan. For example, if theand planting methods, you should seek technical advice from objective is only firewood production, trees can be grownthe relevant places, such as the local district forest office or closer together. But for good quality timber, the lowerappropriate NGO, and request extra training. branches of selected trees may need pruning. Some types of fodder tree are best cut in different ways at different times of the year. To make space for more valuable species, less useful Plant more use- trees and shrubs can be gradually cleared. For example, if ful plants in there is too much pine, this can be thinned out and other more bare areas of useful or desired species planted in the gaps. the forest. If many branches regrow from the stumps of cut trees (coppicing), a good tree can be grown by selecting the best one or two stems and cutting the remainder.Weeding and FireControl Clear weeds from around newly planted or regeneratedseedlings to help them grow, and protect the area from theharmful effects of fire and free-range livestock. Some treesmay suffer more from fire, while slow growing plants suffermore from weed competition. This work protects trees frompests and diseases, and helps the seedlings to grow faster.10 The Farmers Handbook, "Forest, Soil and Other Topics" Chapter 2 - Forest Management 11
  • 12. More information about this is given in the Soil Conser- For sustainable harvesting from the forest, productsvation and Improvement, Integrated Orchard, and should not all be harvested at the same time. Once an estimateAgroforestry chapters. has been made of the growing stock and growth rates, accord- ing to this a fixed proportion of the growth can be harvested.Final Harvest This will help to improve the forest without over-harvesting. Fodder trees may be cut several times a year, or onceevery 2 years, after which they will regrow. Harvesting timber Registering a Community Forestmeans felling the whole tree. Some herbal medicines come According to the current forest law in Nepal, communityfrom harvesting roots, some from fruit, or flowers, or bark, forest is given priority for development. The forest user com-etc. In this way benefits are harvested according to the man- mittee is givenagement plan. The management should include planning and responsibility forpreparation for future rotations of crops. protection of and distribution of By selecting and products from the thinning, useful community forest. products are The local commu- harvested as well nity forms the user as improving the group to manage all this responsibility. Bhaisepati Womens remaining forest. Community Forest Saibu-4, Bhaisepati, 1998 • The community should form a users committee which can make an applica- tion to the District Forest Office. • Taking advice from the Forest Office and/or related NGOs, the committee should prepare a clear, simple constitution. • After registering the constitution at the forest office, a If the future forest management plan is made. regrowth of the for- • When the plan is approved, the forest is handed over to the est is part of the community. management plan, it • Its a good idea to take advice from related organisations for can be sustainable. technical and management advice while managing the forest.12 The Farmers Handbook, "Forest, Soil and Other Topics" Chapter 2 - Forest Management 13
  • 13. Registering a Private Forest Farmers land is often left unused, for example because Farmers Mr Ammarthey do not have the time or other resources to farm it. Byplanting trees, or by protecting naturally regenerated trees on Experience Bahadur Gurungsuch wasteland, or even on existing farmland, it is possible tomake a private forest.• Output from the private forest goes to the landowner. When From Nepal, Surkhet district, the private forest is registered, these products can be sold Gumi - 4, Mr Ammar or traded . Bahadur Gurung is the Vice-• To register the forest, the land and its distribution of trees Chairman of "Longlake Com- should be described in the application to the forest office. munity Forest". Now lets• The forest office will check your application against what read about his experiences. is on the land, then issue you a certificate of registration for Our local forest was very the private forest.• Once the forest is registered, you do not need to go through æ good up until 1980. After that, people stopped caring. Live- any other process of registry in order to sell products from stock were let loose into the the forest. forest, and people cut wherever they liked. That led to more Ammar Bahadur Gurung landslides and floods, and even whole houses were washed away. Then, in 1994 this forest was handed over to the community as Lampokhari Com- munity Forest. It is 9 hectares in area. After making a forest management plan, various rules were made. Livestock arent allowed in, and the forest is opened twice a year to Mr Surya Adhikari of cut fodder and firewood, which isnt allowed any other Begnas, Nepal, changed this time. Each person pays 2 rupees to be allowed to cut a land from bare ground to a rich, diverse food forest. As load. Because of laws like this, the forest has grown and well as producing fodder, developed very well. Dead and badly shaped branches are firewood, etc. for the home, taken out, and dead trees can be bought and cut for timber. he also produces fruit for The cash income from sale of forest resources goes into the cash income. local community fund.14 The Farmers Handbook, "Forest, Soil and Other Topics" Æ Chapter 2 - Forest Management 15
  • 14. Read On ! Grihasthi Communications Subjects Related to Forest Management This book provides much of the information needed tohelp manage your own forest. However, this information isalso linked to other methods. For extra benefits lets read,learn and practice from other related chapters. Soil Conservation and Improve- ment chapter Information is given about the nature of soil, how to protect existing soil, and lots of ideas about how to regenerate damaged soil into productive land again. Agroforestry chapter Planting trees on farmland can bring farmers many benefits. But you cant plant any type of tree just anywhere. This chapter gives information on how to plant trees without affecting farm yield. Integrated Fruit Orchard chapter Information on how to plant fruit trees with various other multi-purpose trees to give more and quicker benefits for less work is given in this chapter. Living Fence chapter By planting a fence made of trees, production can be much more than just a barrier. This chapter tells how to make and manage a living fence.
  • 15. The Farmers Handbook - "Forest, Soil and other Topics", Chapter 3 - Soil Conservation and Improvement What is Soil Conservation & Improvement ? All plant life needs soil to germinate, grow and live its life. If the soil and soil management is good, farm production will also be good. The condition of Bare land becomes greener as the our environ- soil recovers in Surkhet, Nepal ment, society and economy all depend on the health of the soil. If the soil can be kept fertile, production increases, the local economy is strong, and society is safe. Just like skin covers our bodies, so soil covers the Earth. Just like our bodies are damaged if our skin is broken, or wounded, so the Earth is harmed, and production decreases if the soil is damaged or washed away. If the soil is damaged, the farming community also suffers great harm. So we need to understand the needs of soil, and what can damage it. This chapter also gives information on how soil can be sustainably protected and improved.
  • 16. Soil and its Needs The roots of the plant in picture 1 are shown close up in picture 2. Different climates have different types of soils . Often, This is shown evenone type of climate will also have many different types of closer in picture 3.soil. But whatever the soil, they all have similar ingredients inthem. Such as :-• mineral particles - these forms the main part of soil• air• moisture (water) 1 2• animal life (visible and microscopic)• roots of living plants• organic matter (dead plants and animals that are in the process of being broken down) 3 organic Fertile soil gives matter air good production for all the farms crops root hair mineral (this takes up particle nutrients and root The ingredients listed above are found in all soils in agreater or lesser amount. When they are in the right amount, water for the plant)the soil is naturally fertile. This booklet’s author Everything else is soil water, or moisture. In the Chris Evans, advisor, water are many nutrients, and countless micro- Himalayan Permaculture Group, Nepal scopic organisms are also active in this water. www.designedvisions.com2 The Farmers Handbook, "Forest, Soil and Other Topics" Chapter 3 - Soil Conservation and Improvement 3
  • 17. According to the soil type, these Needs of the soildifferent elements are present in dif- Testing Soil What is needed to protect and maintain fertility in the soil ?ferent amounts. For example, lets The contents of the soil descibed above - air, minerals,compare sandy and clay soils. Put a handful of soil in a jar of organic matter, living roots, moisture and living organisms - water and shake are all essential in the right quantities for healthy soil. WhenSandy Soil they are all present, soil is naturally self-fertile. Adding the well. Leave it to• mineral particles are large right quantities as needed also maintains the quality of the settle for 4-5• air spaces between the mineral soil. But if any one ingredient is present in a lesser or greater days. The dif- particles are large amount than normal, the quality of the soil can be harmed, or ferent types of• lots of air in the soil it can also be improved. mineral parti- As a result of this :- A small wound on the cles will settle• soil is light and well aerated into separate skin of the Earth.....• the soil doesnt hold water, and layers dries out faster• nutrients are washed out quicklyClay Soil• mineral particles are small 1• space between the particles is 2 small ..... can make a big landslide.• less air in the soil This should be prevented 3 As a result of this :- from starting.• the soil is heavy• as soon as it rains, the soil is 4 All the different ingredi- saturated and stays wet for a long ents in the soil work together to time. But when it dries, the soil is help plants to grow. But more 1. Organic matter important than these minerals, living roots, organic matter, very hard• nutrients are held in the soil but if 2. Clay particles etc. are the living organisms in the soil. In particular, the tiny, there is less air in the soil, plants 3. Loam particles invisible organisms, such as bacteria,and fungi play a huge cant get the nutrients so easily 4. Sand particles role in maintaining and increasing soil fertility. These are collectively called micro-organisms.4 The Farmers Handbook, "Forest, Soil and Other Topics" Chapter 3 - Soil Conservation and Improvement 5
  • 18. Soil life and micro-organisms Actually, micro-organisms are probably the most impor- Life in the Soiltant life on our planet. Living in one teaspoon of fertile forestsoil there are 2 billion micro-organisms. Larger organisms,and many types of fungi are also responsible for breakingdown dead plants and animals. This forms organic matter. earthwormThen, the smaller micro-organisms - mainly bacteria andfungi - take the organic matter and change it so plant roots(the root hairs) can absorb the nutrients, as we cook bread Larger organisms which can be seen willfrom flour. Even if there is plenty of organic matter in the break down larger pieces of organic matter,soil, without the work of micro-organisms, this cannot be and help to get air into the soil. The smallertaken up by the roots of living plants until it is "cooked". micro-organisms eat their waste. Leaves and branches, dead animals, etc. fall on the soiland are broken down. Micro-organisms eat them. Then, it is fungi Plants absorb the waste fromtheir waste in the soil which plant roots absorb as nutrients. micro-organismsThis allows the plants to grow and continue the cycle of life. Cycle of nutrients Plants take the and the work of nutrients and micro-organisms bacteria grow How soil is damaged Soil organisms When soil is left bare, it can be damaged very easily. break down Many things can damage bare soil, such as :- organic matter • sun :- strong sun will dry out the soil. Dry soil hardens and Soil fertility cracks the soil. Micro-organisms will die in dry, hard soil. micro-organisms • water :- when it rains on bare soil, the top layer will set eat the nutrients and hard. On slopes, the topsoil is washed away downhill. organic matter is • wind :- wind will dry out all the moisture from bare soil, excrete them as made into nutrients waste and can actually blow the top soil away.6 The Farmers Handbook, "Forest, Soil and Other Topics" Chapter 3 - Soil Conservation and Improvement 7
  • 19. Comparing soil with and without mulch Protected from the sun, wind and rain, the organic matter, On these 2 pages the effects of mulching and not mulch- soil moisture and beneficial micro-organisms all benefit froming are compared together. The left page diagram (a) shows mulching the soil. You need to consider where resources forwhat happens with no mulch on the soil, while the right page mulching can be found, such as leaf litter, straw, etc. Leavesdiagram shows the example of a mulched soil. The top diagram can be brought from the forest, but this takes time. To produceshows water 1 lost to evaporation, 2 running off the soil, and more resources for mulching, its best to use Agroforestry and3 soaking into the soil. The cycle below each drawing also a Living Fence - see these chapters for more details. Learnshows the effects of mulching or not mulching on soil quality. more about the methods and benefits of mulching in the Mulching chapter. Cultivated, un-mulched soil Mulched, un-cultivated soil a Rain washes a Soil is deep, sun away fertile sun fertile, and soil, more strong well pro- water is lost plant tected. More rain rain 1 1 to the sun, moisture, weak plant less nutri- 3 3 more soil life, ents are held 2 2 plants are in the soil, more healthy and less soil life less moisture small roots plants are more soil life bigger roots strong. weak. moisture b soil less b lots of lots of ploughed, organic plants mulch left bare matter more need less air more healthy to plough in soil moisture Spiral of soil Spiral of destruction productivity difficult to less softer richer cultivate moisture soil soil fewer roots grow more hard soil earthworms deeper earthworms8 The Farmers Handbook, "Forest, Soil and Other Topics" Chapter 3 - Soil Conservation and Improvement 9
  • 20. Other things which damage the soil So, what to do if nutrient deficiencies are recognised by these symptoms ? The chart below gives examples of plants• Chemical fertilizers :- these harm the soil micro- which accumulate greater amounts than usual of certain organisms and so cause the soil structure and nutrient nutrients. These can be used in mulch, compost or liquid uptake to be damaged. manure so those nutrients which are lacking can be added to• Artificial poisons :- as well as killing pests, these kill many the soil. They are called dynamic accumulators. beneficial insects and organisms which work in the soil.• Big, heavy machinery :- big machines such as tractors plant contains lots of compress the soil so that there is less air space. They mustard phosphate, nitrogen, iron destroy the structure of the soil, as well as damaging soil buckwheat phosphate organisms. carrot (leaf) potassium, magnesium• Large livestock :- on wet soil, the feet of large livestock comfrey nitrogen, potassium, magnesium, iron such as cows and buffaloes also compress the soil and damage soil structure. legumes nitrogen marigold phosphate Nutrient management for plant growth nitrogen, potassium, iron, sulphur, copper nettle Symptoms of lack of certain nutrients amaranth nitrogen, phosphate, potassium, manganese Symptoms seen on mature leaves lack of The main thing to consider in soil conservation Leaves yellow, starting from tips nitrogen and improvement :- Leaves die from the edges potassium We need to understand what benefits the soil as well as Leaves yellow between the veins magnesium what that damages the soil, and plan our work according to this. Grey/white spots on fruit and grain manganese There are 3 main strategies :- Leaves and stems turn red colour phosphate 1. We need to feed the soil micro-organisms, and allow a Symptoms seen on young leaves lack of good habitat for them to live and work in. Yellow spots on leaves & veins yellow sulphur 2. The soil should not be bare. We need to keep it covered as Yellow spots on leaves & veins green iron much as possible. Especially, take care to cover and protect the soil when there is strong sun, rain and wind. Grey spots on seed, pods and fruit manganese 3. Stop water from running off down a slope for any distance - Newest leaves die back or have white tips copper it runs faster, and carries off much soil and nutrients with it.10 The Farmers Handbook, "Forest, Soil and Other Topics" Chapter 3 - Soil Conservation and Improvement 11
  • 21. Methods of soil conservation and improvement ? how to conserve1. For the micro-organisms :- mulching, good compost, liquid manure, green manures, agroforestry, afforestation. Lets See and improve the soil2. To cover the soil :- mulching, green manures (when land is fallow), agroforestry, afforestation, etc. 1 Bare land becomes3. To stop water running off :- mulching, green manures, agroforestry, afforestation, use A-frame to make contour dried out and ditches, terrace maintenance. wounds start to appear on the Earths skin. Compost Mulching These wounds 2 can be healed by Read about how protecting the these methods A-Frame land and planting Green improve the soil extra trees. manures in each chapter 3 Liquid Double Agro- manure digging In 1989, this land forestry was bare - 13 years later it is aIn this chapter, up till now we have read about soil, rich, fertile and what it needs and how we can increase its fertility. diverse orchard.Now, we look more at regeneration of damaged soil.12 The Farmers Handbook, "Forest, Soil and Other Topics" Chapter 3 - Soil Conservation and Improvement 13
  • 22. 7 Here seedlings 4 have been planted 8 and the site protected 5 Napier grass planted Bare and unproductive land on the river edge.... 9 6 After 1 year the Napier is big ....when enough to cut protected, can 5 for fodder produce many of a farmers 10 needs. 10 Outside the wall the Ipomea (Morning land is degraded, Glory) planted on while inside has the river bank to grown green prevent erosion14 The Farmers Handbook, "Forest, Soil and Other Topics" Chapter 3 - Soil Conservation and wf/ kl:tsf g+= # – df6f]sf] ;+/If0f / ; Improvement 15
  • 23. Repair of Damaged Land 11 A high altitude Up until now in this chapter, information has been given Resource to assist in good soil management. If there is good soil on the Centre farm farm, it is not difficult to maintain and increase soil quality. being started in Where soil has become degraded, the difficult work is to 1990 in improve it again. But this is very important work - no community can claim it is poor as long as it has degraded Jajarkot, Nepal land in its region , because they can improve productivity simply by repairing this land. The canal, made All the things discussed above will help in the repair of 12 damaged soil. But before putting much work into land using an A- regeneration, we should first understand how nature does the job. frame, allows the water to infiltrate the soil This is a poor This means bare village. No land improves forest, no soil, no very quickly (this wealth. picture in 1993) 13 But the ability Maize stalks are to improve the used to strengthen land is in the the terrace and communitys stop soil erosion hands. Nature also wants to improve itself.16 The Farmers Handbook, "Forest, Soil and Other Topics" Chapter 3 - Soil Conservation and Improvement 17
  • 24. Soil Improvement and Succession The seeds of many pioneer plants are already in the soil. Improving the soil doesnt take so much work. Its often Many types of fruit, such as Ficus, mulberry, etc. are eaten byenough just to prevent it degrading. Left alone, soil will birds and spread on the land through their manure.gradually improve itself, in a process called succession. For We can speed up this process by providing perches overexample, when any bare land is protected, special ground a bare area for birds to sit on. Bury tall posts on a contourcover plants called pioneers will start to grow first. They will line, and tie string between them. Under the string wherestart the soil improvement process. Then, larger shrubs and birds sit, the seed they carry will germinate.trees will start to grow. Eventually, a mature forest will On bare land, its much easier to work with nature. Withdevelop, and the soil will get a new life. a few years protection, nature So the first need for improving the soil is protection. The will plant the best specieseasiest type of protection is a "community fence" - the to improve the soil.community decides to protect an area of land, and prevent Then people can plantlivestock going into it. After that, stone walls, thorny brush, etc. the larger species theycan be used to make a fence. Most difficult is the individual need, such as walnut, oak,protection of trees, by surrounding them with thorny branches. etc., and they will survive, and grow much better. Communally protected land This improvement doesnt cost much and the land will grows through succession improve sustainably. The right plants will grow according to site and climate. Making a plantation on a bare site is very expensive, and more trees will fail. Its much cheaper and more effective to use succession for soil improvement. Land improvement - who benefits? A walled area The aim of improving community land is to prevent erosion, and produce more fodder, firewood, etc. But we must consider who benefits from this work. There are many examples where resource-poor people gain less than they should. So we must make sure from early on Each tree is protected that benefits from land improvement are shared equally by thorny branches amongst the community.18 The Farmers Handbook, "Forest, Soil and Other Topics" Chapter 3 - Soil Conservation and Improvement 19
  • 25. 1 Succession on bare land When land is bare, there are no benefits except a few handfuls of grass for livestock. In fact, the soil will be 4 degrading in the opposite direction. At first its most important to protect the site. Within 3-4 years By allowing natural plants to grow the small trees will soil will improve by itself. start to grow on the land. 2 The soil will have improved When an well by this time. Now we area is protected can start planting large types of from grazing, within 1- tree. In between, smaller, shade loving species such 2 years grasses and small as coffee, pineapple, cardamon, medicinal herbs, etc. can shrubs will start to grow. These be planted. cover the soil, conserve moisture, and start to improve the soil. Livestock must be fed at home. Grasses which grow on the protected site can be used as fodder for them. 3 After 5 another 1-2 years Eventually, both other seed will be nature and the brought to the land by the community can provide wind or by birds, and start to for more of their needs. grow. As well as providing fodder, Nature is protected, and these shrubs and trees can also provide small human benefits also increase. When firewood. nature and the community work together, such benefits are sustainable.20 The Farmers Handbook, "Forest, Soil and Other Topics" Chapter 3 - Soil Conservation and Improvement 21
  • 26. It is important to prevent water from running off a bare One piece of land improvement slope. This can be done by using an A-frame to mark out contour ditches, or swales. This is described in the A-Frame chapter. Lets see how the A-frame can be used. A stone wall protects the land where seedlings have been planted Some trees will grow easily from cuttings when The A-frame is used to mark horizontal lines. planted at the right These make swales for soil improvement. time. These are Ficus cuttings. Swales made with the A-frame hold water, soil and After just 2 nutrients on the years, the land. These can be area is green used by growing and plants, instead of productive being washed away.22 The Farmers Handbook, "Forest, Soil and Other Topics" Chapter 3 - Soil Conservation and Improvement 23
  • 27. The distance between swales Planting of fodderdepends on the steepness of 1 species willthe slope. The steeper the increase compostslope, the closer together the production....swales should be. In diagram1 the slope is steeper, and the 2swales are dug deeper andmore narrow. In diagram 2the slope is less steep, swales ....or the trees can beare less deep, and wider. In 3 cut and leaves putdiagram 3 the soil dug from directly on the landthe swale is put above rather (mulching).than below the ditch. This canbe used to make terraces forcultivation as the soil accumulates above the ditch. Soil will collect above trees planted like this, and slowly level land will be Instead of digging formed for easier farming. swales, rocks or branches can be laid out on the contour lines marked by the A-frame to prevent soil erosion. Small shrubs can also be By stopping soil planted. Their roots erosion in this way, will bind the soil and hill farmers can can wont fall over and make their own land cause more erosion, more fertile and as big trees may do. productive.24 The Farmers Handbook, "Forest, Soil and Other Topics" Chapter 3 - Soil Conservation and Improvement 25
  • 28. Ways to increase soil fertility Farmers Mr Surya Prasad • livestock compost Experience Adhikari • compost made of sweepings from the house and yard • legumes to fix nitrogen • earthworms From Nepal, Kaski district, • silt from ponds, streams, etc. Lekhnath - 10, Begnas vil- • silt and dust collected from the run-off of the first rains lage, Mr Surya Prasad Adhikari has worked to • deep-rooting trees to cycle fertility improve the soil on his own • mulch using leaf litter to cover the soil farm. Now lets read about • dead insects, birds, etc his experiences. • soil and leaves blown in by the wind • human excrement I started my mixed orchard in 1988. My aim was • laying turf to work with nature to improve • green manures the soil and make it more • rotation cropping productive. The area is 1.5 • keeping land fallow acres, and it was completely • no-tillage, to allow natural soil fertility bare and degraded, with hardly any grass. First I planted Surya Prasad Adhikari seedlings and mulched all the If farmers can use as many of these various local land with leaves and compost. In the second year I sowedresources as possible to increase fertility, they can help to legumes and planted bananas. I cut the bananas and usedprotect and improve the soil themselves. In this way they can them for mulch. Then I planted oranges, pineapple, fodderincrease production locally and make the homestead strong trees, broom grass, and so on. In total there are 55 species Iveand productive. planted. Its all protected from livestock. The annual production has increased each year, and I even sell seedlings The soil is our life. which grow there. There are 800 fruiting coffee seedlings, ç Protect it and be happy !!! ç and I sell oranges and pineapple too. I produce all the fodder and firewood needed at home as well.26 The Farmers Handbook, "Forest, Soil and Other Topics" Chapter 3 - Soil Conservation and Improvement 27
  • 29. 210987654321 210987654321 210987654321 210987654321 210987654321 Dig twice as deep to get 4 x the vegetable production 210987654321 210987654321 210987654321 210987654321 210987654321 Double Digging chapter 210987654321 210987654321 210987654321 210987654321 210987654321 210987654321 210987654321 210987654321 210987654321 Good forest management is essential for the soil 210987654321 210987654321 210987654321 210987654321 210987654321 Forest Management chapter 210987654321 210987654321 210987654321 210987654321 210987654321 210987654321 210987654321 210987654321 Make not just a fence, but a productive part of the farm 210987654321 210987654321 210987654321 210987654321 210987654321 Living Fence chapter 210987654321 210987654321 210987654321 210987654321 210987654321 210987654321 210987654321 210987654321 Make great compost from domestic waste resources 210987654321 210987654321 210987654321 210987654321 210987654321 Sweepings Pit chapter 210987654321 210987654321 210987654321 210987654321 210987654321 210987654321 210987654321 210987654321 210987654321 A method of increasing soil fertility and crop production 210987654321 210987654321 210987654321 210987654321 210987654321 Green Manures chapter 210987654321 210987654321 210987654321 210987654321 210987654321 210987654321 210987654321 Mulching protects and improves the soil 210987654321 210987654321 210987654321 210987654321 210987654321 210987654321 Mulching chapter 210987654321 210987654321 210987654321 210987654321 210987654321 210987654321 210987654321 210987654321 Make good compost for the soil faster and easier 210987654321 210987654321 210987654321 210987654321 210987654321 Compost chapter 210987654321 210987654321 210987654321 210987654321 210987654321 210987654321 210987654321 210987654321 An easy method of saving soil and water on sloping land 210987654321 210987654321 210987654321 210987654321 210987654321 A-frame chapter 210987654321 210987654321 210987654321 210987654321 A 210987654321 210987654321 without affecting yields of field crops 210987654321 210987654321 210987654321 210987654321 210987654321 Plant more trees on farmland to increase production 210987654321 210987654321 210987654321 210987654321 210987654321 Agroforestry chapter 210987654321 210987654321 210987654321 and Improvement Subjects Related to Soil ConservationGrihasthi Communications Read On !
  • 30. how to make 1 2 3 Lets See an A-Frame 1 Lay the sticks out in the shape of the English letter "A" These pictures show how the A-Frame is put together. More details are given along with the colour photos. 2 The A-Frame is constructed by joining the legs, levelstick and string as in drawings 1, 2 and 3 above. It is NOTessential that the long sticks which make the legs of the A-frame are exactly the same length, nor that the middle stick isexactly horizontal. It doesnt matter if lengths are different, orif the sticks are not exactly straight. As in the drawing below,some A-frames can be more uneven, but they all do the samework. 4 The most important part of the A-frame, so it can mark out contours accurately, is the relationship between the 3 string and the horizontal stick. The way that this is done is shown in detail in colour photos 7 to 14 To join the pieces Now the A-Frame is ready to use use nails or string4 The Farmers Handbook, "Forest, Soil and Other Topics" Chapter 4 - A-Frame 5
  • 31. What is aThe Farmers Handbook - "Forest, Soil and other Topics", Chapter 5 - Community Fund Community Fund ? A Community Fund can be started by village men and women agreeing to make a group, and collecting money from all the members of the group according to their capac- ity. When the group has an objective of making loans and charging inter- est as needed from this fund, this is usually called a savings and loans group. These Controlling your own finance groups can be made up of men and women, some are made up of women only. The members of the group discuss and decide on when to meet and how much money to collect. Usually they meet once a month, on the first Saturday, or any other day they decide on. Every- one agrees to pay an equal amount, which can increase over time. Members can then take a loan according to their needs. A rate of interest is payable on the loan, which increases the fund. This has proved to be very successful in allowing com- munities to control and improve their own local economy.
  • 32. make a to make a Why Community Fund ? How Community Fund ? In this chapter, first well look at selecting the group and• protection from the high interest rates of merchants how it manages itself. Then well look at examples of simple• to have access to funds at times of emergency ways of keeping and managing accounts. Finally, well briefly• to be able to pay for family committments, such as wed- look at some good ways of investing the fund, and see case dings, school fees, funerals, etc. studies of successful womens groups and their funds.• to be able to take loans easily whenever needed• so that marginal families with minimum incomes can get Where does savings money come from ? access to credit and cash • from a certain percentage of income taken at the start,• to make managing the households finances easier before any spending (produce, save, and then spend) • from increasing the fund by income-earning work • from giving up being lazy and improving work habits • reducing unnecessary expenses • reducing consumption of damaging items such as alcohol and cigarettes • from community or social work, such as festivals, cultural programmes, bulk buying and marketing, etc. Materials Needed to make a Community Fund "piggy bank" pens Discussing the business of the Community Fund money This Chapters Author : trusting Mrs Malati Lakoul friends World Education, accounts Kathmandu, Nepal books2 The Farmers Handbook, "Forest, Soil and Other Topics" Chapter 5 - Community Fund 3
  • 33. How to start a group Choosing the groups leaders The group The various chooses the chair-responsibilities of person, treasurerthe group and secretary by Groupshould be consensus, Good participationdivided up, so election, or by leadership whateverthat savingsand credit method is ap-groups can man- propriate. Forage themselves example, here are 2effectively. Not methods of selecting the postseveryone has the same : Method 1skills, and it should be decided and agreed who is best to dowhich job. The group selects people with the right qualities to play the leadership roles, who then state whether they wish to have Things to consider when selecting members the post. When there is consensus and everyone agrees, the posts are given.Group leader (Chairperson) Method 2• able to lead the group• able to manage the group successfully A selection of suitable candidates are presented or• able to listen, and understand inputs from the group present themselves. There is a vote, and whoever gets the most votes gets the post.• able to explain about the group and how it works to other people and groups. How to keep the groups accounts ?Treasurer Secretary The keeping of the groups accounts means the group can• able to read and write • able to read and write keep a record of funds saved, loans given and interest earned,• able to keep accounts • able to explain about the group to so the total amount of the fund is always known. The treasurer others has the responsibility to keep the accounts clear and transpar- • able to network with other groups ent. On the following pages are samples of a groups accounts.4 The Farmers Handbook, "Forest, Soil and Other Topics" Chapter 5 - Community Fund 5
  • 34. Keeping the groups accounts Savings and loans pass book To keep accounts of the groups savings, the chairperson Its best to have a pass book for each member of therecords the names and savings of the group members, with group. This can be copied from any other group or organisa-each signing their name against the account. Everybody tion who are keeping similar accounts. An example of thewatches as accounts are written, and the accounts are read out way accounts can be kept of savings and loans is given below.as well. Below is an example of the records kept. Savings Passbook Group Ledger Month April Si S. Date Item Savings Loan Total gn No: at deposited taken Savings ur SignatureS. In- Loan Loan Amount Amount e Date Name Item 1. 1.4.01 April 10/- - 10/-No: come taken left to in in repay bank Group 2. 1.5.01 May 10/- - 20/- 3. 1.6.01 June 10/- - 30/- 1. 1.4.01 Last 200/- month’s items Loans Passbook 2. 1.4.01 Dhanmaya April’s 10/- 210/- S. Date Paid back Left Si saving Item Loan Interest gn No: taken to pay Loan Interest to at ur 3. 1.4.01 Sunmaya April’s 10/- 220/- pay e saving 1. 1.4.01 April 180/- 9/- note : due to lack of space not all accounts are written. After Dhanmaya and Sunmaya there are another 12 members whose savings are not shown, but the method is the same.15. 1.4.01 Sita April’s 340/- Group ledger saving Here, the accounts of members 16 to 20 are not shown21. 1.4.01 Phulmaya April’s 400/- saving Saving and Phulmaya is the Treasurer loan passbook6 The Farmers Handbook, "Forest, Soil and Other Topics" Chapter 5 - Community Fund 7
  • 35. Providing loans from the fund 4. Managing the funds ledger : • How much does each member• Decide what type of work loans can be given for. have?• Decide the amount of interest to charge, depending on the • How much loan have they type of loan. taken?• Decide how and when the loan will be repaid. • How much is kept in the bank ?• Prioritise which types of loan are available.• Discuss and decide regularly how to keep the group and its 5. Keeping the savings : finances running well. • Hold formal meetings; • Provide details of accounts to Coordinating the groups activities the group.1.The group meets regularly to make decisions. 6. Agree interest rates :2.Work is divided among the By using the loan to • How much interest is charged group. start a business, the on different types of loan ?3.Bylaws are made :- local economy benefits, • how much to save ? (per 7. When will loan repayment start ? while loan repayment member) • How will the loan be paid off ? also increases the fund. • when to save it ? (monthly, etc.) • When will the loan be paid off ? All decisions are recorded. weaving Usually, the group 8. Plan for the members will meet future. Discuss fruit once a month. how to get access to relevant tech- shop niques and re- sources to make programmes connected to areas of health, education, farm- skills There are benefits to the ing, etc. training vegetable group and the individual. growing8 The Farmers Handbook, "Forest, Soil and Other Topics" Chapter 5 - Community Fund 9
  • 36. Joining in community work related to the fund A success story of a community fund In 1994 in Gauripara village in Bardiya district, of West- Why should an ern Nepal, the women started a savings and credit group. Atactive and well run first the members raised 5 rupees a month and invested this insavings group only various activities. They grew a potato crop, and raised pigs manage a fund ? successfully. Then they rented some land and grew rice, They can also be which also produced well. Now they have started to build a involved in com- community hall, and plan to open a community shop. Even munity work such though they invested this much, as of 2000 they still had over as maintaining 50,000/- rupees left in the fund. Now this active and success- paths, drinking ful group also advises and teaches other groups.water systems and plantations. Womens ability and awareness increases. They can participate in making decisions about various community issues along with the men. Members of Gauripara Group10 The Farmers Handbook, "Forest, Soil and Other Topics" Chapter 5 - Community Fund 11
  • 37. Farmers Mrs Purnakala Experience Gharti Grihasthi CommunicationsFrom Nepal, Surkhet district,Gumi - 5, and chairperson of"Protect the Forest" womensgroup, Mrs Purnakala Ghartihas experience in running herlocal groups communityfund. Now lets read aboutwhat she says. We learned how to form theægroup from the Homestead Pro-gramme (JPP). First all the Mrs Purnakala Ghartimembers raised 4 kg each ofgrain, then on the first of every month we meet and each pay10 rupees into the savings. We give loans if someone hassickness, or runs out of food, and the loan is collected with asmall interest. Up until May the interest was 2 rupees perhundred. Since May its now one and a half rupees per hun-dred. At the moment we have 500 rupees in the fund, and7000 rupees is out in loans. This has made things very easyfor us. Theres no need to take loans from the merchants, whocharge interest at least 5 rupees per hundred. For one thing,we dont have to go searching for a loan, and we canuse our fund. For another, when we pay the interest,it increases our own fund. Æ
  • 38. What is aThe Farmers Handbook - "Forest, Soil and other Topics", Chapter 5 - Community Fund Community Fund ? A Community Fund can be started by village men and women agreeing to make a group, and collecting money from all the members of the group according to their capac- ity. When the group has an objective of making loans and charging inter- est as needed from this fund, this is usually called a savings and loans group. These Controlling your own finance groups can be made up of men and women, some are made up of women only. The members of the group discuss and decide on when to meet and how much money to collect. Usually they meet once a month, on the first Saturday, or any other day they decide on. Every- one agrees to pay an equal amount, which can increase over time. Members can then take a loan according to their needs. A rate of interest is payable on the loan, which increases the fund. This has proved to be very successful in allowing com- munities to control and improve their own local economy.
  • 39. make a to make a Why Community Fund ? How Community Fund ? In this chapter, first well look at selecting the group and• protection from the high interest rates of merchants how it manages itself. Then well look at examples of simple• to have access to funds at times of emergency ways of keeping and managing accounts. Finally, well briefly• to be able to pay for family committments, such as wed- look at some good ways of investing the fund, and see case dings, school fees, funerals, etc. studies of successful womens groups and their funds.• to be able to take loans easily whenever needed• so that marginal families with minimum incomes can get Where does savings money come from ? access to credit and cash • from a certain percentage of income taken at the start,• to make managing the households finances easier before any spending (produce, save, and then spend) • from increasing the fund by income-earning work • from giving up being lazy and improving work habits • reducing unnecessary expenses • reducing consumption of damaging items such as alcohol and cigarettes • from community or social work, such as festivals, cultural programmes, bulk buying and marketing, etc. Materials Needed to make a Community Fund "piggy bank" pens Discussing the business of the Community Fund money This Chapters Author : trusting Mrs Malati Lakoul friends World Education, accounts Kathmandu, Nepal books2 The Farmers Handbook, "Forest, Soil and Other Topics" Chapter 5 - Community Fund 3
  • 40. How to start a group Choosing the groups leaders The group The various chooses the chair-responsibilities of person, treasurerthe group and secretary by Groupshould be consensus, Good participationdivided up, so election, or by leadership whateverthat savingsand credit method is ap-groups can man- propriate. Forage themselves example, here are 2effectively. Not methods of selecting the postseveryone has the same : Method 1skills, and it should be decided and agreed who is best to dowhich job. The group selects people with the right qualities to play the leadership roles, who then state whether they wish to have Things to consider when selecting members the post. When there is consensus and everyone agrees, the posts are given.Group leader (Chairperson) Method 2• able to lead the group• able to manage the group successfully A selection of suitable candidates are presented or• able to listen, and understand inputs from the group present themselves. There is a vote, and whoever gets the most votes gets the post.• able to explain about the group and how it works to other people and groups. How to keep the groups accounts ?Treasurer Secretary The keeping of the groups accounts means the group can• able to read and write • able to read and write keep a record of funds saved, loans given and interest earned,• able to keep accounts • able to explain about the group to so the total amount of the fund is always known. The treasurer others has the responsibility to keep the accounts clear and transpar- • able to network with other groups ent. On the following pages are samples of a groups accounts.4 The Farmers Handbook, "Forest, Soil and Other Topics" Chapter 5 - Community Fund 5
  • 41. Keeping the groups accounts Savings and loans pass book To keep accounts of the groups savings, the chairperson Its best to have a pass book for each member of therecords the names and savings of the group members, with group. This can be copied from any other group or organisa-each signing their name against the account. Everybody tion who are keeping similar accounts. An example of thewatches as accounts are written, and the accounts are read out way accounts can be kept of savings and loans is given below.as well. Below is an example of the records kept. Savings Passbook Group Ledger Month April Si S. Date Item Savings Loan Total gn No: at deposited taken Savings ur SignatureS. In- Loan Loan Amount Amount e Date Name Item 1. 1.4.01 April 10/- - 10/-No: come taken left to in in repay bank Group 2. 1.5.01 May 10/- - 20/- 3. 1.6.01 June 10/- - 30/- 1. 1.4.01 Last 200/- month’s items Loans Passbook 2. 1.4.01 Dhanmaya April’s 10/- 210/- S. Date Paid back Left Si saving Item Loan Interest gn No: taken to pay Loan Interest to at ur 3. 1.4.01 Sunmaya April’s 10/- 220/- pay e saving 1. 1.4.01 April 180/- 9/- note : due to lack of space not all accounts are written. After Dhanmaya and Sunmaya there are another 12 members whose savings are not shown, but the method is the same.15. 1.4.01 Sita April’s 340/- Group ledger saving Here, the accounts of members 16 to 20 are not shown21. 1.4.01 Phulmaya April’s 400/- saving Saving and Phulmaya is the Treasurer loan passbook6 The Farmers Handbook, "Forest, Soil and Other Topics" Chapter 5 - Community Fund 7
  • 42. Providing loans from the fund 4. Managing the funds ledger : • How much does each member• Decide what type of work loans can be given for. have?• Decide the amount of interest to charge, depending on the • How much loan have they type of loan. taken?• Decide how and when the loan will be repaid. • How much is kept in the bank ?• Prioritise which types of loan are available.• Discuss and decide regularly how to keep the group and its 5. Keeping the savings : finances running well. • Hold formal meetings; • Provide details of accounts to Coordinating the groups activities the group.1.The group meets regularly to make decisions. 6. Agree interest rates :2.Work is divided among the By using the loan to • How much interest is charged group. start a business, the on different types of loan ?3.Bylaws are made :- local economy benefits, • how much to save ? (per 7. When will loan repayment start ? while loan repayment member) • How will the loan be paid off ? also increases the fund. • when to save it ? (monthly, etc.) • When will the loan be paid off ? All decisions are recorded. weaving Usually, the group 8. Plan for the members will meet future. Discuss fruit once a month. how to get access to relevant tech- shop niques and re- sources to make programmes connected to areas of health, education, farm- skills There are benefits to the ing, etc. training vegetable group and the individual. growing8 The Farmers Handbook, "Forest, Soil and Other Topics" Chapter 5 - Community Fund 9
  • 43. Joining in community work related to the fund A success story of a community fund In 1994 in Gauripara village in Bardiya district, of West- Why should an ern Nepal, the women started a savings and credit group. Atactive and well run first the members raised 5 rupees a month and invested this insavings group only various activities. They grew a potato crop, and raised pigs manage a fund ? successfully. Then they rented some land and grew rice, They can also be which also produced well. Now they have started to build a involved in com- community hall, and plan to open a community shop. Even munity work such though they invested this much, as of 2000 they still had over as maintaining 50,000/- rupees left in the fund. Now this active and success- paths, drinking ful group also advises and teaches other groups.water systems and plantations. Womens ability and awareness increases. They can participate in making decisions about various community issues along with the men. Members of Gauripara Group10 The Farmers Handbook, "Forest, Soil and Other Topics" Chapter 5 - Community Fund 11
  • 44. Farmers Mrs Purnakala Experience Gharti Grihasthi CommunicationsFrom Nepal, Surkhet district,Gumi - 5, and chairperson of"Protect the Forest" womensgroup, Mrs Purnakala Ghartihas experience in running herlocal groups communityfund. Now lets read aboutwhat she says. We learned how to form theægroup from the Homestead Pro-gramme (JPP). First all the Mrs Purnakala Ghartimembers raised 4 kg each ofgrain, then on the first of every month we meet and each pay10 rupees into the savings. We give loans if someone hassickness, or runs out of food, and the loan is collected with asmall interest. Up until May the interest was 2 rupees perhundred. Since May its now one and a half rupees per hun-dred. At the moment we have 500 rupees in the fund, and7000 rupees is out in loans. This has made things very easyfor us. Theres no need to take loans from the merchants, whocharge interest at least 5 rupees per hundred. For one thing,we dont have to go searching for a loan, and we canuse our fund. For another, when we pay the interest,it increases our own fund. Æ
  • 45. What is Land Design ?The Farmers Handbook - "Forest, Soil and other Topics", Chapter 6 - Land Design Farming is part of the body of rural communities. Everybody wants to make these commu- nities more sustain- able. Permaculture is the direct applica- tion of the princi- ples of nature in the design of sustain- able human habitats. Permaculture designer Govinda Design can make a Sharma in his kitchen garden farming system which relies on the observation of nature and the adaptation of natures stability, fertility and resilience to create a sustainability which benefits not only people, but the whole earth. Permaculture is a way of designing which uses mainly local resources to help individuals and communities be self reliant and abundant. It is also a design system which helps us to run our lives and cultures in a sustainable way . Permaculture combines the best of natural systems, tradi- tional skill and wisdom, community values, and modern tech- nology. In this chapter we give an introduction to Permaculture and its principles, and how it is used in design. This chapter also combines all the other chapters of the Farmers Hand- book to help make households more sustainable.
  • 46. Benefits of using Permaculture design Where can we see sustainability ? If we really want to create a sustainable lifestyle for• To repair degraded land and make it ourselves, and for future generations, we must learn from productive again places where systems are sustainable. These are the self-• to produce more benefits from less reliant, self sustaining, resilient, stable and productive natural land systems of the world.• to protect basic natural resources of An example of a sustainable natural system can be seen soil, water, biodiversity, etc. in a natural forest. But traditionally the forest is a dark, for-• to reduce the cost of farm production bidding place, where crops cant be grown and tigers hide to• to create sustainable life systems take our livestock. Thats why we are more accustomed to• to design a sustainable agriculture. clearing forest in order to grow crops. But at the same time, most people understand that without the forest there is no life, because so much of what we need in life comes from the What is "Sustainable" ? forest. But have we ever thought how the Nowadays the word "sustainable" is widely used, like forest is a teacher of sustainability ?"sustainable development", "sustainable economics", and soon. But we must only use this word when we understand it.What is a sustainable place like ? What do we gain from it ? A "sustainable" system is permanent, stable, resilient andself sustaining, never breaking down and always meeting theneeds of its populations of plants and animals. Actually, in modern times people have never made atruly sustainable system, so where do we get our "sustain-able" vision from ? If we wish to be truly sustainable, where can we go tolearn how, when we have never done it ourselves ? Moderndevelopement has given us billions of dollars and thousandsof politicians and scientists, but still we are not sustainable. These training participants learn So where to go and what to do, to be sustainable ? about sustainability from the forest2 The Farmers Handbook, "Forest, Soil and Other Topics" Chapter 6 - Land Design 3
  • 47. Go to the forest and see ! Natural Systems and Permaculture Design• The Forest needs no work but is always productive.• The Forest never degrades itself, and is always growing. How is a Natural System Sustainable ?• The Forest does not need fertilizing or irrigating, but it is always fertile and moist. What is a Natural System ?• The Forest is warm when its cold, and cool when its hot. A Natural system is made up of living and non-living ele-• The Forest is permanent, resilient, and self reliable. ments. And the forest is sustainable ! In a natural system there are various elements, such as So how would it be if we could make our homes, com- trees, shrubs, insects, ponds, rocks, birds, etc. These elementsmunities and economies as sustainable as the forests ? To have their own different characteristics, habits and qualities.make our homesteads as sustainable as nature, we need to Some trees are short, some tall. Some are thick, some thin.understand the importance of natural systems, and use that Some need full sunlight, some grow in the shade. All theunderstanding in our lives. Permaculture is a way of design- elements, with their own habits, live in a functional relation-ing the land using this knowledge. ship to the other elements around them in any place. That is called a natural system. Permaculture Ethics Natural System element elemen loca l charac ts nt teristic environme s relationships between elements (1) Care of the Earth (2) Care of People In some languages, a system may have a (3) Recycling of Wealth different name if it is made by people, by design e.g. a farming system.4 The Farmers Handbook, "Forest, Soil and Other Topics" Chapter 6 - Land Design 5
  • 48. Principles of Natural Systems ❁ Succession Bare, degraded land will improve itself naturally. This proc- Natural Systems follow a group of principles which ess of regeneration is called succession. For example, when anyenable them to be sustainable. By using the same principles in bare land is protected, special ground cover plants called pioneersthe design of farming systems, the objective is to work to- will grow first. They will start the soil improvement process.wards a sustainable agriculture. Permaculture is used as a Then, larger shrubs and trees will grow. Eventually, a maturedesign system to enable this. forest will develop, and the soil will have a new life. This princi- ple is used to regenerate unproductive land into productive sys-Principles of Natural Systems and tems quickly, successfully, and at low cost. We can also use spe-Permaculture Design cies that follow this principle, but are more useful for human needs. There is infor-❁ Succession mation about 1❃ Beneficial, functional relation- the history and 2 founders of ships between elements Permaculture at✽ Diversity the end of this fifth volume.❁ Cycles and Re-cycling❃ Use of local resources 4✽ Each element performs multiple functions❁ Each function is supported by multiple elements 3❃ Stacking for efficient use of space✽ Use of biological (living) resources❁ Use of microclimate❃ Energy efficient planning 5 Permaculture design uses these principles to make agri-culture more productive and sustainable. Thats why the prin-ciples are the same for permaculture as for natural systems.6 The Farmers Handbook, "Forest, Soil and Other Topics" Chapter 6 - Land Design 7
  • 49. ❃ Beneficial, functional relationships For example, the In nature, living and non-living elements are connected bee takes nectar fromto each other. This is a relationship of cooperation, not com- the peach flower, andpetition. For example, birds eat seed and disperse it elsewhere the peach can producein their manure. Also, bees take nectar from flowers, so help- better fruit from theing pollination. pollination. Wormwood In farming systems also, different elements can be re- and nettle can help thelated to each other. Anything that any one element needs can bean, garlic, cauliflowerbe provided by another element, and the outputs of that are in the kitchen garden byused by something else. In the diagram below are examples being used for mulch.of sixteen elements in a homestead. There are various connec- Newly sprouting shootstions linking the needs of one element to the outputs of an- of the peach can beother, in a way that helps the system to be sustainable. rubbed on the cow to prevent skin parasites, while the cow provides manure to ss lemon gra many elements in the system. Garlic, wormwood, nettle, peach marigold, etc. are all useful in the vegetable garden and or- chard for companion planting, liquid manure and pest control. ne cow ttle • • Design looks to put the right elements together in the be • • right place, so that needs and outputs are met within the sys- e mint tem. This reduces work and waste, and the need for external • • inputs, while increasing production. The right elements in the grap e • • kitc hen right place will create their own beneficial connections. ✽ Diversity •mar Nature is diverse, with many types of plants, animals neem • igold and habitats. For example, though Nepal is a small country it • has a huge diversity of climates and wildlife. The more diver- • c au sity there is, the more beneficial relationships there are be- h lifl fis • • ow tween the various elements in the system. This helps the er wo • lic • system to be sustainable. bank rm gar b ea n An example of using diversity in farming is with mixed wo vegetable gardening, the integrated orchard, and agroforestry. od8 The Farmers Handbook, "Forest, Soil and Other Topics" Chapter 6 - Land Design 9
  • 50. ❁ Cycles and Re-cycling ❃ Use of local resources In nature, living things die and rot down. The nutrients The forest doesnt need to travel anywhere to find itsthey are made of are released back into the system for use by basic resources. There are no transport costs to bring in itsthe plants. This cycle always runs, so elements which the needs. The more a farming system relies on external inputs,forest needs, such as water and soil nutrients, are always the more are its costs of production, and the less sustainablemade available, and never run out. In farming systems, the the system is. This is a very important principle in achievingcycle of nutrients in agroforestry is shown below. sustainability. 1 ✽ Each element performs multiple functions Cycle Tree leaves are In nature, each element perfoms several functions. A cut and mulched 2 Fodder and leaf single tree will provide leaf litter, on the land litter are given to habitats for birds and insects to fibres livestock to live in, a support for climb- 2 produce compost. medicine ing plants, protects the leaf litter 1 soil, and so on. Trees 3 planted on the farm can fruit honey fodder also provide many ben- efits according to their firewood 5 characteristics, such 5 as fodder, mulch, Trees 3 Compost medicine, etc. Extra windbreak use the 4 goes back on benefits come by plant- fence nutri- the fields. ing them in the right timber ents to 4 conserve Excess nutrients are place and in relation to grow. water taken up by the roots of other elements, such shade the trees below the crops. as giving shade. In soil design, each ele- protection Another example can be seen in the kitchen garden. ment should pro-Waste water from washing can be used for irrigating the veg- duce at least 3etables, and sweepings from the house and yard can be recy- different benefitscled as compost for the kitchen garden. Without cycles like or functionsthis, it is very difficult to be sustainable. within the system. Trees can meet all our needs10 The Farmers Handbook, "Forest, Soil and Other Topics" Chapter 6 - Land Design 11
  • 51. ❁ Each function is supported by multiple elements ❃ Stacking for efficient use of space In nature, many elements combine to support any one In nature one reason why there is such great productionfunction. For example, the function of maintaining soil fertil- with such small input is that space is used very efficiently, andity in the forest is provided by the leaves of trees, by soil there are many elements in a small space. By stacking onebacteria, earthworms, bird droppings, dead animals, fungus, species on top of another, more species can grow. In one forest,the wind blowing dust, etc. This principle is also related to up to 7 layers can be seen :- a ground or weed layer, shrubdiversity. layer, lower, mid and upper canopy layers, a climbing plant layer, and a root layer. Different species are stacked into this There are many system, giving production from 10-20 metres below the ground types of tree in the to 30-40 metres above the ground. No space is wasted. Planting layers of trees and shrubs in farming systems is living fence very productive. In the living fence, agroforestry and the inte- grated orchard, species are planted according to their size and shape, and whether they need shade or sun, to make many levels and produce many more benefits than a field of grain, which only uses a metre of vertical space. top layer of big trees In farming, this principle can be seen in the living fence, mid canopyor hedge. The single function is for protection, and this is layermade up of many species of trees and shrubs (elements). So if lower canopyone species of the fence is unsuccessful for any reason, other layerspecies will continue the function, so the protection is notlost. In mixed vegetable gardening, there are many varieties shrub layerof vegetable growing together which all provide food. Ifinsects attack one type, there will always be others to provide groundfood, so production is not lost. This principle is used to re- layerduce risk in the system.12 The Farmers Handbook, "Forest, Soil and Other Topics" Chapter 6 - Land Design 13
  • 52. To recognise the state of the land, many things must be understood. What are the problems ? Where are importantresources such as soil, water, fertility, money or time beinglost from the homestead, or damaged ? If so, before tryingout any new methods to increase production, a first priority is to protect and conserve those resources being lost. livestock can get in here here is soil erosion soil erosion here low fertility for crops no toilet damage from wind washing water wasted soil is bare fertile soil raw compostcollects at the no vegetables bottom no fruit What are the resources on the land ? What techniques can be added to the farm ? Which resources need to be increased to get better production for less cost ? How can natural principles be used to do this ? There are many such questions. As design experience increases, it becomes easier to answer the questions, and farmers capacity to make systems more sustainable will increase.
  • 53. Examples of fruit and multi-purpose species for lowland ❁ Use of microclimate and highland, suitable for different stacked layers The climate inside and around the forest is different to the surrounding climate. There are areas of different moisture,Big trees :- mango, jackfruit, avocado, walnut, neem, chest- temperature, and light levels. These small areas of diversenut, soapnut, oak, etc. Mid-canopy trees :- apple, pear, temperature, light and moisture are called microclimates. Inpeach, plum, apricot, persimmon, etc. Low-canopy trees :- farming, use can be made of microclimates by growing theorange, lime, banana, custard apple, guava, coffee, sea buck- type of plant that grows best in that particular place. Micro-thorn, papaya, Gliricidia, mulberry, hazel, Lucaena, elder, climates can also be created, for example by planting wind-etc. Bush layer :- cardamon, pineapple, napier grass, lemon breaks or making ponds. Species are then selected accordinggrass, tumeric, broom grass, Crotalaria, Sesbania, etc. to their site needs. This also brings diversity onto the farm.Ground layer :- sweet potato, taro, bean, groundnut, clover, 2comfrey, wormwood, chamomile, etc. Inside a mixed vegetable✽ Use of biological (living) resources bed. Because plants are In nature, it is the living, organic resources which are densely planted the tem-responsible for running the system. Important functions such perature at the ground 1as making the soil fertile, distributing seed, conserving mois- is cooler than at the topture, etc. are all served by living things. Trees, birds, worms 2 . This is an example ofand bacteria all work for the development of the system. 1 a microclimate. For fertility and crop protection in sustainable agricul-ture, benefits from green manures, liquid manure, legumes, The sun side of thepredator insects and companion planting are greater than house 1 is hotter andchemical fertilisers and pesticides. dryer than the shaded side 2 . So, different Urea Legumes plants can be grown having different light 2 1 ? and water needs. Theres nothing new about using microclimates. The ter- races in front of houses are traditionally kept on the sunny side. UREA That makes them ideal for drying seed and vegetables, making Which is best ? pickles, etc. The sun gives free energy in this place. The shade side is good for shade-loving crops, or a nursery can be made.16 The Farmers Handbook, "Forest, Soil and Other Topics" Chapter 6 - Land Design 17
  • 54. ❃ Energy-efficient planning Areas of the farm are divided by zone. Inside the house is zone 0 and close to the house is zone 1. Zone 1 has techniques and systems that need more maintenance, such as the kitchen gar- 1. Near the house 2/3. The fields 4. Grazing land 5. Forest den, which is visited 2-3 times a day for maintenance and harvesting. Various nurseries also belong in zone 1, because 4 they need extra care, such as daily watering. By placing them near the house, less time and energy are used for harvesting or maintaining these systems. Below are more examples :- number zone of visits suitable technologies and systems 3 1 - near kitchen garden, nurseries, waste water, the house 1 many sweepings pit, toilet, bees, etc. 2&3- agroforestry (fodder, firewood, timber the fields production, fruit trees, mixed with field 2 2 fewer crops, orchard, green manures, etc. 4 - graz- less soil erosion control, soil improvement, ing area 3 still plantation, integrated orchard, etc. 1 5- forest very forest management, wild and culti- 4 rarely vated herbs, education, etc. 0. Inside Having the right Attitude 1 the house The principles descibed above are necessary to design a sustainable system, but most important is the attitude of the designer and user. As long as people dont have a deep desireIn this diagram, the relationship of the house to other parts of to achieve the goals of sustainability within ethical guidelines, a well designed farm is shown by the different thickness of then no type of design can help to reach these goals. Some the arrows. A thick arrow shows a frequent connection, and people feel that they cant make a difference by themselves, or thinner arrow shows where less visits are needed. are scared of making a change, or of losing resources.18 The Farmers Handbook, "Forest, Soil and Other Topics" Chapter 6 - Land Design 19
  • 55. But good design can solve many problems. With the right The effects of some of these factors are illustrated belowattitude, problems can become solutions, and a progressive in the farming systems cycle of rice production.design will develop. We can also design to learn. People needto work together to find the right techniques and resources tosolve their own problems and meet their own needs, as well growth plantingas those of nature. harvest Building Blocks of Design preparation There are many When designing land to be more productive and sustain- storageable, it is very important to understand the factors which can parts to the cycle ofboth limit, or aid, the progress of the design. Then the design crop production consumptioncan be adapted and changed in the early stages, so that no processingmistakes will prevent the objectives of sustainability being distributionreached. Factors which can affect the design are divided into marketing2 groups - those which are visible, and those which are invis-ible. This is shown below :- Many of the visible and invisible factors shown on the previous page will affect the crop production, and so they will landscape climate determine the strategy which needs to be used in design. In the monsoon, there is more heat and water, and so sickness is soil water more common. Yet this is the time when most human labour visible factors is required, and also when there are more pest problems. If vegetation livestock communal oxen are not available, ploughing, planting and weeding work is delayed. When all these issues are sorted energy Building buildings out, there may be a good crop, but then rats can destroy the Blocks of crop in storage, or the price in the bazaar may be low, and all economic Design culture the work can again be wasted. So when making a design, all these factors must be con- traditions invisible factors political sidered. Which factors, at what stage, and where they may cause problems for production should be considered at the social very start of the design process. Whether the solution to that communications problem can be solved with local resources or not, should belief also be considered early on.20 The Farmers Handbook, "Forest, Soil and Other Topics" Chapter 6 - Land Design 21
  • 56. When creating and implementing a design, it is a priority The Design Process to repair damaged systems, and stop loss of resources from The process of creating the design, and then implement- the existing system - this will give immediate results. Belowing it, is a step by step approach which enables the design to are examples of how we can lose resources from farming :-reach its goals more easily. Following the design process Farm losseshelps with many decisions :- what to do first, which areas are • nutrients in the soil aremost important, how to use the available technologies and • compost dries out lost if not used (leaching)any other resources, how the design grows in a natural way, in the sunand so on. A summary of the main steps in the design process all typesis given below :- nitrogen of nutri- is lost to ents are1. Gathering information about the people and the the air lost deep land involved in the design. in the soil• Collect informationabout the peoplesvision and goals, their • much time is wasted • nutrients leak from compostresources, needs, con- gathering from the farstraints, capacity, costs, away forestproblems, skills, in- all types ofcome, etc. • waste water is not that place is nutrients• In the same way, used at home very windy there is less can be lostcollect information fertilityabout the site - the soil, • soil is washed awaywater, climate, aspect, by rainslope, vegetation, there is • fire destroys nutrients inmicroclimate, live- erosion the soil • wind dries outstock, pests and dis- moisture in the soil • nutrients in sweepings are losteases, erosion, expo- there issure to wind, and any over So we should discover leaks to the system early in theother relevant informa- grazed design process. Then, it can be decided what techniques aretion about problems needed, when and where, to find the solutions and prevent and resources. valuable resources being lost.22 The Farmers Handbook, "Forest, Soil and Other Topics" Chapter 6 - Land Design 23
  • 57. 2. Deciding which functions are needed 4. Placement According to what we have found out about the people Where should the systems be placed for them to giveand the site, what are the needs of the design ? For example, maximum benefit ? They should be placed in beneficial rela-increasing fodder and firewood production, growing more tionship to each other, so that the needs of one are met by thenutritious food, protecting from livestock, preventing soil ero- outputs of another, instead of competing. The principles ofsion, protecting from wind, increasing fertility, earning more nature can be used to help with this. For example, the nurserycash, etc. are all examples of the types of functions needed. should be placed where there is shelter, water is near, and it is3. Selecting techniques easy to care for the site. In the same way, the best places are selected for the compost, fruit orchard, fodder trees, etc. To carry out the functions identified in 2, what methodsare needed ? For example, agroforestry, living fence, bee- 5. Species selectionkeeping, fruit production, kitchen garden, compost making, Finally, the best species to fulfil the needs of the site andmulching, home nursery, improvement in livestock manage- the functions required are selected and placed, understandingment, seed production, green manures, etc. are all methods of their characteristics, yields and needs. For example, whenproviding for the identified needs of the farmer and the site. selecting trees for the orchard, ask the following questions :- kitchen living do you know my garden fence there flowering and there fruiting times ? how to protect me from pests ? livestock what are the shed marketing there agroforestry arrangements ? there how much space do I need to grow ? fruit trees what other irrigation there problems may I canal face ? there what can be planted under- path there neath me for where is the best dnvfb compost soil and climate companions ? Toxf“ there for me ?24 The Farmers Handbook, "Forest, Soil and Other Topics" Chapter 6 - Land Design 25
  • 58. 6. Timetable There are 2 types of place to implement a design :- This work of implementing the design cant all be done at 1. Where there is no production - like a degraded, bare site.the same time. So its good to arrange the work according to 2. Where there is on-going production - e.g. a working farm.priority. Some systems can wait until later to establish. This 1. Where there has been no production (such as de-will make the design much easier to implement. The most impor- graded land), the design will definitely create productivity ontant systems to design and implement first are usually for site that site. The design will help to create the best regenerationprotection, access, water and soil improvement, as they all allow and production, in the shortest time. There are more detailsother parts of the design to develop. about this in the Soil Conservation and Improvement chapter.Evaluation 2. Where there is on-going production (such as a working As the design is being created and implemented, time farm), that existing production should not decrease as the designshould be spent evaluating progress against the aims and needs is implemented and other types of production begin. Otherwise,of the people and site. The design can be changed and adapted the farmer or the community may have problems meetingas necessary. Are the principles being applied ? What has basic needs in the short term. The design will help to improvechanged ? What problems have been solved ? Will more prob- and increase resources, reduce costs, and diversify production.lems be created ? Will the design help the people to reach their How to tell if the design is working ?goals ? Questions like this should constantly be evaluated, andall stakeholders in the design should be consulted. 1 At first there is Design cycle more work and sustainable less output from change and future the investment evaluate improve 2 gradually, the change work is less andand improve observation and production design gathering of make the increases information design 3 later there is very evaluate little work and implement the high, diverse design productivity26 The Farmers Handbook, "Forest, Soil and Other Topics" Chapter 6 - Land Design 27
  • 59. Farmers Mr Govinda Sharma Grihasthi Communications Experience From Nepal, Kavrepalanchowk district, Patlekhet VDC, Mr Govinda Sharma has used permaculture design on his own farm. Now lets read about his experiences. I took a Permaculture de- æsign course in 1991. After that Istarted to learn from friends,then started to put all that expe-rience into practice. Now, I also Govinda Sharmahelp other organisations to makeand implement designs. A farming system which is plannedusing this method is very productive, and easy to use. Insteadof having just one crop, many diverse crops can be grown.Instead of just growing corn, I find its better to mix beans,pumpkins, and plant fodder around the edges to give a highertotal yield. At first, the other local farmers didnt accept whatI was doing, but when they saw the crops I was growing, withonly small extra inputs and mainly local resources after thestart, they became interested, and have started copying someof the methods. They are understanding that you can reap thefruits of your investment, and that investment isnt juststrength and sweat, its also design. Æ
  • 60. ? Glossary ? This Farmers Handbook can also be used by people whohave just started to learn how to read and write, to help themincrease these skills. Thats why there may be some wordsused in the Handbook which are more difficult to understand.We have evaluated the books with many groups, and below isa list of some of the words they found difficult. Discuss thewords and try to write down what they mean. You can addany other words that you and your group dont understand inthe space available. Word MeaningFallowMonocultureHabitatLegumeTap rootCambiumElementNutrientShrubTerraceSecateursMicro-organismBacteriaetc.
  • 61. Word Meaning Word MeaningPollination EconomicBiomass DiversityMulch Bio-diversity ?Pruning EvaluationSystem Scion ScionIntegrated BudNature RootstockMicro-climate etc.etc. Sea Some new Buckthorn Adhatoda plants vasica Horse- Velvet tail bean Comfrey Clover2 The Farmers Handbook, "Forest, Soil and Other Topics" Chapter 7 - Glossary and Other Topics 3
  • 62. Your own word list Here you can add any of your own words which are Practical Literacydifficult to understand, and keep a list to ask someone whomay know what they mean.word in the book meaning 1.Why Literacy ? To learn to read, write and calculate is a priority to many. There are good reasons for this. If you are literate you can correspond with friends and relatives who live far away, you can read labels, books, signs, contracts, and you can make bigger calculations if you know how to write them down on paper. Furthermore, for many people being literate makes them more respected by others who believe that being illiterate means being ignorant. You never need to ask others to read for you, and you cant be cheated by being made to sign something you dont understand. It will also increase your self confidence.4 The Farmers Handbook, "Forest, Soil and Other Topics" Chapter 7 - Glossary and Other Topics 5
  • 63. 2. Production 4. How ? However, for many small farmers, learning to read and The PLP course starts by participants describing their ownwrite may not be their highest priority. Their main concern is situations, past and present, using maps, trend lines, ranking etc.to make ends meet - to produce enough to meet the needs of From these descriptions words are chosen by the participants, andtheir family. This means that poorer farmers often drop out of their spelling is learnt. Very basic reading and writing skills areadult literacy classes (and many children drop out of school), learnt at this stage. On one day participants will learn and practicebecause most people believe that literacy isn’t the solution to how to establish and manage various techniques such as waste watertheir daily problems. management, grafting, terrace improvement, etc. That evening, or on the next day, they can read about the method from the Handbook, and write their own words about what they have done. These can gradually be formed into sentences as comments and evaluations of the method, or to make stories, proposals and reports. Hot Bed Nursery 1 Discussing words 2 Class work 3. Why Practical Literacy ? 3 In Practical Literacy we combine meeting the basic needsof the family with the benefits of learning to read and write.During a Practical Literacy Programme (PLP) the participantswill learn both reading, writing and calculation skills, andlearn about farming and household techniques. This meansthat they can improve their farm production, and their generalwell-being. Practical work6 The Farmers Handbook, "Forest, Soil and Other Topics" Chapter 7 - Glossary and Other Topics 7
  • 64. IllustrationsCan talk with Can write letters, The producers of the Farmers Handbook gratefully acknowledge anyone notes, ideas, etc. the work of the following individuals and institutions whose illutrations have been used in the publication. Though most illustrations for the handbook are made by Grihasthi Communications, some illustrations have also been taken from : * Clip Art Book, CERID * A Farmers Primer on Growing Soybean on Riceland, IRRI Empowered and * Management of Forest Nurseries, HMG/UNDP/FAO self confident * Religious and Useful Plants of Nepal and India, Majupuria & Joshi * A Handbook of Gravety-Flow Water Systems, IT Publications * Common Tree Species, HMG/UNDP/FAO * Tropical Leaf vegetable in Human Nutrition, Kononklijk Instituut voor Tropen * Focus, GAD, Denmark * Agroforestry in Dryland Africa, ICRAF * Regeneratice Agriculture Technologies for the Hill Farmers of Nepal, NERRA & IIRR * The Grafters Handbook, CASSEL * Plant Propagation, Royal Horticultural Society, UK * Instant Illustrations, UNICEF/Nepal * Tropical Field Crops, Evan Brothers Limited * The Fruit Expert, ExpertBooks * Monocotyledons, Longman * Dicotyledons, Longman * Farm Implements for arid and tropical regions, FAO * Permaculture, A Designers Manual, Tagari Publications * Queen Rearing Simplified, Cook * Beekeeping for Honey Production in Sri lanka, R W K Punchihewa * Zambian beekeeping Handbook, GVS * Beekeeping Trainers Resource Book, ICIMOD, Nepal * Pollination Management of Mountain Crops through Beekeeping, ICIMOD * World Education, Kathmandu, Nepal. * United Mission to Nepal, Kathmandu * Christine A. Sobel, ECHO, U.S.A. * World Neighbours, KathmanduCan read books, * Roland Bunch, COSECHA, Honduras, Central America. labels, signs, Can listen and * Green Manures p.22 photo © Eric Holt-Gimenez * Mike Feingold, Bristol, UK letters, etc. understand * Volume Cover drawings by Motilal Pauja, Thati Gaun, Lekh Pharsa VDC, Surkhet We hope that we have remembered all & not violated any corpyright rules. We trust that using these illustrations for a non-profit publication to benefit farmers worldwide and published on a limited scale will not offend any of the illustrations copyright owners.8 The Farmers Handbook, "Forest, Soil and Other Topics" 9
  • 65. What is Permaculture ? Nepal Permaculture Group Regional Contact Addresses The word Permaculture was first used in 1973 by Nepal Permaculture Group :- registered in 1995 toBill Mollison and David Holmgren, from Australia. Perma- promote sustainable development, NPG is a national networkculture is an English word, made up from the words of over 250 individual and 8 organisational members. ItPermanent and Agriculture. Because agriculture is our works in education, research, capacity building andprimary producer of food, clothing and shelter made from networking of permaculture related activities.natural resources, and these are the material and economic base If readers of this Handbook are interested to learn morefor society as a whole, it can also be taken to mean a about any of these, or other, technology information, they canpermanence in culture itself. Permaculture is a system of contact NPG through any of the following regional member-design. It takes its methods from observation of the stability, contacts. Own countrysdiversity, resilience and productivity of natural systems, to networks 1. Eastern Region 2. Mid Regionbenefit people and all living and non-living things in a Durga Niroula, Basanta Ranabhat,sustainable way. Womens Development Ecological Service Centre, Permaculture makes Natural Organisation, Biratnagar Chitwanexcellent use of local and Systems nbs@brt.wlink.com.npc Tel: 053-23663, 24574biological resources to Fax: 20135, 20482create systems which 3. Western Region ecoce@mos.com.np Padya Kiran Rana, TOLI,foster self reliance,through an ecological Permaculture Pokhora. Tel: 061-23370 Design toli@mos.com.np 4. Mid and Faragriculture, Western Regionbalanced with the Modern Traditional Himalayan Permaculturelocal economy and Knowledge Wisdom Group, P.O. Box 19121,society. Kathmandu, Nepal In fact, there is not c/o ATA (01) 5549774 nepal@atasia.org.ukmuch new in permaculture. Its a synthesis of theunderstanding of natural systems, traditional wisdom, andmodern scientific and applied knowledge. It takes the best of 4. 1. all of these to assist in creating/living a life with more 5. 3. 2. Map of Nepal quality and choice. 10 The Farmers Handbook, "Forest, Soil and Other Topics" Chapter 7 - Glossary and Other Topics 11
  • 66. npg@earthcare.wlink.com.np Tel: + 977 1 252597 Nepal. P.O. Box 8132, Kathmandu, Nepal Permaculture Group, Distributors :- Contact systems in Ladakh Seed Saving development on traditional of Genetic Biodiversity and The effects of modern Farmers Workshop on Loss "Ancient Futures" "Our Seeds, Our Life" Video Video Poisonous Chemicals Womens Health • Lets Stop Using • Herbal Medicines for Health Medicines for Health • Herbs for Womens • Common Local Herbal • Herbs for Health Books on Health Posters on Health Communications, also published in Nepal and available from Grihasthi The following useful educational materials for farmers are321098765432109876543212109876543210987654321098765432121098765432109876543210987654321321098765432109876543212109876543210987654321098765432121098765432109876543210987654321321098765432109876543212109876543210987654321098765432121098765432109876543210987654321321098765432109876543212109876543210987654321098765432121098765432109876543210987654321321098765432109876543212109876543210987654321098765432121098765432109876543210987654321 Communications321098765432109876543212109876543210987654321098765432121098765432109876543210987654321321098765432109876543212109876543210987654321098765432121098765432109876543210987654321321098765432109876543212109876543210987654321098765432121098765432109876543210987654321321098765432109876543212109876543210987654321098765432121098765432109876543210987654321321098765432109876543212109876543210987654321098765432121098765432109876543210987654321321098765432109876543212109876543210987654321098765432121098765432109876543210987654321321098765432109876543212109876543210987654321098765432121098765432109876543210987654321 Grihasthi321098765432109876543212109876543210987654321098765432121098765432109876543210987654321321098765432109876543212109876543210987654321098765432121098765432109876543210987654321321098765432109876543212109876543210987654321098765432121098765432109876543210987654321