Inside the House + Hay Box The Farmers Handbook
CONTENTSThis Volumes Authors : Ms Hom Maya Gurung, Mr Bipin Vaidhya, Mr Laxman Rana,Mr Chris EvansTranslated from Nepali by Chris EvansEdited, Designed & Produced by: Chris Evans & Jakob JespersenProof reading: thanks to Mike Feingold, Margaret Evans, Ted Albins, Rupert Greville, JakobJespersen, Andy Langford, Looby MacnamaraPhotos: Jakob Jespersen, Chris EvansAddional photo credits are given in Volume FiveCover illustration: Mr Motilal Phauja Subject Chapter No:Typing: Chris EvansComputer Coordination: Graphics Edge, KathmanduPublished by: Chris Evans, Jakob Jespersen......Distributors: .......... (see p.8 for address)Printed by: Format Printing Press, Kathmandu......First Edition (Nepali) printed June 2001, 7500 copies Introduction to this Volume ................. 1This Edition.........Farmers Handbook, ISBN 99933-615-0-X .............................. Diet & Nutrition 2This Volume One: ISBN 99933-615-1-8 The Farmers Handbook is about techniques for sustainable farming, and this is the first Household Hygiene .......................... 3of 5 volumes. There are 4 techniques presented here. In five volumes there are a total of 44techniques and approaches. Improved Stove ............................... 4 This Farmers Handbook is meant for education and awareness raising as well aspractical gardening uses. It is permitted to photocopy for such purposes, but please remember Hay Box Stove ............................................... 5that photocopying can cause pollution to the environment, is expensive, and does not give agood quality. Chapters are separated by a yellow page
The Farmers Handbook - Aims this Volumes Introduction The main aim of this handbook is to help farmers make their own farms more successful. This is done by providing information about using simple methods which strengthen, This is the first of five volumes in the Farmers rather than damage the environment, and help to createHandbook. In all there are forty techniques and approaches sustainable livelihoods for future generations.shown, of whch three are in this first volume. Here, weintroduce you to some technologies used inside the house. BackgroundThe titles of these are given on the previous contents page. The techniques described in the handbook are the results This Farmers Handbook provides information about of research made by the farmers of Surkhet and Jajarkotsustainable farming methods, and can also be used as a districts of Mid-Western Nepal. We believe these methods willresource to run literacy programmes. Information about these, also work well for farmers of other countries. However,aroundand how the Handbook can be used, is provided in volume the world there are diverse climates and soils, and so wefive. A list of new and/or difficult words and their explanation expect that small changes will need to be made in theis also provided in volume five. techniques according to this diversity. Similarly, it may be necessary to change plant species according to climatic region, but their function will remain the same. For example, the chapter on the Living Fence describes the use of thorny plants as a barrier. In the low altitude, hot Tarai of southern Nepal, "Babool" (Acacia nilotica) is suitable for this. But this does not grow in the higher elevations. Here, species such as wild pear, wild blackberry and Sea Buckthorn make a good living fence. Evaluation & Feedback Comments and questions about the techniques and approaches described in this handbook will be most welcome. Suggestions for improvement will be used for future editions of this handbook and other similar publications.
Structure of the Handbook Inside the handbook each method is descibed in a Techniquesseparate chapter, or chapter. All methods are descibed in thesame way:-• "What is?" - the method is defined and described.• "Why?" - the benefits of using this method are then described. 2. Diet & Nutrition• The main part is then "How to?" make or do the method;• In the "How To" section the centre pages show colour pictures about the method.• After describing how to create the method, how to maintain, care for, manage and/or operate it is described. 3. Household Hygiene• After this, there is an interview with an experienced farmer who has built and used the method.• Finally, information is given about other chapters in the Handbook which are directly connected to this method. 4. Improved Stove There are minor changes to this structure as necessary. 5. Hay Box Stove
Appropriate Technology AsiaP.O. Box 8975 EPC 849KathmanduNepaltel: +977 1 5549774 Permanent Publicationsnepal@arasia.org.uk The Sustainability Centrewww.atasia.org.uk East MeonHampshire GU32 1HR tel: +44 1730 823311 firstname.lastname@example.org www.permaculture.co.ukPermaculture Association UKBCM Permaculture Association Distributor andLondon WC1N 3XXTel: +44 845 4581805 main email@example.com addresseswww.permaculture.org.ukNepal Permaculture GroupP.O.Box 8132, Kathmandu, NepalTel: +977-1- 252597email:- firstname.lastname@example.org Funding Support Support for the production and printing of The Farmers Handbook has come from Methodist Relief & Development Fund (UK), ActionAidNepal, MSNepal, GTZ Food for Work, Helvetas Nepal, Hill Agriculture Research Project (HARP), ICIMOD.
What is Diet and Nutrition ?The Farmers Handbook - "Inside The House", Chapter 2 - Diet & Nutrition In order to live, grow and to protect us from various diseases we need a good, nutritious diet. Nutrition is found in various types of food. Everyone wishes for themselves and their family to remain in good health. A healthy family also makes a healthy and strong homestead. Besides this, you can also help others to be strong. If the family is sick it needs constant expense and can cause much worry. A good, nutri- tious and balanced diet helps to protect and release the family from sickness. A nutritious diet is not just available from expensive foods. We can also obtain and prepare a nutritious diet from easily available local and even wild foods. This chapter gives information about what foods are needed for our bodies, where these foods are available, and simple ways of increasing the quality of our diets.
Common problems of poor diet in the Do we need Why nutrition ? home and village If people do not get the needed amounts of the necessary foods they can suffer from malnutrition and anaemia. Ba- From the time we are in the mothers womb, for our bies under five years, children, pregnant women and lactatingwhole life long, we need a nutritious diet. To give strength, mothers are especially at risk from poor nutrition.for growing, and to protect or help cure us from illness anddisease, there are many types of nutritious elements needed in 1. Malnutrition. There are several symptoms of malnutri-the body. If any of these elements are deficient in the body, tion, for example:we can become weak and sick. Nutritious foods provide us • Crying - continuously crying and lack of appetitewith energy, help to build and maintain muscle and organs, • Wounds - cuts, boils, etc. spread on the skin and are diffi-and help our bodies to produce other important elements cult to heal.which we need to keep us healthy.Nutritious food, in brief, Marasmus – swollen• helps us to remain healthy face, hands,• helps to protect us from disease feet• helps our bodies to grow• helps us to build a strong household Kwashiorkor – thin, The Authors of this Chapter emaciatedMs Hom Maya Mr BipinGurung Vaidya,Health Technician, Nutrition Pro-Himalayan gramme,Permaculture U.M.N., 2. Anaemia - lethargic; poor skin colour; yellowish skin,Group, Kathamndu, tongue and nails; poor skin texture Surkhet, Nepal Nepal2 The Farmers Handbook, "Inside The House" Chapter 2 - Diet & Nutrition 3
3. Vitamin "A" Deficiency to get Vitamin A is essential for eyesight.There are several symptoms of thisdeficiency: How nutrition ?• Night Blindness - unable to For Health through nutrition we need to pay attention to see in half light three things:• Eyes dry out• A pale, spongy-like spot in 1. We need to have the right foods the eye (Whits spot) Foods are best if crops are grown using sustainable• Blindness agriculture methods. Crops grown without chemicals are more nutritious.One leaf of Colocasia("Taro") can provide 2. We need the knowledge to select the right foodsthree children with their What to eat and how much to eat ? We need to knowdaily needs for vitamin A how much of what type of food different people need. Who has special needs ? For example, pregnant and lactating mothers, or sick people should have extra of some foods.4. Iodine DefficiencyGoiter - swelling on the throat 3. We need to know how to prepare and serve the right foodsCretinism - mentally handicapped, poor limb use, etc. Its not enough to have the right foods, we need to know how to prepare and cook them. Without this Cretinism Goiter knowledge, we can sometimes loose many nutrients in preparation. To get health from nutrition we need To and Ener- To be Clever and Ener- both knowledge and getic use Iodized Salt resources.4 The Farmers Handbook, "Inside The House" Chapter 2 - Diet & Nutrition 5
Types of Food In this chapter, information is given first about the func- Just as farming can be divided into various types of tion of different foods. After that, from page 20 to 22 more crop. such as livestock, grain crops and orchards, so nutrition detailed information on nutrition is given. The centre colour can be divided into three types of food, according to function. pages show examples of the different foods in each group. In vegetables and meat there are various nutrients. The most important nutrients of our diet can be divided into these 1. Foods Which give Energy (Carbohydrates) groups: When there is much physical work, Food for before and after childbirth, and when sick the bodys people are recovering, the body needs more growth Food to pro- energy. At this time, if nutritious food is not Food to pro- tect the body available people can become weak and and tect the catch other diseases more easily. Malnourished (vegetables) children also need more energy foods. body (fruits) 2. Foods Which Help the Body to Grow (Proteins) Healthy babies grow fast But if food for growth is not available, babies become weak, and this can cause them many problems in the future. Growth foods are called Proteins. Food for 3. Foods which Protect the Body(Vitamins & Minerals) Energy The body always needs protection from damaging things. When recovering after being ill, energy foods (carbohydrates) help to get better, while vitamins and minerals help protect the body from disease. These vitamins and minerals are found in fruit and vegetables. 6 The Farmers Handbook, "Inside The House" Chapter 2 - Diet & Nutrition 7
A Mixed Diet Free Nutrition from the Forest A mixed diet means many different kinds of food are Community and private forest provideseaten together. Because there are many types of nutritious many types of direct and indirect benefits. Theseelements in a mixed diet it is well balanced. It is not enough include nutritious food available from the wild.for the body eating just to stop hunger, or to enjoy the taste. A Mushrooms, ferns, watercress, bam-balanced diet is always needed. Pregnant women, suckling boo shoots and wild yams are ex-mothers and babies are in special need of a balanced diet. amples of some vegetables thatRelatively expensive foods like fish and meat are not essen- can be found in the forest. Simi-tial for a balanced diet. It is also possible to make a balanced larly, fruits like berberis, black-diet from foods common in the villages, such as grains, berry, amla, chestnut, hazel, wal-pulses, green vegetables, spices and fruit. nut, etc. are also available. It is also possible to grow many of these on the edges of farmers fields to increase the supply, What, is this Poor Peoples Food ? without needing lots of extra work. WatercressThere are many nutritious types of food for good health available in the villages. Net- tles, buckwheat, millet, watercress, ferns, pumpkin shoots, etc. are all very nutritious. But many cul- tures regard these as "poor peoples food" and so eat them less. If you eat such foods, firstly they are cheap or even Amla for sale - free of cost, and also these foods collected from the forest can provide many types of essen- tial nutrients for the body - often more than highly bred "developed" vegetables.8 The Farmers Handbook, "Inside The House" Chapter 2 - Diet & Nutrition 9
How to Preserve Nutrients in Food During Cooking • Sprouted pulses are very high in nutrients. Pulses can in- crease their content of vitamins A and C by up to 10 times • Cooking potatoes with their skins and in when sprouted. Vitamin B also increases, and iron and peices as large as possible will save calcium minerals which are in food can be more easily vitamin C. absorbed by the body. For this increase, only a little water and time is needed but the benefits are huge. Why not use • Dont scrub rice before cooking it as this easy methods like this? prevents vitamin B from being washed away • When cooking rice, dont add too much Soak pulses for water which otherwise youd have to a day in water, throw it away, along with vitamin B. then wash and6f_ drain them • Unprocessed wheat flour has more nutrients than processed white rice every day. After flour 4-5 days the sprouted pulses • Rice de-husked by hand or pre-boiled are ready to eat. contains more vitamin B than rice dehusked in a mill. • Millet contains more calcium than This is like getting free increase in benefits! There are There are more many types of vitamins which provide more or less nutrients most other grains. vitamins in rice according to the time. In the spring, vegetables or fruit are • When eaten together, grain and which has been less available, so at this time vitamin deficiency symptoms pulses provide the same benefits as de-husked less are common. But sprouted pulses can be made at any time eating meat and so can solve deficiency problems. • If you wash green leaf vegeta- Pulses + Grains = More Benefits bles after they have been cut, nutrients can be lost. Always wash before cutting. 10 The Farmers Handbook, "Inside The House" Chapter 2 - Diet & Nutrition 11
! 1 Energy Foods For a Balanced Diet ❁ Grains - millet, rice, wheat, maize, buckwheat, barley, etc. @ 2 you need to eat food from ❁ Sweet Foods - sweet po- these 3 groups tato, sugar, sugar cane, honey. ❁ Oily Foods - Ghee, # 3 vegetable oil, but- 3 # ter, cream, fat. ❁ Roots - potato, 3 Foods taro, yam, to Protect sweet potato, the Body etc. ❁ Green Leaves - net- tle, taro, broad 2 Foods for the leaf mustard, Bodys Growth cress, fenugreek, ❁ Animal Prod- mustard, radish ucts - meat, fish, Salt leaf, pumpkin shoot, eggs. ! 1 amaranth, lambs ❁ Dairy Products - quarters, spinach, etc. milk, yoghurt, but- ❁ Fruit - mango, termilk, cheese, etc. amla, orange, lemon, ❁ Seeds - peanut, guava, pineapple, apricot, pumpkin seeds, peach, plum, raspberry, ber- sesame, walnut, etc. beris, lichi, papaya. ❁ Pulses - soya, beans, ❁ Vegetables - pumpkin, cauli- grams, chick peas, peas, flower, sweet pepper, ladies finger, mung bean, etc. beans, carrot, tomato, etc.12 The Farmers Handbook, "Inside The House" Chapter 2 - Diet & Nutrition 13
• Partially fermented vegetables in- crease the amount of iron and calcium Additions to the Normal Diet available, which improves digestion of grains. Sometimes it is necessary to eat more than the recom- mended daily diet. For example, a normally active• Leafy vegetables can be dried in the pregnant women should eat an extra handful of shade to keep their nutrition and colour. grain, half a handful of pulses, a handful of• Making pickles means vegetables can green leaf vegetables, and at least one extra be kept for a long time and increases piece of fruit per day more than her daily diet. A their nutrition. In places where there pregnant women who has a heavier workload is a long dry season without irriga- should eat an extra one and a half handfuls of tion, then a monsoon, many vegeta- grain, and if she is malnourished she should also bles can be grown in only a short eat an extra one and a half handfuls of grain. time. Making pickles and oils allows A woman who has just given birth these vegetables to be stored and should eat an extra handful of grain, half a eaten all year round, e.g. cucumber, handful of pulses, a handful of green leaf tomatoes, radish, leaf vegetables, etc. vegetables, and at least one extra piece of fruit per day more than her usual diet.• when cooking leaf vegetables add a Six months after childbirth the mother little oil, keep the pan covered should eat an extra one and a half handfuls and dont over cook. This prevents of grains and an extra one handful of pulses. loss of vitamin A, and absorbtion of One to two years after childbirth oil improves digestability. (still suckling) the mother should be eating an extra one and a half handfuls of grains and an extra half handful of pulses. At this stage she should also be eating one Good Food Whose extra handful of green leaf vegetables and one extra piece of fruit. and a Healthy responsibility Family ?14 The Farmers Handbook, "Inside The House" Chapter 2 - Diet & Nutrition 15
• After childbirth a mother should drink 5 teaspoons of • Similarly, old people cannot digest"Jwano" (Trachyspernum ammie) each day. much food at one time• While a mother is pregnant, and just and only eat a little.after childbirth should eat at least 3-4 So they need atimes a day. For example, 2 full meals mixed meal 3-and 2 snack meals. 4 times a day.• The best milk for suckling infants isthe mothers own milk. If this is not Without nutritiousgiven, it can lead to many problems in food its not possiblethe future. So it is much better to feed to keep healthymothers milk rather than powdered milk.• Once a baby stops drinking its mothers milk it should begiven extra food. Drumstick Leaves• Always feed a malnourished child extra food. In sub-tropical areas the Drumstick (Moringa) tree is found [this may have other names• A baby with diarroea should be fed more liquids. An oral in your area]. This tree has manyrehydration mixture of salt, sugar and water should be given. benefits. Its leaves are good forIt is even better to give the water skimmed off washed or livestock fooder and the flow-cooking rice. ers are good for bees. Its seed helps to purify water. It can• It is better to feed a child little and often. Never stop feed- be grown easily and quicklying a sick child. Pursuade it to drink more liquids. A from cuttings. Its flowers, podsmalnourished child should and newly sprouted, young leavesbe given a spoonful ofhoney or sugar a day. can all be used as vegetables. TheThis provides more leaves are especially nutritious and can be dried andenergy. Also, a mal- made into a powder. One teaspoon of this leaf powdernourished child provides daily vitamin needs for one person. In cooler,should be fed a ba- upland areas where drumstick isnt found, you can storenana every day. and use the powder made in the lowlands.16 The Farmers Handbook, "Inside The House" Chapter 2 - Diet & Nutrition 17
Super Flour 3 Then grind the baked grains Maize Wheat and pulses Maize, wheat separately. and soya bean flour mixed into super flour gives one part one part a balanced and Soya bean nutritious meal. 4 Store the flour in It gives nutrients an airtight vessel. for energy, Then you can use growth and pro- the processed super two parts tection together flour for several days. Clean the 1 maize, wheat Make the and soya 5 superflour into a bean porridge and feed to children above the age of 2 6 months. 6 Bake each of them separately Once theyre used to it, theyll eat it themselves.18 The Farmers Handbook, "Inside The House" Chapter 2 - Diet & Nutrition 19
The various types of food and nutrients needed for good Food What does it Deficiency What is ithealth are given below. Information about the function of type do? Symptoms found in ?different elements, effects of deficiency and which foodsprovide them is also given. • keeps eyes • eye disease green leaf veg- healthy (night blindness, etable & yellowFood What does it Deficiency What is it dry eyes) fruit or vegeta-type do? Symptoms found in ? • keeps skin soft bles, e.g. ripe Vitamin A • disease spreads papaya, pump- Carbohydrate (energy) • gives the body • malnourish- wheat, maize, • helps to prevent between nose, kin, persim- strength & vigour ment (crying, barley, millet, disease from ear & throat mon, carrot, • maintain a Marasmus, rice, yam, sugar, spreading spinach, radish balanced body Kwashiorkor cane extract, • less ability to leaf, mustard temperature potatoes (all fight off disease leaf, coriander • assists growth energy foods leaf, beans, & development exept oils) watercress, etc. • used for growth & cow pea, fava • increases appe- • loss of appetite unhusked grain • malnourish- Vitamin B group development bean, soya bean, tite • tingling feet and its flour, ment (crying, • helps nerve • burning sensa- Protein (growth) • growth & mainte- amaranth, peas, liver, pulses, Marasmus, nance of muscle fish, meat, eggs, growth & func- tion on soles of green leaf Kwashiorkor, feet • making hormones, milk, peanuts, tion vegetables, etc.) • helps digestion •sore on tongue red blood cells, pumpkin seeds, kidney, fish, digestive juices • anaemia, lack walnuts, etc. (all of carbohydrates • sore in corners meat • helps to make up of digestive growth foods) of mouth energy needs if juices • joining muscle • bleeding amla, lemons, lacking in other foods guava, oranges, fibres gums; infected Vitamin C • helps wounds gums raspberries, • gives energy • rough skin vegetable oils, heal berberis, fresh • helps in the bodys ghee (purified Oil/Fat • helps uptake of • slow healing green leaf veg- take up of Vit. A butter), butter, etables, pota- • helps in cell fatty meat, fish, iron and calcium of wounds & sores toes, sprouted formation peanuts, soyabean grains & pulses20 The Farmers Handbook, "Inside The House" Chapter 2 - Diet & Nutrition 21
Food What does it Defficiency What is ittype do? Symptoms found in ? Farmers Mrs Thuli Dhimnan • making blood, • anaemia • dizzyness, green leaf veg- Experience keeping muscle etables, pulses, weakness, lazi- millet, beaten Iron (a mineral) healthy From Nepal, Lalitpur district, ness, breathless- rice, fermented Burunchuli VDC, Champi village • protection ness vegetables, Mrs Thuli Dhimnans son Sano against disease • retarded liver, meat, Babu was malnourished as a growth of babies eggs, fish, baby. Now lets hear her story. • miscarriage, sprouted pulses, still birth food cooked in •helps bodys • goitre iron pots seafood, fish, æ At two and a half years of age Sano Babu was nothing but skin and bone. At that time he wouldnt eat and Mrs Thuli Dhimnan growth • cretinism, iodized salt could hardly even walk. It was so hard Iodine (a mineral) • helps brain & spasticism to feed him at that time. Then I started to feed him superflour nervous system • mental disor- porridge with his other food. After only a few days he started • gives heat from ders, dull to gain weight. After that Sano Babus two younger brothers energy use • lack of bodys were also born but they didnt have the same problems as growth their older brother. This is how Sano Babus life improved • paralysis with a mothers love & care, and good, nutritious food. Sano Babu at Æ two and a halfcalcium (a mineral) • helps bone, teeth • poor bone/ milk & milk formation & teeth forma- products, green year old, growth tion; crumbling leaf vegetables, malnourished • prevents muscle bones fermented veg- Sano Babu at contraction & etables, grains, twelve years old, wasting millet, lambs with his mother • helps blood quarters, pulses, and 2 younger clotting fish brothers22 The Farmers Handbook, "Inside The House" Chapter 2 - Diet & Nutrition 23
Read On ! Grihasthi Communications Subjects Related to Nutrition Good benefits can be had from the information in thisbook about nutrition. However, this information is also linkedto other methods. For extra benefits lets read, learn and prac-tice other related chapters. Improved Stove ChapterIn Nepal 95% of households use firewood forcooking food. Everyone knows the effects of toomuch smoke in the kitchen but what to do ? Nowlets learn about an easy and successful method. Hygiene Inside the House ChapterImproved health isnt only about good food. If thekitchen and house is dirty, many diseases canstrike. In this chapter information is given abouteasy methods to keep the house clean. Fruit Related ChaptersInformation on how to produce and grow im-proved fruit species at home is given in thesechapters about the fruit nursery, grafting, budding,top grafting, stone grafting, air layering, fruitseedling planting and integrated fruit orchards. Kitchen Garden and Polyculture VegetableGrowing ChaptersThese chapters give information about how toproduce good vegetables with less work.
What is House Hygiene ?The Farmers Handbook - "Inside The House", Chapter 3 - House Hygiene The house shel- ters us from the sun, wind and rain. The house is also where we keep food, pots, pans and clothes necessary for our lives. Often, farm tools such as hooks, spades, ropes, and water containers are kept in the home. The home is also our place to live and sleep. So all members of the household should know about how to keep the house clean. There should be a custom of sweeping and plastering. After using any tools or The text on the wall says "Always equipment its very cover the lid of the water pot". important that they are cleaned and stored in their right place. And everyone needs to cooperate to make a good, clean household which is enjoyable and hygienic to live in.
• Eating stale (old) food :- its important to eat clean and Keep the Why House Clean ? fresh food to stay healthy. So when cooking, cook just the right amount and dont leave food to be eaten later. Old food can upset the stomach. Problems leading to not keeping the house clean Pathways of flies• Dirty Kitchen :- flies and invisible bacteria like to live in spreadingdirty places. So disease can start in the kitchen and on the disease dogsfood there. If theres dirt on the floor it can spread to wherethe plates, food, water, etc. are.• Going to the toilet :- its wrong to use just any place as a dirty handstoilet. Wherever this is done becomes dirty. This attracts flieswhich carry the dirt to our food. dust• Allowing dogs to eat babies faeces :- dogs shouldnt beallowed to eat babies faeces because its possible that the dog On the right side the child is sick and the bacteria arecan then go and lick food plates. present in the faeces. On the left side the bacteria get into the other childs plate and food, and the disease is spread.• Dogs licking plates :- after eating waste meat, bones or In this way dysentery, gastro-enteritis, worms, typhoid,even excrement, dogs can come and lick plates in the house. stomach ache, colds and flu can spread.Many diseases can come from this.• Eating food without washing hands :- we do most work How do Flies Eat ?with our hands. Doing this work makes our hands dirty. Sobefore preparing food and eating it we should always wash 1 Flies vomit up the remains ofour hands well with soap, ash or oil seed cake. their last meal onto our food. This starts to digest their new mealThe Authors of this ChapterMs Hom Maya Gurung 2 Then the fly eats the old re-Health Technician, Himalayan mains and the new food. So, if the 2Permaculture Group, Surkhet, previous meal for the fly was faeces,Nepal it is mixed with the food on our plate 1Mr Lal Bahadur Budhathoki for the fly to eat it. Can we stayRural Livestock Health healthy by eating that food ? Programme2 The Farmers Handbook, "Inside The House" Chapter 3 - House Hygiene 3
1 Milk :- milk is clean inside the cows udder but if the The picture below shows how bacteria can enter person milking has dirty hands this will make the our bodies. In the upper part of the picture are milk dirty. The hands and udder should be washed small drawings of where the food comes from. along with the milk bucket. The milk should be From here arrows point lead to the persons mouth. boiled and put in a clean container with a clean lid. The numbers given to the pictures below corre- Use clean water if making buttermilk or other dairy products, spond to descriptions on the next page. Read these and the container these are put in must also be very clean. as you see the pictures. 2 Water :- if possible do not use water from streams or rivers. Use water from wells, springs or drinking 2 How bacteria can 1 ! water taps. Its not enough just to use clean water. move in the kitchen The containers it is put in must also be clean and 3 have a good fitting lid. Finally, the cups, glasses, 4 plates, etc. to drink from must also be clean. 5 3 Fruit :- fruit is clean on the tree but as soon as we pick it, it quickly becomes dirty. Before eating, hands 6 should be clean, and fruit should be washed or peeled . 4 5 Grains and Pulses :- cooked grains and pulses etc. will become dirty if left uncovered. Dirty utensils used to transfer or serve food will also make the food dirty. Keep utensils off the ground. 6 Vegetables :- just like 4 & 5 above, vegetables can become dirty. If chemicals are used in the garden veg- etables should be washed well in water. Vegetables such as radishes, carrot and coriander are often eaten raw, so must be washed in clean water. Plates, bowls etc. used for eating should also be very clean. Grinding stones used for making pickles should be kept clean (see page 13).4 The Farmers Handbook, "Inside The House" Chapter 3 - House Hygiene 5
How to keep Bacteria Bacteria are tiny organisms that the eye cannot see. Lets see the house cleanThese micro-organisms can be beneficial or harmful. In the How many mistakessoil, without micro-organisms there would be no humus can you see in thismade, while in the stomach, if there were no micro-organ- picture?isms we could not digest our food. Usually, beneficial bacteria live offdead things, breaking them up and rottingthem down, and helping in uptake (digestion)by plants roots. As for harmful bacteria, theyusually live on living tissues, and often dam-age them. If harmful bacteria get intowounds, or into our stomach, they can makeus very sick. Bacteria enjoy dirty, dark and moist Bacteriaplaces so if we want to be protected from seenpossible harm, kitchen pots, pans, clothes, close upbedding, etc. should be kept clean, dry and aswell aired as possible. Before and after anypreparation, cooking or eating of food, handsshould be clean. Hands should be washed aftertouching hair, animals (livestock/pets), soil,etc. and before touching food or food contain- In a well man-ers. Food should remain covered when not in aged houseuse and old food should not be eaten, except keeping theby the chickens! If the hands have a wound then use soap to pots and thewash and keep it covered when preparing, cooking or eating kitchen clean isfood. No spitting in the kitchen, or if possible, anywhere in easythe house or courtyard. If attention is paid to all these things, then harmful bacteria cant enter and harm our bodies.6 The Farmers Handbook, "Inside The House" Chapter 3 - House Hygiene 7
Water containers In a clean, dry and should always be light kitchen there is covered. The text on less fear of disease the wall says "Always cover the lid of the water pot" in Nepali. A basket for keeping pots made from local resources. Then, this is the way The grinding to pour water stone should be covered when not in use. Dirt can also get into the milling stone so this should also be covered8 The Farmers Handbook, "Inside The House" Chapter 3 - House Hygiene 9
In a well managed House: to clean the Pots and pans Food is cov- ered and put away How House ? are cleaned and put away Cleaning and managing inside the house isnt difficult. in the right Below are some things to pay attention to for cleaning the place house well. 1. Putting away pots, pans, etc. :- pots, pans, plates, etc. should be stored in a cupboard, rack or woven basket in a corner of the kitchen. Water containers should also be kept in a clean and easily usable place in or near the kitchen. The The grinding opening of the water container should always be covered with stone is covered a clean lid. The grinding stone should be cleaned and put and put away away after use. The floor is kept 2. Putting away cutting hooks, digging tools, ropes, etc. :- clean and freshly cutting hooks, digging tools, ropes, etc. should be stored in a plastered or swept place easy to see and access by all the family (except babies). Farm tools used 3. Putting away clothes, etc. :- every day are also clothes and bedding should be kept clean and in the stored away from the kitchen right place otherwise dust and smoke can make them dirty. Also, to pre- vent dust getting from clothes or bedding into the food these should be kept in a separate place, in a rack or cupboard.10 The Farmers Handbook, "Inside The House" Chapter 3 - House Hygiene 11
Water Containers The Grinding Stone Drinking water should always be kept clean. If water is The grinding stone is a tool used many times a day in thedirty it can cause all sorts of diseases such as diarrhea, stom- kitchen. After it has been used, it should be washed andach aches, colds and flu, worms, etc. Many types of dirt can stored in a clean place. After the grinding stone has beenget into the uncovered drinking water container. While sweep- used, for example to grind spices for pickle, and if it is lefting the house, uncovered, then while sweeping or doing other work dirt candust can blow get onto it. We may bring dirt into the house from outside.into drinking This dirt can contain harmful bacteria. If the grinding stone iswater con- left out unwashed then these bacteria can then get into thetainers, and spices etc. we are grinding on the stone. This can then causedrinking that illness such as diarrhea, dysentery, worms, and other types ofdirty water illness. So we should get into the habit of always washing thecan then grinding stone before use. After use, again wash the stonecause sick- with clean water, dry it and store it covered or upright againstness. Being the wall of the kitchen. If this is not possible (for example, if itaware of is too big), then the stone should be kept covered by a large lidsome simple or bowl, plastic bag, clean cloth or even a plate made of leaves.things can If we pay attention to the small ideas given above, wehelp to pro- can protect ourselves from big diseases.tect us from these diseases. For example, the water containershould always be covered. The water containers lid can behome made. For this, first measure the lid of the water con-tainer, and make a lid from wood or thick tree bark to fit the opening. Make a string to tie the lid to the container. Another method is to use a small plate or bowl to cover the lid. The lid of the container should never be put on the floor otherwise it could get covered in dirt, which could then get into the water inside the container.12 The Farmers Handbook, "Inside The House" Chapter 3 - House Hygiene 13
Other things to pay attention to Farmers Mrs Atimaya During the monsoon there is much more rain, it gets Sunuwarvery muddy everywhere and its a much busier time for farm- Experienceers, so everywhere gets much more dirty. So we should paymuch more attention to hygiene at this time, compared to From Nepal,other times of the year. Surkhet district, Gumi VDC, ! Ratadada village and a member of "Hariyali" womens group, Mrs Atimaya Sunuwar has seen the benefits of good house hygiene. Now lets read about Its easier and cheaper to prevent disease what she says than to cure it. Lets pay attention to this !! Mrs Atimaya Sunuwar In 1998, I be- If we dont æ came a member of the local Womens Group and learned a lot, but first I started keeping the house clean. I use a bowl to keep keep the house the drinking water container covered, and clean it each day. I clean we can cause keep the pots and pans clean and covered, so they cant get many types of dirty. I always wash the grinding stone. These things are easy, health problems. If and they only seem difficult if you dont have the habit of we can stay healthy doing them. Its the same for cleaning and putting away farm- all household work ing tools such as the cutting hook and digging tools. I put the is easier. But if we dust swept out of the house into a sweepings pit. Apart from are always sick, keeping the house clean, this makes good compost too. Theres how can we run a lots of benefits when we keep the house clean. If we cant keep good household ? ourselves clean, then what other work will we be able to do ?14 The Farmers Handbook, "Inside The House" Chapter 3 - House Hygiene Æ 15
Read On ! Grihasthi Communications Subjects Related to House Hygiene Improved Stove ChapterIn Nepal 95% of households use firewood forcooking food. Everyone knows the effects of toomuch smoke in the kitchen but what to do ? Nowlets learn about an easy and successful method. Diet and Nutrition ChapterMany diseases can be prevented by a healthydiet, In this chapter, information is given aboutthe benefits provided by different types of food. Waste Water ChapterThis chapter gives information on how to get irri-gation for the garden from domestic waste water. Sweepings ChapterInformation about making good compost fromsweeping the house and yard is given in thischapter. Pit Latrine ChapterEveryone has a responsibility to use a propertoilet. Information about building and correctuse of the pit latrine is given in this chapter.
What is an Improved Stove ?The Farmers Handbook - "Inside The House", Chapter 4 - Improved Stove Mrs Chitramaya Gharti- Magars improved stove, Surkhet district, Nepal The stove is the heart of the household. The stove turns our hard-earned farming produce into tasty and wholesome food. A well managed stove helps in other work also. If the stove isnt good, smoke in the kitchen will cause health problems and a lot of firewood will be used. In this chapter, a useful method is given to help solve these problems, which can bring big improvements in the kitchen, and from there to the household. This method is called the improved stove. The im- proved stove can be cheaply made from local resources, and helps to remove smoke from the kitchen, while using less firewood.
There are some disadvantages of the improved stove. These are :- make an Why Improved Stove ? 1. Large pieces of firewood cant be used; 2. The stove gives less light and direct heat in the kitchen; 3. The stove needs good maintenance, and from Differences between traditional and improved stoves time to time you need to let the smoke into the kitchen (see page 22 for more information).Traditional Stove or Tripod Improved Stove Other methods to reduce firewood use1. Uses a lot of firewood 1. Uses less firewood2. Food cooks slowly 2. Food cooks quickly While cooking, keeping the lid on pots helps to reduce firewood use. This also3. Can only cook one item 3. Can cook 2 items at a helps to conserve nutrients in the food. at a time time4. Cost of tripod 4. Dont need tripod Another method of conserving fuelwood is called the5. Smoke stays in kitchen 5. Smoke goes outside "Haybox". This can be made in a basket or box filled with tightly6. Smoke damages health 6. No harm to health packed straw, as in the picture below, As soon as food (rice, pulses, vegetables, etc.) is brought to the boil on a normal stove, the pan is7. Makes kitchen utensils 7. Doesnt make kitchen removed and placed in the hay box, and covered well. Here, there dirty with soot dirty is no fire, but the food slowly keeps cooking, due to the conserved heat in the box. This takes 20-30 minutes longer than on a stove.8. Small children can fall in 8. No fear of small children After a while, take out the pan and the food is ready to eat. the fire falling in fire9. Cooking makes the pots 9. Pots kept cleaner during covered by a lid black with soot cooking straw10. Wind can make the fire jump 10. Stove not affected by wind cloth11. Cant make tripod from 11. Stove made from local lid of the pot local resources resources food inside (just boiled) straw12. Food cools quickly 12. Food stays hot longer basket or box2 The Farmers Handbook, "Inside The House" Chapter 4 - Improved Stove 3
To make an Making the Improved Stove How improved stove ? An improved stove uses a chimney to pass the smoke out of the kitchen. There are 2 ways of making a chimney to Things to consider when making an do this :- improved stove 1. Making bricks using mud "pancakes"• get all the materials and tools ready first; 2. Making bricks using a wooden form or mould• map out the height of the kitchens wall;• map out the stove according to the needs of the family;• allow for a place to clean the stove;• the hole to allow smoke out should be out of the wind. On this stove unleavened flat Materials needed to make an improved stove bread can be made brick making over the mouth of bowl the firebox, as well form (see p.8) as smoke going cooking outside string pans stones digging tools straw or soil husk 1. Making bricks using mud "pancakes" In this method only clay, straw or rice husk, water and a This Chapters Author: small bowl are needed. Mr Laxman Rana First mix the clay and the husk, or straw cut into 2 inch Community Service Group, lengths, with water to make a stiff texture, like dough. Dahachaur 4, Surkhet, Nepal see the pictures on the next page4 The Farmers Handbook, "Inside The House" Chapter 4 - Improved Stove 5
Making bricks from clay "pancakes" 2. Making a chimney using a wooden form 8i or mould 1 The pancakes should be nc he One village will need only one of these forms 8 inches in diameter s Materials needed to make the form 2 The bowl should be 4 inches measuring tape in diameter One 3- Eighteen 2 inch nail inch nails round 3 Place the piece of bowl upside wood down on the pan- saw cake and press hammer timber down, like this length 4-5 feet, width 7 inches, thickness half to one inch 4 The up- turned bowl will cut the clay Cut the timber w into pieces as 7 in c i d t h in h hes es 7 ngt make 30-35 pan- ch shown here le cakes like this This will one 5 make a hole piece the same shape and size as the 2 pieces of length 7 inches bowl and width 4 inches6 The Farmers Handbook, "Inside The House" Chapter 4 - Improved Stove 7
Now put the round piece diameterJoin the 3 pieces of wood 4 inches with nails, like this of wood in the form length 3 inches On the underside Holding the round of the form make piece of wood on an X between the other side, nail the 4 corners to in the long Saw 2 pieces of wood find the centre nail to as shown below hold it in place length 15 inches, width 4 inches Making bricks in the Form Join the pieces • mix the clay, husk or straw and water with nails, as • wash the form well shown here • scatter a little husk or straw in the form so it sticks to the wet wood Now put the clay mix into the Form8 The Farmers Handbook, "Inside The House" Chapter 4 - Improved Stove 9
How to make an Scrape off the excess Lets see improved stove clay to make level 1 The form used to Turn the form make the upside down and chimney tap gently Leaving the clay brick on 2 the ground, gently lift the To make the Rice husk, or form off chimney, chopped straw 12-13 bricks like this are needed 3 Make 1 brick without a hole Make 2 bricks for the top of the chimney looking like this Husk or straw mixed to a thick paste10 The Farmers Handbook, "Inside The House" Chapter 4 - Improved Stove 11
4 Cleaning the Form 7 Starting to 5 build the stove Bridging stone over Smoke the fire- Pressing the leaves here box hole clay/straw mix 8 into the form Build up the Chimney brick after stove, leaving 6 ;pf fn holes for pots removing from the form and a path for smoke 12-13 of these bricks Bridging Red arrows stones show pathway for smoke 2 bricks 1 brick Yellow lines like this without a show empty hole spaces left in- side the stove12 The Farmers Handbook, "Inside The House" Chapter 4 - Improved Stove 13