Sustainable Tribal Economies: A Guide to Energy and Food Sovereignty in Native America
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Sustainable Tribal Economies: A Guide to Energy and Food Sovereignty in Native America

Sustainable Tribal Economies: A Guide to Energy and Food Sovereignty in Native America

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Sustainable Tribal Economies: A Guide to Energy and Food Sovereignty in Native America  Sustainable Tribal Economies: A Guide to Energy and Food Sovereignty in Native America Document Transcript

  • Chapter subject hereSUSTAINABLE TRIBAL EcoNomIES A Guide to Restoring Energy and Food Sovereignty in Native America A PUBLICATION OF HONOR THE EARTH
  • “We are the Keepers of this Earth. Those are divinely mandated in- structions to us. We are at an incred- ible challenge at this point of our journey. We have been blessed by being Indigenous. What a blessing, and what a responsibility.” — Dr. Henrietta Mann at the Native Peoples Native Homelands Climate Change Workshop, November 2009Honor tHe eartH’s MissionOur mission is to create awareness and support for Native environmental issues and to develop needed financial and politi-cal resources for the survival of sustainable Native communities. Honor the Earth develops these resources by using music, thearts, the media, and Indigenous wisdom to ask people to recognize our joint dependency on the Earth and be a voice for thosenot heard.acknowledgMents:Cover Art: Jonathan ThunderResearched and written by Honor the Earth staff and volunteers: Winona LaDuke, Faye Brown, Nellis Kennedy, Tom Reed,Luke Warner and Andrea Keller.Design: Kevin Brown, Smart Set, Inc.Special thanks to the Shakopee Mdewakanton Sioux Community, Surdna Foundation, Nathan Cummings Foundation, Sol-idago Foundation, Turner Foundation, Carolyn Foundation and the Unitarian Universalist Veatch Program at Shelter Rockfor funding Honor the Earth’s Energy Justice Initiative and this booklet.Thanks to Reed Aubin, PennElys Goodshield, Bob Gough, Chase Iron Eyes, Kim Knutson, Christopher Reed, and Lisa Ringerfor their contributions to this booklet.Thank you to our Advisory Board, representing the Indigenous Environmental Network and Indigenous Women’s Network,for years of collaboration, commitment and leadership: Charon Asetoyer, Faith Gemmill, Tom Goldtooth, Heather Milton-Lightening and Anne White Hat.
  • Sustainable Tribal Economies a guide to restoring energy and Food sovereignty in native aMerica a PuBlication oF Honor tHe eartH 2104 Stevens Avenue South Minneapolis, MN 55404 (612) 879-7529 info@honorearth.org www.honorearth.org View slide
  • Sustainable Tribal Economies: A Guide to Restoring Energy and Food Sovereignty in Native AmericaWhy This Booklet?The process of determining our des- and less of our own food and insteadtiny is at the core of our survival as rely upon foods imported from facto-Indigenous peoples. As tribal com- ry farms and monocropped fields farmunities grow and we deepen our away. This is not a sustainable way tostrategies and infrastructure for our live. This booklet is about the processNations, it is essential for us to look of recovering control of these twoat the world’s economic and environ- economies as a way to ensure the sta-mental realities in order to make crit- bility of our tribal communities, ourical decisions about our future. That environments and our cultures.means we must address issues suchas climate change, peak oil and food This booklet explores food and en-insecurity. Food and energy consume ergy issues in tribal communities,huge portions of our tribal economies recognizes their linkages, providesand must be considered in relation to examples of tribal innovation andtribal sovereignty and self-determi- outlines options for tribal communi-nation. ties to create sustainable energy and food economies for this millenniumThis new millennium is a time when and for the generations yet to come.we are facing the joint challenges of In all cases, we are looking at the cre-an industrial food system and a cen- ation of local economies, using the re-tralized energy system, both based sources available to each Indigenouson fossil fuels, and both of which are community. We are hopeful that somedamaging the health of our peoples of these strategies will not only be vi-and the Earth at an alarming rate. In able for tribal self-determination, butthe US— the largest and most ineffi- also, when appropriate, be a possiblecient energy economy in the world— source of export revenues for tribaltribal communities have long sup- communities.plied the raw materials for nuclearand coal plants, huge dam projects, Recovering and restoring local foodand oil and gas development. These and energy production requires aresources have been exploited to conscious transformation and set ofpower far-off cities and towns, while technological and economic leapswe remain in the toxic shadow of for our communities. We must decidetheir lethal pollution and without whether we want to determine ourour own sources of heat or electricity. own future or lease it out for royalties.Our communities have also laid the In the end, developing food and en-groundwork for agriculture on this ergy sovereignty is a means to deter- Art by Camille LaCapa; Border by Starcontinent. Yet today, we produce less mine our own destiny. Wallowing Bull View slide
  • Table of ContentsSustainable Tribal Economiesa guide to restoring energy and Food sovereignty in native aMericaPart OnetHe Basics oF a sustainaBle econoMy .................................................. 3Part TwocHallenges Facing indigenous coMMunities: tHe urgentneed to Build energy and Food sovereignty ..................................... 7Challenge One: Climate Change ......................................................................................7Challenge Two: Peak Oil ..................................................................................................13Challenge Three: Fuel Poverty ........................................................................................17Challenge Four: Food Insecurity ....................................................................................19False Solutions, “Clean” Coal, Carbon Capture and Sequestration,Nuclear Power, Unsustainable Biofuels .........................................................................23Part ThreeoPPortunities For triBal action .......................................................... 25Part Foursolutions For Building sustainaBle triBal econoMiesSolution One: Energy Efficiency and Conservation......................................................29Solution Two: Renewable Energy ...................................................................................31 Solar Energy ............................................................................................................34 Wind Energy ............................................................................................................39 Micro Hydropower..................................................................................................44 Sustainable Biomass and Biofuels.........................................................................46Solution Three: Restoring Traditional Foods.................................................................51glossary oF terMs ................................................................................... 60sources ....................................................................................................... 63
  • Sustainable Tribal Economies: A Guide to Restoring Energy and Food Sovereignty in Native AmericaNotes: | 2 |
  • The Basics of a Sustainable Economy Part One: tHe Basics oF a sustainaBle econoMyBreaking tHe cycle oF have become accustomed to a cycle definition of wealth. We believe thatdePendency where outside sources of cash come restoring a local economy rooted in into the reservation and our cash is our own knowledge as IndigenousAn economy is the creation and dis- spent off-reservation. peoples is essential to revitalizing thetribution of wealth in a community. health and sustainability of our com-Wealth could be in the form of wam- The structure of a dependent econo- munities.pum, corn, energy, or other items, my puts Indigenous communities atsuch as cash. The industrial economy a case For re-localizing risk of constant destabilization andis not the only economy. In fact, the energy and Food often at the mercy of outside forces,cash reliance of an industrial econ- whether those forces are large min- Honor the Earth collaborated withomy is a relatively new addition to ing companies or renewable energy the White Earth Land Recovery Proj-Indigenous economic and trade sys- developers seeking to profit from the ect to perform a study on the Whitetems. Indeed, the fur traders, agency resources of a tribal community, or Earth Reservation analyzing theoffices, annuity payments, trading whether they are unpredictable fed- tribal energy economy while also rec-posts and other cash-based institu- eral allocations. As the US economy ommending an innovative programtions that became so significant in becomes increasingly destabilized of energy efficiency and renewableour post-contact history were ma- as a result of the recession, wartime energy. A separate study was under-jor elements in the unhealthy trans- expenditures, peak oil, and climate taken on the food economy. Theseformation of our economies from change, our tribal economies will studies revealed that approximatelywealthy and self-reliant to poor and face even greater destabilization and 50% of the tribal economy’s money isdependent. more risk. being spent outside the reservation on food and energy. This expenditureTo put it plainly, cash is not essential To become self-sustaining, we need represents a substantial and discon-to an economy. Yet, we have become to break the cycle of dependency. Our certing portion of our tribal income.increasingly cash-dependent in In- people suffer from a history of depen- In fact, it is the largest drain on ourdigenous communities, exchanging dency resulting from the confiscation tribal wealth.labor, natural resources and our gifts of our lands, the General Allotmentof art for cash in order to purchase Act, the stock reduction programs, Dependency at this scale is unhealthy.goods and services. Some of this the mass slaughter of the buffalo, the Native communities, already facingcash wealth is exchanged inside of War on Poverty, the theft and sale of crisis situations of poverty, cannot af-our communities, but a substantially natural resources and other aspects ford this output of money.greater portion is spent outside our of colonization. This created depen-tribal borders. dency only hinders our sustainabil- Initial studies completed on the White ity. Earth Reservation reveal the figure forWe not only spend most of our cash a tribal energy economy alone con-outside the reservation, but also se- In a world where tribes have been sumes a phenomenally large portioncure almost all of our tribal income pushed to create cash-driven econo- of the entire economy: an estimatedfrom outside sources— such as feder- mies, there is another more resilient one-fourth of tribal household in-al revenues or royalties from resource way to live and it begins with valuing come is spent on energy-related ex-extraction— and are thus totally de- who we are and reclaiming our own penses whether for transportation,pendent upon outside markets. We | 3 |
  • Sustainable Tribal Economies: A Guide to Restoring Energy and Food Sovereignty in Native America HigH gdP or a HaPPy country? Is it possible to have a happy country that is not cash rich? The New Economics Foundation has devised a system called the Happy Planet Index to rank the life-satisfaction of citizens in countries around the world. Instead of using economic wealth measures, such as the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of a country, the index used measures such as life expectancy and happiness to determine life satis- faction.”1 The findings demonstrate that, on a whole, rich countries with high rates of resource consumption are the saddest countries in the world. In fact, the happiest countries in the world are those with high rates of renewable energy and lower rankings of GDP! After examining nearly 200 countries, the 2009 index declared Costa Rica as the happiest country in the world, and two additional studies corroborated these results. Costa Rica gets over 99% of its energy from renewable sources.2 Costa Rica also has a great deal of organic agriculture, culturally based tourism, and a vital export crop of coffee. All of this, according to the index, means that Costa Rica is the most successful country in the world at converting “the planet’s natural resources into long and happy lives for [its] citizens.” 3 In 2006, the index listed the South Pacific island, Vanuatu, as the happiest country in the world.4 Surviving on small- scale agriculture and tourism, Vanuatu’s GDP per head was a mere $290 in 2006. Living according to tradition, the Vanuatu, like all other Indigenous peoples, have a unique relationship with the land. Their strong sense of culture and community played a significant role in putting them at the top of the index. Tribal nations can follow these examples. By keeping strong cultural traditions, restoring local food systems, in- creasing efficiency and creating renewable energy sources, tribal nations can be some of the happiest nations in the world without having a high GDP. | 4 |
  • The Basics of a Sustainable Economyheating, or electricity.5 This figure drain income and wealth from the local econoMiesis due to the relatively remote loca- tribal economy. The crisis situation strengtHen and regeneratetion of the White Earth Reservation facing tribal food economies is a ma- coMMunitiesin northern Minnesota, and the lack jor contributor to tribal poverty. In economic terms, there is a figureof resources for efficiency, combined called a “multiplier.” This figure re-with a lower average income than the Our economic analysis on the White flects how many times a dollar circu-general population. But the situation Earth Reservation, completed in 2008, lates in any given local communityis not unique to the White Earth Res- found that $7 million out of every until it moves into a larger economyervation. Many tribal communities $8 million of tribal household and far away. A 2008 study regarding thefind themselves in the same or simi- agency expenses (excluding casino elements of the Puget Sound, Wash-lar circumstances, making the study purchases) were spent immediate- ington area food economy revealedincreasingly relevant for all tribal ly off-reservation. When we spend that, “The more dollars circulating lo-nations. Across the board, remote money at a Walmart or Food Service cally, the greater the number of com-reservation communities have sub- of America, those dollars go outside munity linkages and the greater theirpar weatherization in much of their of our communities, the goods are strength. The research indicates thathousing and are hit especially hard produced far away, money is required more and stronger linkages provideby the high cost of energy to heat and to transport them, and profit goes to for a healthier, more diverse and re-cool their homes, as well as the cost of far away owners and/or stockholders. silient local economy.”6traveling long distances. However, a locally owned business, selling goods harvested and/or made Simply put, keeping our dollars lo-The energy predicament draining locally, keeps our dollars local, sup- cal strengthens and regenerates thetribal economies is augmented by porting our community’s economy. health of our economy and our com-unstable tribal food plans. The tribal munities. By developing communityfood economy represents another We can stabilize our tribal economies resources and goods to meet our ownsource of wealth and loss of wealth through localization. By developing community needs, we become lessin a tribal economy. Traditional food our own energy and food sources, we vulnerable to outside markets, andproduction keeps wealth in the com- can create vibrant and resilient tribal more self-reliant and self-sufficient.munity, while purchases from border economies that will ensure our sur-towns in multinational food supply vival in the face of the economic andenterprises and chain grocery stores environmental challenges ahead. Re-localizing food and ener- gy economies means taking responsibility for our future generations. This requires a paradigm shift back to our traditional knowledge sys- tems. We cannot erase the process of economic colo- nization and the deliberate creation of dependency. But we can join with others and take action to reclaim our future. Left: Artwork by Rabbit Strickland | 5 |
  • Sustainable Tribal Economies: A Guide to Restoring Energy and Food Sovereignty in Native AmericaNotes: | 6 |
  • Challenges Facing Indigenous Communities Part Two: cHallenges Facing indigenous coMMunities: cliMate cHange, Peak oil, Fuel Poverty and Food insecurityClimate change, peak oil, fuel poverty and food insecurity on massive energy inputs. These realities are complex andare four interrelated challenges that Native communities have vast impacts on Native communities. Our communi-face in this millennium, challenges that stem from indus- ties, while at the center of the storm, also have unparalleledtrial society’s level of consumption and the corresponding potential to reduce the negative impacts of a destabilizingexploitation of lands, natural resources and peoples. climate and energy and food insecurity. We discuss solu- tions to these concerns later in this booklet, but as a start-Globally, we are presented with a new set of difficulties in ing point it’s important to understand the causes of climatethe face of a warming planet, the depletion of world oil change, peak oil, fuel poverty and food insecurity and thesupplies and an industrial agriculture system that relies distinct threats they present for Native America. Challenge One: cliMate cHangeThe Earth naturally goes through By definition, climate change is the At its essence, climate change seri-cycles of warming and cooling over “long-term significant change in the ously and adversely transforms thetime, but a climate that’s rapidly weather patterns of an area.”8 It turns way we live, and in this interconnect-warming and changing because of out that ‘significant change’ means ed world, impacts in one geographichuman behavior is another thing al- significant problems. Climate change region reverberate internationally. Iftogether and indeed a dangerous and creates a myriad of ecological cri- wheat or corn production in the Mid-very real scenario. ses, from more extreme and volatile west is compromised due to drought weather, such as extended droughts, or flooding, it affects prices and foodHuman activity has already raised massive floods and intense storms,9 availability across the globe. None ofthe average surface temperature to the destruction and loss of biodi- us are immune to climate change’s ef-of the Earth more than one degree versity. With a warming globe, many fects. And none of us are completelyFahrenheit. Scientists at the Intergov- of our foods and medicines (plants removed from contributing to it.ernmental Panel on Climate Change and animals) must adapt, seek cooler causes oF cliMate cHange(IPCC) calculate that the Earth’s tem- climates or face extinction. The IPCCperature will continue to rise at least has already confirmed certain ecosys- Unsustainable energy and indus-another degree, even with drastic tem shifts,10 from earlier bird migra- trial agriculture are the primary cul-mitigation efforts.7 While these tem- tions to habitat changes for fish and prits behind climate change. The USperature increases appear small, the wildlife, that will disrupt our relation- Global Change Research Programconsequences of a warming globe are ship to the land and species we have (USGCRP), the leading domestichuge. relied on for millennia. body tasked with researching climate trends, lays out the situation clearly: | 7 |
  • Sustainable Tribal Economies: A Guide to Restoring Energy and Food Sovereignty in Native AmericaFeedBack looPs: desertiFication, cliMate cHange &Biodiversity loss greenHouse gases The Environmental Protec- tion Agency (EPA) explains the primary greenhouse gas- es that enter the atmosphere because of human activities: Carbon Dioxide: Carbon di- oxide enters the atmosphere through the burning of fos- sil fuels (oil, natural gas, and coal), solid waste, trees and wood, and also as a result of other chemical reactions (e.g., manufacture of ce- ment). Carbon dioxide is also removed from the atmo- sphere when it is absorbed by plants as part of the biologi- cal carbon cycle.Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, Desertification Synthesis Report (2005), p. 17 Methane: Methane is emit- ted during the production and transport of coal, natural gas, and oil. Methane emis- sions also result from live- stock and other agricultural practices and by the decay of organic waste in solid waste landfills. Melting permafrost as a result of climate change releases mass amounts of methane as well. Nitrous Oxide: Nitrous oxide is emitted during agricultural and industrial activities, as well as during combustion of fossil fuels and solid waste.14 Left: A coal plant near the Northern Cheyenne Reservation | 8 |
  • Challenges Facing Indigenous Communities“The global warming observed overthe past 50 years is due primarily to Fossil Fuels: dirty Powerhuman-induced emissions of heat- Fossil fuels literally cometrapping gases. These emissions from fossils— the remains ofcome mainly from the burning of fos- prehistoric plants and ani-sil fuels (coal, oil, and gas), with im- mals that lived millions ofportant contributions from the clear- years ago. Burning fossil fu-ing of forests, agricultural practices, els, such as coal, oil and gas,and other activities.”11 releases carbon dioxide (CO2) into the air, and CO2 emis-The main heat-trapping gas (also sions are the principal causecalled a “greenhouse gas”) respon- of climate change.sible for climate change is carbon di-oxide (CO2), often referred to as ‘car- According to the Departmentbon.’ In the energy sector, the worst of Energy, fossil fuels are cur-carbon offenders are electric power rently used to power overproduction and transportation. In 85% of the energy needs infact, electric power plants and trans- the United States.13 Signifi-portation were responsible for 73% of cantly reducing our relianceour total energy-related carbon emis- on fossil fuels is essential tosions in 2006.12 In terms of industrial mitigating climate change.agriculture, our food system is notonly petroleum-intensive, but also re-lies on massive clear cutting, destroy- longer reflect heat,16 growing desertsing remaining forests that absorb the that have less vegetation to storeEarth’s carbon. With added green- CO2,17 and melting permafrost thathouse gas emissions and shrinking emits methane18 are other examplesstorehouses for carbon, heat from the of the feedback loops acceleratingsun increasingly becomes trapped in climate change.the atmosphere, warming the globe. In the coming decades, increased at-The effects of climate change alter mospheric concentrations of green-carbon absorption cycles. For ex- house gases will continue to raiseample, the oceans, the world’s largest average global temperatures. Meltingcarbon storehouse, no longer take in polar ice and glaciers will further raiseas much carbon dioxide when they sea levels, dramatically change pre-warm,15 and as a result, more carbon cipitation patterns and increase theremains in the atmosphere, warming volatility of our climate. Water, essen-the Earth and the oceans even more. tial for all life, will be gravely affected.A vicious cycle continuously repeats A 2009 report by the USGCRP19 founditself making problems exponentially that water quality problems, water-worse. These cycles are called feed- borne diseases and shrinking waterback loops. Melting ice caps that no supplies will all intensify. Changes inLeft: Reprinted from “Stop Global Warming,”, the Spring 2008 YES! Magazine,www.yesmagazine.org | 9 |
  • Sustainable Tribal Economies: A Guide to Restoring Energy and Food Sovereignty in Native Americatwo degrees FroM disaster water and other climate impacts are predicted to pose adaptation prob- lems for crop and livestock produc- tion, meaning our current food sys- tem is vulnerable. We need to take action. Native com- munities are already dispropor- tionately experiencing the adverse impacts of a warming globe. As the section below describes, it is clear that climate change strikes our com- munities first and worst. cliMate cHange iMPacts in indigenous coMMunities Native peoples are already witnessing dramatic changes in our territories. From fishing and salmon run impacts in the Northwest, to raging wildfires in Colorado and California, to storm surges and flooding along the East- ern seaboard to severe drought in the Southwest, present and futureFrom YES! Magazine by Doug Pibel, Madeline Ostrander, Jan 29, 2008natural Hazards and Mortality Kevin A. Borden & Susan L. Cutter. “Spatial Patterns of Natural Hazards mortality in the US” International Journal of Health Geographics. 7:64 Dec. 17, 2008. | 10 |
  • Challenges Facing Indigenous CommunitiesWaves pounding against the sandbagged seawall in Kivali- Alaskan coastal village of Shishmaref falls into the sea.na, Alaska. Photo credit: Mary Sage/AP Photo credit: Shishmaref Erosion & Relocation Coalitionchanges in the climate imperil our will continue to happen in more ru- The relocation costs for such violenthomelands, our lifeways and our very ral and remote areas, like reservation climate change damages representsurvival. communities. We are not prepared. significant costs. Relocation for the Inupiat village of Kivalina alone has alaska: a sign oF cHange toOur communities are at serious risk been estimated at $400 million or coMefrom climate change related disasters. more.24 Putting a price on a home-One-third of reservation residents Temperatures in the Arctic are rising land, however, is impossible.in the Great Plains live in substan- twice as fast as they are elsewheredard housing, as does much of Na- in the world.21 Arctic ice is melting The people of Kivalina are taking ative America, meaning that we have and rupturing and the polar ice cap stand.25 In 2007, Kivalina filed a fed-little protection from the increase as a whole is shrinking at a frighten- eral suit in US District Court againstin torrential rains, tornados, wind ingly rapid rate. As a result, numer- Exxon Mobil Corp., BP PLC, sevenshears, extreme heat, and extreme ous Indigenous coastal villages, once other oil companies, 14 power com-cold that climate change brings.20 We protected by the coastal sea ice, are panies and one coal company,26are in danger of freezing or cooking to in danger of being washed away by charging these corporations with thedeath in our own homes. Not to men- harsh storm surges. destruction of their village. Althoughtion that much of Native America has the court dismissed the case,27 itlimited telephone and telecommuni- At least 184 of Alaska’s 213 villages provides a moving example of Indig-cations access— meaning those most face significant erosion and flood- enous people standing up for whatexposed won’t be warned and won’t ing, according to a 2003 report by the is right and drawing attention to thehave a way to call for help in extreme US General Accountability Office.22 severity of climate injustice.weather. Today, government agencies have identified at least six Native villages Other Indigenous groups have beenIn 2008, USA Today reported on new- that must immediately respond to se- appealing to international humanly created maps, referred to as ‘Death vere erosion and flooding, including rights organizations to halt and rem-Maps,’ indicating projected mortal- the villages of Shishmaref, Koyukuk, edy climate change. In 2005, the Inuitity from extreme weather is expect- Kivalina, Newtok, Unalakleet, and Circumpolar Conference (ICC) fileded to increase in the face of climate Shaktoolik.23 In most of these villages, a complaint with the Inter-Americanchange. The maps demonstrate that relocation is essential for survival. Commission on Human Rights (IA-natural hazard deaths happen and CHR) against the United States.28 The | 11 |
  • Sustainable Tribal Economies: A Guide to Restoring Energy and Food Sovereignty in Native Americacomplaint argued that American car- health challenges directly resultingbon emissions are destroying Inuit from climate change. indigenous PeoPles’habitat, and that catastrophic envi- suMMit on cliMateronmental and social disintegration It’s undeniable that climate change is cHangecaused by climate change constitutes happening and that if we don’t take In the spring of 2009, the In-a human rights violation. Like the action there will be serious financial, digenous Peoples’ Summitcourts in the Kivalina case, the IA- ecological and cultural consequenc- on Climate Change releasedCHR decided not to proceed with the es. There are several choices ahead: a declaration demanding im-complaint,29 but, by putting human 1) Do nothing, and let governments mediate action by govern-rights concerns front and center, the and businesses make market-based ments and developed coun-complaint changed the tenor of the decisions at a pace that does not mir- tries to reduce CO2 emissionsdebate concerning climate change in ror the urgency of the problem; 2) Be and support adaptation strat-a way that has had lasting effects.30 involved in mitigation, or reduction egies. A major challenge at of carbon, as communities and Na- the summit was addressingThe experience of Indigenous peo- tions, and 3) Adapt for climate change concerns by some delegatesples in the Arctic is just the beginning and ultimately a climate-challenged who felt that potential reve-as Native peoples across the country world. The second and third options nue and jobs might be lost byincreasingly find themselves forced provide real opportunities to make a limiting fossil fuel develop-to cope with massive ecological and better future. ment. Nonetheless, delegates found a consensus and are tHe Financial costs oF cliMate cHange now calling for action in re- sponse to the critical reality The costs of climate change are astounding. The US General Account- of climate change. ing Office warns that because “the frequency and severity of damaging weather-related events, such as flooding or drought” are expected to in- Key Demands From the In- crease, economic losses will be significant. Swiss Re, a major interna- digenous Peoples’ Summit tional reinsuring company cautions that, “climate change presents an on Climate Change: increasing risk to the world economy and social welfare.”32 In fact, cli- mate change-related expenses could rise to 20% of world Gross Domes- 1. Create a binding emissions tic Product (GDP), according to a British government-commissioned reductions target for devel- report.33 oped countries of at least 45% below 1990 levels by 2020 and at least 95% be- low 1990 levels by 2050. 2. Support all national and global actions to stabilize CO2 concentrations below 350 parts per million (PPM) and limit global tempera- ture increases to below 1.5 Celsius. 3. Demand effective, well- funded adaptation safety nets at the national and in- ternational levels.31 | 12 |
  • Challenges Facing Indigenous Communities Challenge Two: Peak oilHuman beings have used close to half but also in our food system, and this resources exist, but they are locatedof the world’s known oil reserves in dependence has significant implica- in either hard to reach locations re-the last fifty years. We are approach- tions in the face of our loss of access quiring high-cost, energy-intensiveing the “peak” of worldwide oil pro- to cheap petroleum. The economic extraction technologies, or in politi-duction and the depletion of conven- hardship wrought by peak oil will be cally unstable regions. Securing thesetional supplies. Some experts in the profound. deposits carries a large military andfield project that world demand will human rights price tag. What oil re-outpace conventional oil production The Department of Energy’s “Hirsch mains is going to cost a lot to get– notin the next decade.34 Report,” a widely respected analysis just financially– but also in terms of of peak oil concerns, notes that it will the cost to the environment and hu-The US consumes 20 million barrels take about 20 years just to prepare a man lives.of oil a day. That’s 25% of world sup- transition to mitigate the effects ofplies. We import 2/3 of the oil we use peak oil.36 Currently, we don’t have In North America, the present lay ofat a cost of $1 billion a day, represent- much of a plan on a national level, let the land is that major oil companiesing a huge transfer of wealth outside alone at a tribal level. We need to get are moving into remote and primar-our borders.35 With supplies in decline started. ily Indigenous areas to extract andand demand increasing, the price of secure new oil to offset declining pro- oil reality: Productionoil will continue to rise. Price spikes duction and increasing demand. Off- down, Price uPwill particularly impact the cost of shore drilling in the Arctic along withliquid fuels, such as gasoline, diesel The four largest oil fields in the world, the tar sands development in Canadaand propane. located in Kuwait, Mexico, Saudi are two examples of Indigenous ter- Arabia and China, are all showing ritories disproportionately impactedThe fact is that we have an economy declining production and US pro- by the search for remaining oil sup-dependant on petroleum consump- duction doesn’t come close to meet- plies. These projects are incrediblytion, not only in our transportation, ing domestic demand.37 Other oil destructive to land, life and people.The graphs above depict Hubbert’s Peak, a theory of peak oil named after the late Dr. M. King Hubbert, a geophysicist whopredicted patterns of oil discovery and depletion. Hubbert predicted a global oil peak between 1995 and 2000, and all evidencepoints to the fact that he was close to the mark. | 13 |
  • Sustainable Tribal Economies: A Guide to Restoring Energy and Food Sovereignty in Native America Shell Offshore Inc. to drill in the Beau- multinational energy companies who fort Sea.40 That ruling forced Shell’s are resorting to desperate measures drilling plan back to the MMS, where to produce more oil. Indigenous the agency will need to meet legal ob- communities are threatened in every ligations to fully analyze and disclose step along this path, from the extrac- impacts from drilling on the rapidly tion to the refineries to the pipelines changing Arctic environment.41 slated to cross our homelands. tar sands oil: a wasteland Tar sands oil is one of the most en- in tHe Making vironmentally destructive new fuels In Alberta, Canada, rather than drill- for our gas tanks. To get one barrel of ing to the Earth’s core, oil companies oil, the boreal forest must be stripped have another idea: squeeze crude oil away, and it takes four tons of earth out of the tar sands. Tar sands devel- and two to three barrels of fresh wa-On the frontlines in Alaska. Photo opment places Canadian First Na- ter as well as large amounts of energycredit: REDOIL tions and US tribes face-to-face with to extract and convert the tarry earthoFFsHore drilling in alaskaIn the Arctic, both the oil depos-its in the North Sea and Alaska arenow past peak production and lie indepletion. Despite this, the US Geo-logical Service estimates that almostone quarter of the world’s remain-ing undiscovered, recoverable oil re-serves are in the Arctic.38 As a result,companies, with governmental sup-port, have been pushing hard to openareas off Alaska’s shore to oil drilling,but it’s going to be challenging to getto the oil. The oil lies deep below frig-id Arctic ice and water, under the seafloor, on the way to the Earth’s core.Shell Oil has set its sights on drilling14,000 feet below the Arctic sea floorto extract this deeply buried oil.39The Alaska Native group REDOIL is onthe front lines, fighting new oil drilling.REDOIL joined a lawsuit with conser-vation organizations to stop proposedoffshore drilling in the Beaufort Sea ofAlaska. Citing the subsistence rights ofAlaska Natives as a big factor in the de- Photo bycision, the 9th Circuit Court of Appeals Indigenousfound that the US Department of Inte- Environmentalrior’s Minerals Management Service Network(MMS) illegally approved plans by | 14 |
  • Challenges Facing Indigenous Communitiesinto crude oil. Extensive devastationis already underway in Cree, Métisand Dené Territory where an area thesize of Michigan is slated for tar sandsdevelopment.Then there is the transportation prob-lem. After the energy intensive pro-cess of extracting and upgrading tarsands crude, the oil is mixed with toxicthinning agents in order to be piped tomarkets in the US. Plans for a vast net-work of tar sands pipelines cut acrossnumerous Native communities in theUS, exposing them to the potential fortoxic spills and contamination.The Alberta Clipper oil pipeline isslated to cross the Leech Lake andFond du Lac Ojibwe Reservationsin northern Minnesota. A group ofLeech Lake tribal members have fileda civil action in tribal court as wellas petitioned for a local referendumvote on the pipeline. Another pipe-line, the Keystone pipeline, is threat-ening Dakota and Lakota territoriesin Nebraska and South Dakota. TheSisseton-Wahpeton, Rosebud, San-tee and Yankton Sioux tribes togetherfiled suit to stop the Keystone pipe-line, arguing that there has been noconsultation with tribal communitiesin the drafting of the environmentalassessment for the project. Unfortu-nately, the case was dismissed.42 Map of existing and proposed tar sands pipelinesTar sands development has givenCanada an international reputation As Elizabeth May, Executive Direc- Going to extreme lengths to find oil,as a “climate criminal” for undertak- tor of Sierra Club Canada, said, “Tar and ignoring climate and culturaling such a devastating energy strategy sands oil is to conventional oil what impacts, only highlights how the in-in light of the dire circumstances of crack cocaine is to ordinary cocaine dustry is responding to peak oil byglobal warming. The tar sands are the powder. [It creates] more harm to doing everything possible to extendlargest greenhouse gas emitter in the the global climate through increased supplies rather than find alternatives.country.43 The project is also destroy- greenhouse gas emissions, more de- The bottom line is that our continueding one of the worlds’ most important struction of boreal forests, more toxic reliance on oil makes us vulnerable.storehouses of carbon, the Canadian tailings, and more air and water pol-boreal forest.44 lution.”45 | 15 |
  • Sustainable Tribal Economies: A Guide to Restoring Energy and Food Sovereignty in Native AmericaNotes: | 16 |
  • Challenges Facing Indigenous Communities Challenge Three: Fuel PovertyOur climate change and peak oil homes. Twenty percent of the energy levels of usage.49 For tribes in north-problems are exacerbated by our in- used in American industry and in ern regions, a good portion of thisefficient energy practices. We pro- commercial and residential buildings energy income is spent on heat, andduce great amounts of power at huge is wasted because of poor insulation most families cannot afford the risingenvironmental and cultural costs and and ventilation.48 The cost of wasted cost. About 1/3 of reservation homeswaste much of it. An average coal energy in our tribal communities, are trailers, many of which were origi-plant wastes more energy than it gen- and in particular, our housing, con- nally built as temporary housing forerates; only 1/3 of the fuel’s energy is tributes to our poverty. warm climates but ended up as per-put to use, the other 2/3 is wasted.46 manent housing in bitterly cold ar- Fuel Poverty and HoMeOur infrastructure has become so inef- eas. These trailers, along with most Heatingficient that annual wasted energy from reservation homes, lack adequateAmerican electric power plants could “Fuel poverty” is a term that describes weatherization. In fact, roughly 90%fuel the entire country of Japan.47 the disproportionate cost of heating of reservation homes are without ad- a home for a low-income family. In equate weatherization.50 That meansAlong with wasting vast amounts 2006, more than 13 million house- much of the money and energy spentof energy in power production, we holds in poverty spent an average of to keep our homes habitable duringwaste a great deal in transmission 25% of their annual income on their the long winter months is wasted.and in our inefficient buildings and energy bills to maintain their modestAs illustrated, the United States wastes 57.07% of the electricity it generates. Graph by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratoryand the Department of Energy. | 17 |
  • Sustainable Tribal Economies: A Guide to Restoring Energy and Food Sovereignty in Native AmericaThe sad reality is that the need for the dollars we spend on energy will off-reservation for groceries, clothinggovernment assistance to combat increasingly outpace all subsidies. In and other necessities.fuel poverty far outstrips the resourc- the 2005-2006 winter season, projec-es of the federal Low Income Heating tions suggested that energy costs for The Federal Highway Administrationand Energy Assistance Program and American Indian homes on reserva- estimates that those living in ruralother payment programs combined. tions would total $1.2 billion; an in- areas travel an average of 3,100 milesIn Minnesota, for example, 43,139 crease of 10-35% depending on the a year more than urban dwellers.54households applied for fuel assis- type of heating system.53 We need to This, combined with the older aver-tance and qualified, but were turned create long-term, sustainable solu- age age of vehicles and lower incomesaway due to lack of funding.51 As a tions to fuel poverty by creating a re- of residents, contributes to peopleresult, low-income households often newable, energy-efficient future. in rural areas spending as much assacrifice other necessities, like food 16% of their monthly family income Fuel Poverty andand medicine, just to stay warm. on transportation.55 This is much, transPortation much higher than the 2% of monthlyNationally, tens of millions of dollars “Fuel poverty” also applies to the income people living in urban areasin fuel assistance are spent to sup- poverty caused by high transporta- spend on transportation costs.56port our low-income tribal members. tion costs in reservation and otherSome of the cost of fuel assistance has rural communities. Our communities are increasinglybeen subsidized with a 2007 CITGO challenged by the rising cost of gaspetroleum project carried out in con- Most of our communities consist of and diesel, underscoring the needjunction with US partner Citizens’ a set of remotely situated villages, far to become more efficient in how weEnergy. The company provided a sub- from commercial centers. No infra- travel. Peak oil will drive up the pricesidy of $21 million in fuel assistance structure for public transportation of gas and diesel even more over theto 220 tribes in 13 states.52 exists on the vast majority of our res- next decade. Tribes must take a hard ervations, and there are few sidewalks look at efficiency and consumptionCITGO’s support is needed, gener- for walking or biking. We drive long in order to repair leaks in our localous and gracious, but as electricity distances to work, to procure servic- economies and protect our commu-and fuel prices continue to rise and es or visit family on the reservation, nities against unpredictable outsidewe continue to waste what we buy, and we drive even longer distances markets. “Van Go,” by Dwayne Wilcox | 18 |
  • Challenges Facing Indigenous Communities Challenge Four: Food insecurity locally on our reservations. Today, we industrial Food, cliMate produce less than 20%. Tribal com- cHange and Peak oil“Food sovereignty is the right munities are now reliant upon the Industrial agriculture has a huge car- of Peoples to define their same food systems and stores as the bon footprint. Overall, agriculture dominant population. In other words, own policies and strategies and land use changes are responsible our food economies have become in- for about one-third of all greenhouse for sustainable production, creasingly dependent upon the exter- gas emissions.61 The introduction of nal, industrialized food economy. distribution, and consump- mechanized farm equipment and of petroleum-based pesticides and her- Industrial food is expensive, inse- tion of food, with respect for bicides following World War II made cure and unhealthy. In June of 2008, growing and raising food extremely their own cultures…and is the Food and Agriculture Organiza- fuel intensive. Today, the food indus- tion (FAO) Food Price Index, which considered to be a precondi- try is the single largest consumer of measures the cost of a basket of food, energy in the US economy.62 tion for Food Security.” stood at its highest level ever.60 The in- crease in the cost of food has caused Industrial food is shipped and trucked— Declaration of Atitlan, First Indig- a huge loss in food security for peo- tremendous distances. In the US,enous Peoples’ Global Consultation ple on a worldwide scale. Based on food travels an average of 1,546 miles on the Right to Food and Food the factors contributing to the high from the producer to the kitchen ta- Sovereignty, Guatemala, 2002 price of food, including peak oil and ble.63 The system is so inefficient that climate change, this trend is likely to it now requires ten fossil fuel calories continue. Tribal communities cannot to produce a single food calorie.64 ForOur tribal land base represents an afford the rising cost. example, the US imports 270 millionenormous potential food resource.Almost 47 million of the over 54 mil-lion acres of tribal and individual In-dian trust lands are rangeland andcropland. 57 However, approximately70% of our cropland and 20% ofrangeland is leased to non-Indians.58This high percentage of leased landreduces Native control of tribal foodsystems at its source.We are producing less and less of ourown food. While more than 8,000 Na-tive farms operate on reservations,only a handful of these farms producefood for local tribal members.59 For ex-ample, the Fort Berthold Reservationand the Pima Tohono O’odham, onceagricultural foundations for their re-gion, now produce export commodi-ties for outside markets.Studies of tribal food security indicatethat just one hundred years ago, weproduced nearly all of our own food | 19 |
  • Sustainable Tribal Economies: A Guide to Restoring Energy and Food Sovereignty in Native AmericaAt one time, we produced sufficient food for our own communities and for export. Above left: Navajo vegetable companylabel; Above right: Ricing on the White Earth Reservation.pounds of grapes from Chile every produces more greenhouse gas emis- gases from transporting the meatyear, releasing 7,000 tons of pollu- sions and other pollution than driv- that is of concern. To make room fortion along the way that contributes to ing for three hours while leaving all cattle, corporations in the Amazonglobal warming. And trucking, ship- of the lights on at home.67 Industrially Basin are clear cutting forests andping and flying food from across the produced beef also relies on fertilizer uprooting Indigenous peoples. Sevenglobe isn’t the only problem. To keep compounds like sulfur dioxide and football fields worth of trees are cutfood products from rotting in transit, phosphate, and consumes massive each day.70 Approximately 55 squaremanufacturers rely on petroleum- amounts of energy for every pound of feet of forest are destroyed for everybased plastic packaging that also re- meat produced.68 hamburger that comes from Centralquires tremendous amounts of fossil America.71 Deforestation for livestockfuels to make. 65 The carbon footprint of factory is also happening in the US. More farmed livestock is compounded by than 260 million acres of forest haveIndustrial meat operations are also the deforestation conducted to in- been clear cut for animal agriculture.72big greenhouse gas emitters. Live- crease grazing lands. To meet the Such massive deforestation acceler-stock alone accounts for 18% of growing demand for meat, the US ates climate change, as forests, like allworldwide greenhouse gas emis- imports about 200 million pounds plants, sequester carbon, helping tosions.66 In fact, eating a kilogram (2.2 of beef from Central America annu- keep it out of the atmosphere.lbs) of beef from the grocery store ally.69 But it’s not just the greenhouse | 20 |
  • Challenges Facing Indigenous Communitiesindustrial Food saFety Modern agricultural practices, and in Changes in weather patterns and er- particular, large-scale monocropping ratic droughts and frosts that comeIn February of 2008, 143 million (growing one crop on the same land with climate change all affect the vi-pounds of beef were recalled in the year after year) are causing us to lose ability of a food economy, particu-federal school lunch program because our topsoil as well. 90% of the nation’s larly if it is monocropped with hy-of contamination.73 And that is just cropland continues to lose its soil brid crops. Hybrid crops created forthe tip of the iceberg when it comes faster than any expected replacement an industrial food system are unableto health issues related to industrial rates.78 As a result, nearly one-third of to adapt quickly to volatile climatemeat production and distribution. the world’s arable land has been lost changes. And monocropping by defi-Most of our meat today comes from to erosion in the last 40 years.79 In ad- nition makes food systems more vul-factory farms, also known as Concen- dition, since the life cycles of mono- nerable because only one variety oftrated Animal Feeding Operations cropped annual crops are not well crop is grown year after year on the(CAFOs), where animals are kept con- synchronized with annual climatic same land. If that particular strainfined in inhumane conditions while and soil conditions, they compete gets diseased one year or is hit espe-being pumped with antibiotics and poorly with weeds for water and nu- cially hard by certain weather, the en-hormones. Diseases like E. coli, mad trients. Up to 45% of precipitation can tire food crop is jeopardized.cow and swine flu spread quickly be- escape to subsurface soil out of reachcause of these factory farming prac- of annual plants.80 This is five times In contrast, it turns out that many oftices. that lost by natural perennial prairie our traditional foods are drought andPetroleuM-Based Pesticides, plants, which are deeply rooted and frost resistant. That’s because ourFertilizers and tHe alive throughout the year. As a result, traditional seeds and foods were pro-Pollution and erosion oF annual crops lose 35% more nitrogen duced in a pre-fossil fuels world. Ourour land than indigenous plants.81 The nutri- traditional foods do not need petro- ents that leave the farm’s soil even- chemical fertilizers or giant irrigationThe industrialized food system relies tually reach the ocean via a series of systems and don’t need to be trans-on petroleum-based pesticides and groundwater aquifers, streams, and ported across the country. Restoringfertilizers, which have wreaked havoc rivers. In the ocean, the concentrated traditional foods is a means to restoreon our soil, water, and air. Since 1950, nutrients have created an increasing our food security.US pesticide use has increased from number of dead zones, areas where15 million pounds to more than 125 Food colonization: tHe fertilizer and other runoff has createdmillion pounds annually, yet over creation oF Food insecurity hypoxia, the choking out of oxygenthe same time period, the amount of and ill-HealtH from the ocean water. There are nowcrops lost to insects has doubled.74 It 150 of these dead zones in the world.82 Our ancestors would not recognizeis estimated that less than 0.1% of ap- One of the largest dead zones can be most of the foods we consume today.plied pesticides reach their intended found where the Mississippi River That’s because the majority of thetargets, causing damage both on and drains into the Gulf of Mexico. That food we now eat is not indigenous tooff site.75 This compounds the agri- dead zone is larger than the state of North America. Beef, dairy productscultural dilemma, and large amounts New Jersey.83 like milk and cheese, wheat and flour,of pesticides are repeatedly added to white sugar, and lard were all intro-battle weeds and insects. These fossil access to Food and Food duced by Europeans post-contact.fuel-based chemicals are not easily security These western foods have propertieswashed away. Agriculture is the larg- Access to food is a concern. Native foreign to our bodies, such as highest source of water pollution in the peoples often live in food deserts, levels of saturated fats and glucose.world.76 A 1999 report by the National meaning we have very few placesWater Quality Assessment Program we can easily get to that sell healthy The lack of access to our traditionalreported at least one pesticide in vir- foods. Climate change threatens to foods has had a devastating impacttually every water and fish sample increase our lack of access to food. on the health of our communities. Wecollected from streams.77 | 21 |
  • Sustainable Tribal Economies: A Guide to Restoring Energy and Food Sovereignty in Native Americaare paying astronomical bills through Americans are improved.84 Our com- foods, agricultural techniques, seedour Indian Health Service and con- modity foods never improved and to- preservation, and blessings that cor-tract health to combat the high rates day, they still constitute a significant responded to planting, growing, andof obesity, diabetes and heart disease part of the modern Native diet– one harvesting,” was deliberately sup-we face as a result of the industrial study found that Navajo women get pressed.89 With parents forced awayfood complex. The hefty costs of ad- 43% of the calories they eat each day from growing traditional foods anddressing these diet-related illnesses from commodity foods.85 children removed from their commu-will not diminish unless we take action nities and life ways, Native peoplesby restoring our traditional foods. Prior to the introduction of commod- were left with a future of food depen- ity foods, diabetes was almost non- dence and ill health.Simply put, a western diet has made existent in Native communities. To-us sick. The Food Distribution Pro- day, some tribes have diabetes ratesgram on Indian Reservations, intro- of over 50%.86 Native peoples are 25% There is a better way and itduced in the 1930s to provide surplus more likely to develop diabetes than begins with restoring ourcommodities and agricultural prod- non-Natives and a full 30% of the Na- traditional foods. The recov-ucts to tribes, has left our peoples tive population suffers from the dis-more disease ridden than most other ease.87 ery of the people is tied to theracial groups in the United States. recovery of food, since foodTwenty years ago, in 1989, a study The process of colonization not only itself is medicine, not onlyconducted by the Government Ac- deteriorated our bodies, but also our for the body, but for the soul,countability Office concluded that the knowledge of food. Children that werecontinuing increase in obesity, diabe- forced into boarding schools were fed and for the spiritual connec-tes, heart disease and hypertension greasy, salty, sugary foods,88 none of tion to history, ancestors andis “likely to continue” unless federal which had been in the Native diet the land.food packages distributed to Native before. Knowledge “about medicinal | 22 |
  • Challenges Facing Indigenous Communities False Solutions: “clean” coal, carBon caPture and sequestration, nuclear Power & unsustainaBle BioFuelsClimate change, peak oil, fuel poverty and food insecurity endanger and exploit the Earth and her peoples. This choiceplace us at a crossroads. Industrial society can choose to has very significant implications for our continued survival.address the fact that the root cause of our planetary crisis is There are several prominent false solutions that mirror thefound in a system of centralized, polluting power based on existing paradigm of energy conquest, and simply extendextraction, combustion and inefficiency, or we can main- our reliance on a fossil fuel and nuclear economy.tain this model and continue to rely on technologies that CCS has never been tested on the “Clean” Coal: large scale required to make a dent unsustainable biofuels: a Dangerous oxymoron in global warming emissions. There irresponsible, Carbon- is no way to know if it will work over hundreds or thousands of years on intensive agriCultureSome coal proponents suggest that a global scale. In addition, CCS uses Unsustainable efforts to replace gaso-burning coal can have a place in a a great deal of energy, meaning that line with other fuel sources can beclimate challenged world. They sug- power production would need to be found in the big bio-fuels market. Ingest that using new technologies to increased just to manage the pro- the US, ethanol dominates the so-remove carbon and other greenhouse cess of reducing emissions, making it called ‘alternative’ fuel market. Etha-gases from coal emissions makes coal much more expensive than renewable nol is primarily made from corn. Ita ‘clean’ energy source. This logic is options that are already proven and can take more energy to grow, processfundamentally flawed. Coal is never have very minimal carbon impacts. and transport the ethanol than is con-clean. Coal is mined by ripping huge CCS is unproven and simply perpetu- tained in the fuel. And the practices byholes in the Earth, leaving behind tox- ates the dirty business of mining coal which the corn is grown often includeic messes and destroying landscapes, and coal combustion. the irresponsible overuse of toxic agro-ecosystems and groundwater. Even chemicals and the use of geneticallywhen toxins are removed before they nuClear power: expensive, modified (GM) seed. Monocroppedare burned and released into the air, GM corn is petroleum-intensive tothey don’t disappear and must be put Carbon intensive, unsafe grow and adds to erosion and agricul-somewhere. Every stage of coal pow- tural runoff on the prairie. Corn-baseder production brings environmental Nuclear power has left a deadly leg- ethanol also drives up the price of fooddamage. acy in Native America. From ura- as land and resources shift away from nium mining’s radioactive tailings to food production to fuel production. Carbon Capture anD nuclear waste storage, at every stage sequestration: theoretiCal of the nuclear cycle Native commu- nities have been disproportionately Outside the US, agribusiness compa- nies are devouring tropical regions anD misguiDeD impacted. In addition, nuclear power by creating fuel crop plantations in is anything but carbon neutral. Argu- South America, Southeast Asia, theCarbon Capture and Sequestration ments that nuclear power provides Pacific and Africa. Palm oil expan-(CCS) is a process that removes car- a solution to global warming ignore sion for biofuels is a primary causebon from coal emissions and then the carbon intensity of the uranium of deforestation in Indonesia90 wherepipes it to a storage site, either deep mining and upgrading process and forests are disappearing at a rate ofunderground, in vegetation or in the transportation of fuel and waste, up to 1.2 million hectares a year, trig-the oceans. Coal companies hope to which are significant. Nuclear power gering vast forest fires that spew mas-store carbon in the biosphere to keep is fundamentally dangerous; it relies sive amounts of CO2 into the air.91 Theit out of the atmosphere, but continu- on fuel that is highly radioactive and impacts of large-scale biofuel pro-ing to burn coal means continuing to lethal for tens of thousands of years duction often threaten Indigenousproduce pollution that will go some- after use. cultures and lands, and the transpor-where that’s likely to cause problems. tation of such fuel thousands of miles | 23 | simply adds to climate change.
  • Sustainable Tribal Economies: A Guide to Restoring Energy and Food Sovereignty in Native AmericaNotes: | 24 |
  • Opportunities for Tribal Action Part Three: oPPortunities For triBal actionTribal communities are uniquely po- capture wind speeds that are much The state of Minnesota has adopted asitioned to lead the way in develop- greater.94 strong goal of reducing carbon diox-ing a clean food and energy economy, ide emissions from fossil fuel basedone that doesn’t depend on constant Along with tremendous renewable power production 25% by 2025, andresource extraction, the burning of potential, we also have an infrastruc- 80% by 2050. Meeting the state’s port-dirty fossil fuels, and the invasion of ture of tribal colleges to train a green folio requires aggressive action into aother peoples’ territories to meet our workforce. Our lands, renewable re- new, renewable and efficient energyfood and energy needs. Harnessing sources and colleges provide a strong arena. We are keenly interested inour renewable potential, utilizing In- foundation for building resilient local having our communities at the centerdigenous knowledge to build resilient economies. of this transition across the country.local food economies and increasing renewaBle energy PortFolio renewaBle energy growtHefficiency will create meaningful jobs standardsand a community infrastructure that Wind energy is the fastest growing en-will benefit our tribal members and The economy of the future is a green ergy source in the world.97 In 2008, USthe coming generations. This section economy. The rising price of fossil fu- wind power production shattered allof the booklet showcases opportuni- els is creating a mandate for efficien- previous records with the installationties to affect these important changes. cy and the challenge of addressing of 8,358 MW of new wind generating climate change will require a reduc- capacity,98 the equivalent of produc-triBal renewaBle energy tion in carbon emissions from power ing power for two million households.Potential generation, transportation and agri- This represented 42% of the newly in-Tribes have some of the most abun- cultural sources. stalled power-generation capacity indant renewable energy potential in the US for the year and an infusion ofthe world. Tribal lands are incredibly With lack of action by the federal gov- some $17 billion into the economy.99rich in solar resources, holding an es- ernment on climate change, many Growth in all sectors of the wind in-timated 17,600 Billion kWh/year of cities, states and a number of tribal dustry, from manufacturing to instal-solar electricity potential. That’s al- communities have adopted poli- lation, is projected to continue.100most 4.5 times total US annual elec- cies to limit and reduce their carbontrical generation.92 emissions. At least 31 states have The solar power industry boomed mandated that a certain percentage globally between 2004 and 2008, withTribal lands in the lower 48 states of utilities’ power generation come a 51% compound annual growthalone hold more than 535 Billion kWh/ from renewable sources by a specific rate.101 In 2008, the industry grew byyear of wind power generation poten- date.95 Those mandates, called renew- 17% in the US alone.102 While the eco-tial, equal to about 14% of US annual able portfolio standards (RPS), have nomic recession and shrinking capi-generation in 2004.93 This potential, had far-reaching impacts. Research tal and credit has slowed solar growthcalculated at a turbine hub height of at Berkeley Lab, for example, suggests recently, technological advances con-50 meters above the ground, may be that over 50% of the total wind addi- tinue to offer breakthrough demon-more than doubled when measured tions that took place between 2001 strations that solar is a cost-compet-for modern wind turbines, which are and 2006 in the US were motivated at itive and reliable source of power.103mounted at 85 to 100 meters above least in part by state RPS policies.96 Market analysts are forecasting ro-the ground, as higher turbine heights bust growth in the solar industry over the coming years.104 | 25 |
  • Sustainable Tribal Economies: A Guide to Restoring Energy and Food Sovereignty in Native AmericagrowtH oF local and $38 billion today.109 Food is expected A “green job” is any job that restoresorganic Foods to remain the biggest portion of that the environment and contributesOne of the biggest current growth market.110 to de-carbonizing the economy bymarkets is in local and organic foods. minimizing waste and pollution. green JoBs For BrownAlthough the recession has slowed Green jobs are most often associated PeoPle!the previously explosive growth of with energy efficiency and/or cleanthe organic food market, overall sales Policies that drive a transition toward energy production. If new renew-continue to rise, which is rare in these a carbon-free economy will create able infrastructure like solar panelstough economic times.105 Part of that immense job potential. Building re- and wind turbines are the skeleton ofgrowth stems from that fact that the newable energy projects, updating the new energy economy, green jobsidea of buying and consuming locally our electrical grid, and improving ef- are the muscles that keep everythinggrown food increasingly resonates ficiency will employ millions of peo- moving. People are needed to design,with consumers.106 107 A growing num- ple in the coming years. In addition manufacture, install and maintainber of consumers are simply willing to to addressing climate change, invest- solar panels and wind turbines. Im-pay for ethical and healthy products, ments in clean energy and efficiency proving building efficiency requireseven if they are more expensive.108 In create up to four times as many jobs hours of caulking windows, addingfact, the “ethical products” market in as the fossil fuel industry per dollar insulation and installing more effi-the United States is expected to ap- invested.111 cient appliances. Green jobs are alsoproach $62 billion in 2014, up from created in the process of re-localizing | 26 |
  • Opportunities for Tribal Action in construction, $100 million in wage Green jobs provide pathways out of and salary income, and $345 million poverty. With tribal unemployment in economic output within the state of rates soaring to 50% and beyond, In- South Dakota (in 2005 dollars). When dian country cannot afford to miss the wind farms were up and running, out on these green job opportunities. they would create 172 annual on-site training tHe next jobs and $7.96 million in wage and generation oF leaders salary income in South Dakota. Total statewide impacts for ongoing opera- Growing the intellectual and techni- tions would be 483 jobs, $15.6 mil- cal capacity of our tribal members, lion in wage and salary earnings and and especially our youth, is critical to $34.98 million in economic output building the economy of the future. annually.115 Developing green jobs training pro- grams in our tribal colleges is critical In comparison, Randall Stuefen, tes- to creating local capacity for manag- tifying for Otter Tail Power, a lead pro- ing green industries and projects.Art by Votan Ik’ahn, ponent of the Big Stone II coal plant,www.insurgentes.net proposed a meager one-fifth of the Iowa Lakes Community College and jobs on-site and a total of 64 jobs in Minnesota West Community andfood systems and creating essential long-term operation of the plant with Technical College are two schoolsinfrastructure for an economy that is an annual contribution to the state that already have green jobs trainingresilient. economy of $6.8 million.116 Big Stone programs in place, and a number of II proponents and investors eventual- community colleges nationally areRenewable energy creates more jobs ly dropped the project due to mount- looking to develop renewable energythan fossil fuel energy per megawatt ing financial uncertainties, a major certification and degree programs.installed, per unit of energy produced victory for clean energy advocates. Iowa Lakes offers degree programs inand per dollar of investment.112 Thereare 2.77 jobs in wind power for everymegawatt installed, 7.26 jobs/mega-watt in solar photovoltaics and 5.93jobs/megawatt in solar thermal.113In 2006, the American Solar EnergySociety estimated that renewable en-ergy and energy efficiency were re-sponsible for $970 billion in industryrevenues and 8.5 million jobs.114One example of this job potential inthe upper Midwest can be seen bycomparing economic figures for theproposed 580 megawatt Big Stone IIcoal-fired power plant and renewableenergy alternatives. In 2007, MarshallGoldberg of MRS Consulting testifiedbefore the Minnesota Public UtilitiesCommission that displacing the pro- Honor the Earth Intern Yana Garcia working at a solar installation.posed Big Stone II plant with wind Photo by Tom Reed.would offer the following: 4,000 jobs | 27 |
  • Sustainable Tribal Economies: A Guide to Restoring Energy and Food Sovereignty in Native Americabiorenewable fuels technology, wind provide future technicians with skills economy. Decisions will either beenergy and turbine technology, and to work in electric-based renewable made for us or we will make our ownsustainable energy resources man- energy and high efficiency systems. decisions about how to proceed inagement.118 Minnesota West offers Tribal colleges nationally can utilize developing green economic opportu-degree programs in biofuels technol- these programs as a model to devel- nities and our future. By making ourogy, wind energy technology, wind op their own programs for training a own decisions and taking action toenergy mechanics, and windsmith- green workforce. establish and implement sustainableing, including an online windsmith- economic development, our tribaling certification program.119 Fond du Given our renewable resources and communities will exercise sovereign-Lac Tribal and Community College our land base, our tribal communi- ty and forge a green path for our com-near Duluth, Minnesota is offering a ties will either have a seat at the table ing generations.Clean Energy Certificate Program to or be on the menu in the future green navaJo green JoBs success! In the summer of 2009, the Navajo Nation made history by passing the first green jobs legislation in Indian Country. The bill establishes a Navajo Green Economy Commission to oversee the growth of small-scale green projects on the reservation. It also creates a Navajo Green Economy Fund to receive federal, state, local, and private money to make these green projects possible. The legislation was a result of a concerted grassroots effort spearheaded by the Navajo Green Jobs Coalition, an alli- ance of Navajo and environmental groups. According to the Coalition, Navajo green jobs funding will support: • Community renewable energy projects; • Green manufacturing, such as wool mills; • Energy efficiency projects, such as weatherizing homes and sustainable water projects; • Local business ventures, such as weavers’ co-ops and green construction firms; • Traditional agriculture, such as farmers markets and community gardens; • Green job training programs, such as workforce development, green contractors and public service projects. Approximately 70% of the money generated on the Navajo Reservation is currently spent off-reservation and in border towns,117 and unemployment hovers around 45%. This bill takes an important step in closing the loop on lost revenue and toward the creation of local jobs rooted in Navajo culture. The Navajo Nation has historically relied on revenues from coal, oil, and gas royalties; the green jobs bill can begin to shift the Navajo economy away from a dependence on polluting industries toward safe and sustainable development. The bill’s passage is an important model for other Indigenous communities hoping to move forward in building energy and food sovereignty. “This is just the beginning for Indian Country. We hope our efforts pave the way for other tribal nations to bring local sustainable green jobs to their communities,” said Wahleah Johns, Co-Director of the Black Mesa Water Coalition and one of the leaders of the Navajo Green Jobs Coalition. For more information: www.navajogreenjobs.com | 28 |
  • Solutions for Building Sustainable Tribal Economies Part Four: solutions For Building sustainaBle triBal econoMiesThis section is designed to offer information to assist in Any efficiency or renewable energy project has unique cir-beginning clean energy and local food projects and lead cumstances that need to be taken into account before start-you to additional resources that fit your project’s specific ing work. Be sure to plan thoroughly and consult a set ofneeds. experienced professionals to ensure that the project you’re undertaking will be a financial and environmental benefit to your community. Solution One: energy eFFiciency and conservationThe first step in developing a clean The cost of ef-energy economy is to use less energy. ficiency improve-It’s much cheaper to use less power ments is muchthan to produce new power, so begin lower than theany clean energy plan by reducing cost of increasingenergy use. electrical gen- eration. From aA good place to start an efficiency presentation byproject is with an energy audit. An Joel Rogers, JR ataudit will evaluate where heat and Dream Reborn,energy are being lost or wasted in a 4/2008building. Thorough audits often useequipment, such as blower doors andinfrared cameras, to measure the ex- eFFiciency BeForetent of heat loss in the building. panels. Older appliances, especially renewaBles refrigerators, can use up to twice theContact your utility to see if they of- Before installing any renewable ener- energy of more efficient models. Infer free or discounted energy audits gy capacity, it’s important to consider Skull Valley, the money spent on theto customers. Energysavers.gov also upgrading appliances to reduce over- new refrigerator allowed the solarhas instructions for a do-it-yourself all electricity loads. For example, on panels to provide a much higher per-energy audit and offers help finding a solar panel project Honor the Earth centage of the site’s power becausea professional to do a more compre- hosted on the Skull Valley Goshute the load was so significantly reduced.hensive analysis. State energy offices Reservation in Utah, the decision was A similar investment in increasing theare good sources of information as made to purchase a more efficient size of the solar panels would havewell. refrigerator before installing solar made little difference. | 29 |
  • Sustainable Tribal Economies: A Guide to Restoring Energy and Food Sovereignty in Native AmericaCheck here to help find efficient ap-pliances and to calculate how much energy eFFiciency resourcescan be saved by replacing your old US Department of Energy’s Energy Savers Site • www.energysavers.govmodel with a more efficient one: Database of State Incentives for Renewables & Efficiency • www.dsireusa.orgwww.energyguide.com American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy • www.aceee.orgconservation: use less, Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable EnergyPollute less, Pay less www.eere.energy.gov • tribaleecbg@go.doe.gov • (720) 356 1360 Search online for your state’s energy officeNo matter how efficient your furnace, For more information about your appliances’ electrical usage, visit:if it’s turned up to 95 degrees all win- ABS Alaskan’s Power Consumption Tableter long, you’ll use a lot of energy. In www.absak.com/library/power-consumption-tableaddition to common sense ways ofusing less energy, like not leaving thewater on more than you need it andturning down your furnace, there are wHite eartH land recovery ProJect: local energysome products that help conserve and eFFiciency strategypay for themselves quickly. Examples White Earth Reservation, MNinclude low flow showerheads, which A 2006 White Earth Land Recovery Project study of energy consumptionuse less water than standard shower- helped create a plan for the energy future of the White Earth Reservation.heads, and compact fluorescent light At the center of this strategy is efficiency. The plan focuses on weather-bulbs, which use up to 75% less ener- ization for tribal housing, using resources largely from a local utility, Ot-gy than standard incandescent bulbs ter Tail Power Company, to install more energy efficient appliances andand last up to ten times longer. conduct weatherization in tribal homes, including weather-stripping,transPortation: a look at putting plastic on windows and distributing energy efficient light bulbs.increasing eFFiciency The project will be continuedConservation and efficiency improve- in Otter Tail Power areas andments in transportation are also im- expanded in other service ar-portant tactics to stop revenue leak- eas as well (the reservation isages from our tribal economies. Two served by four separate utilitiesstrategies offer possibilities in reduc- and/or rural electric coopera-ing the need to drive long distances tives). This strategy will benefitand the amount of fuel we use: not only the White Earth tribe, but can also be easily repli-1) The creation of tribal transporta- cated by other tribal nationstion programs, like bus systems, to across the country.move people in a more efficient man-ner. Hybrid bus fleets are increasinglybeing used in major urban areas, Along with traveling more efficiently Before installing renewablesuch as Los Angeles, Indianapolis and decreasing our transportationand Minneapolis, and offer a lower- power, make sure your building fuel use, we can consider producingcarbon transportation alternative. and using sustainable alternative fu- is as energy efficient as possible els, such as local biodiesel, described and that conservation measures2) The creation of more local shops, under the Renewable Energy sectionworkplaces and recreation sites in are in place so that the smallest of this booklet.our villages, along with walking and and least expensive new energybiking paths, to reduce the distance system will meet your need!we need to travel. | 30 |
  • Solutions for Building Sustainable Tribal Economies Solution Two: renewaBle energyBelow is general information that ap-plies to all renewable energy produc- renewaBle energy deFinedtion and following that, types of re- Renewable energy is energy that replenishes itself naturally. Oil, coal,newable energy most applicable for gas and uranium are all finite resources, whereas the wind and sun aretribal use are discussed individually. sources of power that will never be depleted. In contrast to finite fuels, re-It’s important to note that this book- newable power production does not require massive resource extractionlet is not comprehensive and does and does not emit toxic gases and pollution. Even with the developmentnot cover all renewable energy types, of renewable power, however, siting and construction considerations aresuch as geothermal and tidal. Instead, essential to ensure respect for land and cultural continuity.we’ve profiled replicable models andtechnologies that are currently in usein tribal communities.initial considerations Forall renewaBle energy tyPes to be done or services needed shouldThe resource: Whether it’s wind, sun, be conducted to determine the kinds of technology that will most effective- a Basic overview oF tHeor plants, it’s important to determine ly fit your needs. Processthe strength of your resource and itspotential to produce energy. Your re- Whether installing solar panels, asource is affected by many factors Your budget: Often financing the wind turbine or building a biomassincluding your geographic location, planning stages and financing the plant, there are similar general stepsseasons, local weather patterns and hardware and installation are differ- toward completing a renewable in-the geophysical aspects of the spe- ent processes with distinct budgets. stallation:cific installation site. Along with determining how much funding you need, it is important to 1. Planning Begins: Develop a plan-The demand or load: An analysis of evaluate how much time, energy and ning budget, acquire initial re-your current energy use is important money you can invest long-term in search and development funding;as it will provide a basis for determin- maintaining an energy system.ing which renewable system or com- 2. Measure Resource: Determine howbination of systems will best meet Your partner(s): Who will you work much sun, wind, water, biomass,your demand. A simple way to con- with? What resources do they need etc. you have available to use byduct this analysis is to collect your to bring (expertise, financial, equip- consulting with experts and usingutility bills for a year and add up your ment, etc.)? Who owns the system? measuring equipment;kilowatt-hour usage and expense. Who pays for the system? Who ben- efits from the system? Who makes 3. Choose Site and System: DecideRemember that the power in the wind decisions about installation and what specific system(s) and equip-and sun does not have to be con- maintenance of the system? Will the ment fits your needs, your resourceverted to electricity to perform work system be interconnected to the lo- and your budget and where yourover time. Wind mills have pumped cal utility? Who fixes and pays for fix- installation will be placed;water for irrigation or livestock and ing the system? It’s very important topassive solar thermal collectors have have these details worked out in ad- 4. Development: Acquire remainingheated homes and provided hot wa- vance and to work only with people needed funding for construction,ter for hundreds of years without ever and companies that you thoroughly training and maintenance; issuegenerating a kilowatt of electricity. A research and evaluate. a Request for Proposals (RFP). Re-thorough analysis of the actual work view bids and determine a partner- ing renewable energy and/or engi- neering firm; | 31 |
  • Sustainable Tribal Economies: A Guide to Restoring Energy and Food Sovereignty in Native America5. Secure Appropriate Permits and communities, we are in perhaps the ploy more people and generate more Agreements: Research the need for best situation of any community in power to sell. BIA, NEPA and/or FAA permits, and the country to make localized energy requirements for an interconnect production work. Beginning with a mix of residential agreement and net metering, if ap- and community systems for indi- propriate. Acquire any necessary The renewable industry often divides vidual homes, clusters of homes or permits; develop and finalize pow- small-scale systems into two catego- tribal buildings, and moving to larger er purchase and an interconnect ries: residential and community scale. scale installations to generate tribal agreement with the utility if needed. Residential systems refer to renew- revenue can all be considered as ele- The interconnection with a utility able installations that provide power ments of long-term plans for a renew- will be a time and money consum- to a single home, while community able future. ing process, make sure you know systems refer to those that can help oFF-grid versus grid-tied the studies and the costs of these power institutions, such as schools, systeMs studies that will be required by the radio stations or tribal offices. utility and grid system operator; In discussing any renewable energy The benefits of localized, small-scale installation you will often hear talk of6. Installation: Acquire the system renewable energy include increased whether a project is ‘grid-tied’ or ‘off the and install it; ensure the installer efficiency (we don’t lose as much en- grid.’ This refers to whether a system is commissions the system as fully ergy as in large-scale transmission), integrated into the regional electrical operational and conducts a perfor- getting power where there is none system or whether it is completely self- mance check; now and energy self-sufficiency. contained and free standing.7. Maintenance: Regularly check and Residential and community scale If you’re currently not connected to service your system as needed. projects allow tribes to avoid many the electrical grid, it may be best to Make sure someone physically near of the pitfalls associated with large- remain off-grid. Good portions of the site knows how to maintain the scale development. Energy transmis- the solar and wind installations on device. Too many projects have sion is often difficult in remote tribal the Navajo and Hopi Reservations failed because no one took respon- locations, and utility-scale develop- are not grid-tied. In some cases, in- sibility for the day-to-day work to ment can expose tribes to potential stalling a new power line to remote keep a project operational. exploitation in the negotiation of households is cost prohibitive and transmission contracts. Furthermore, in other cases, it’s simply the prefer-We recommend doing extensive re- with smaller projects, tribes can often ence of the people to remain energysearch and planning, and consulting obtain necessary funding through independent. When estimating costswith one or more reputable profes- grants, rather than relying on out- and other logistics, it’s important tosionals, to ensure your project’s safety side investors. We can own our en- note that many off-grid systems re-and success. ergy projects rather than leasing our quire battery and back up generation resources and rights to developers. systems to increase reliability and en- Managing our own power is an im- sure a consistent power supply. portant social and political affirma-sMall-scale versus large- tion of our peoples’ sovereignty. If you are in an area connected to thescale systeMs regional electrical system, you mayConventional wisdom would have Large, commercial-scale renewable want to choose a grid-tied installa-you believe that large-scale power installations tend to cost less per unit tion. A grid-tied system ensures aproduction is the way to go. However, of energy produced than residen- back-up power supply and, if your re-small-scale distributed energy pro- tial or community systems, but they newable system produces more pow-duction has distinct advantages in are initially more capital intensive. er than you use, it allows that excessmany situations. We need to re-scale Large-scale renewable development power to be sold back to the utility.our energy production, and as tribal has a much greater potential to em- | 32 |
  • Solutions for Building Sustainable Tribal EconomiesAny renewable energy system, wheth-er solar, wind or micro hydro, can be renewaBle energy resourcesfree standing, grid-integrated or hy- US Department of Energy’s Tribal Energy Programbrid. Hybrid installations either pair apps1.eere.energy.gov/tribalenergy • tribal@go.doe.gov • (303) 275-4727or combine a variety of renewable en- National Renewable Energy Laboratory • www.nrel.govergy systems to provide increased out- Midwest Renewable Energy Association • www.the-mrea.orgput and reliability in delivering power. Home Power Magazine • www.homepower.comtriBes leveraging Political Search online for your state’s energy officeweigHt on renewaBle PolicyThe politics of renewable energy is a of 1986 [allowing] tribes to transfer by purchasing green tags equal to thecritical issue to consider in planning their share of the production tax cred- event’s projected carbon emissions.a tribal renewable energy project. it (PTC) to private entities providingBelow is one example of an effort to financing for joint venture renewable NativeEnergy is a majority tribally-level the playing field so tribes can be energy projects on tribal lands. Tribes owned company that buys and sellsequal partners in renewable energy will be able to offer 100% of the tax RECs to help provide capital for tribalprojects on tribal lands. credit to their partners.”120 renewable projects. NativeEnergy will often agree to purchase a tribalFair credit act project’s green tags for their projected The need is great and the opportuni-The Fair Allocation of Internal Rev- ties are abundant, but without such value before the system is built, offer-enue Credit for Renewable Electricity legislation, tribes are not given a fair ing a mechanism to generate muchDistribution by Indian Tribes Act or chance for equitable ownership of needed upfront capital. There are aFAIR CREDIT Act is a bill before Con- large-scale clean energy development number of these REC-financed proj-gress that will make a simple yet es- projects on tribal lands. ects underway, including wind proj-sential change to the tax code so that ects in the Native villages of Toksook renewaBle energy creditstribes can become equal partners Bay and Kasigluk, Alaska.122 or green tags: wHat tHeywith private companies in renewable are and wHat tHey doprojects on their reservations. It is important to understand the di- Renewable Energy Credits (RECs), lemma surrounding a system thatA press release from Congressman also called green tags, are the quan- allows utilities and corporations toRaul Grijalva (D-NM), the chief spon- tifiable commodity of renewable en- buy their way out of reducing theirsor of the bill, explains why legislation ergy that can be bought and sold. If a carbon emissions instead of chang-to ensure equity in renewable energy utility company needs to comply with ing their behaviors. Because the en-development is urgently needed in state renewable energy regulations, ergy produced by the REC provider isIndian Country. “Under current fed- they may be allowed to purchase usually nowhere near the purchaser’seral law, tribes are tax-exempt and RECs from an eligible provider who site there can still be pollution hotare prevented from taking advantage guarantees to produce that amount spots, which often disproportionallyof the production tax credit. Further, of renewable energy. affect the poor. Plus, monitoring re-private entities that seek to partner duced carbon emission accountingwith tribes for renewable energy proj- Green tags are also used as a way for is difficult at best, making it easy forects on Indian lands will only obtain individuals and companies to theoreti- companies to take advantage of the50% of the credit, rather than 100% cally cancel out or “offset” their carbon program. RECs may be an option toif they invest in such projects on pri- footprint. For example, an individual help finance renewable projects, butvate lands. This puts tribes at a huge may buy sufficient green tags to offset it’s important to carefully considerdisadvantage in the renewable energy their airline travel for a year, or event the reality that companies or utilitiesgeneration arena. The new legislation producers may buy green tags to make might be using the power you providewould make a simple but significant an event theoretically carbon neutral to continue destructive patterns.change in the Internal Revenue Code | 33 |
  • Sustainable Tribal Economies: A Guide to Restoring Energy and Food Sovereignty in Native America commercial power generation. Resi- initial investment, but can provide solar energy dential and community installations energy sovereignty for our commu- can be pole-mounted near a build- nities, powering tribal facilities andHarnessing the sun’s energy is one of ing, or mounted on a roof top; recent homes.the cleanest and most reliable sourc- innovative advances incorporate PV solar electric:es of power. In addition to electricity, technology into standard building concentrated solar Powerthe sun’s energy can be used to heat materials, such as roof shingles.air and/or water directly. And solar Concentrated Solar Power (CSP)power isn’t only viable in southern re- According to Solar Energy Interna- systems differ from PV systems be-gions. Even when it’s cold out, the sun tional, over 200,000 homes in the cause they use the sun’s heat to pro-can power solar projects in northern United States use some type of pho- duce steam that drives a generator toclimates that are sunny in the winter. tovoltaic technology. Solar modules produce electricity. “CSP technolo- contribute power to 175,000 villages gies first concentrate the sun’s en-solar Basics in over 140 countries worldwide, pro- ergy using reflective devices such asA solar installation captures energy ducing thousands of jobs and creat- troughs or mirror panels. The result-from the sun, and puts that energy to ing sustainable economic opportuni- ing concentrated heat energy is useduse as either direct heat or electricity. ties. In the US, 26 states now also offer to power a conventional turbine and a solar rebate program.123 produce electricity.”124Site placement is exceptionally im-portant for maximizing solar technol- Large-scale solar electric projects are While CSP works well on a utility-ogy’s effectiveness. Solar installations comprised of a set of panel arrays. scale, it is also an option on a smallerin the northern hemisphere always These systems require a substantial scale, providing tribes with anotherface the south to maximize exposureto the sun. Significant shade fromtrees or other buildings can also in-terfere with and negate the benefitsof a solar installation.A simple piece of equipment calleda “solar pathfinder” can be used tomeasure and evaluate your site’s solarresource. An accurate determinationof the strength of your solar resourceis critical to a successful solar project.solar electric: PHotovoltaic(Pv) PanelsPhotovoltaic solar systems produceelectricity directly from sunlight. PVmodules generate direct current elec-tricity, which is usually convertedinto alternating current electricitythat can power most home applianc-es. PV systems produce clean, reli-able energy and can be used in a widevariety of applications, from small, This is an example of a solar resource map. For more information visitresidential installations to large-scale www.nrel.gov | 34 |
  • Solutions for Building Sustainable Tribal Economies How a solar air Heater works A solar air heating system often looks like a large black door (varying in size but often 4’x8’). This system should be mounted on a sunny south- facing exterior wall, as this is the side of the house that gets the most sunlight in colder seasons. The panel acts as a heat-collecting source – the sun heats the panel, which heats the air released into the home. The heated air isAn example of a large solar array blown or circulated in theoption to become energy indepen- solar systems rely on good planning home through an internaldent. Small CSP systems can produce and energy efficient building design vent or fan. Solar heaters are5 to 15 kilowatts of power for a single to make good use of the sun’s energy straightforward systems andhome and can be integrated with during the winter. can typically be installed af-thermal storage systems, allowing ex- ter a small amount of train-cess energy to be saved during partic- In an active solar heating system, ing or by the manufacturer.ularly sunny days to be used during which can be used to heat both aircloudy days or at night125. and water, solar energy panels, often For new construction, the mounted on the roof, collect solar en- placement of windows andsolar tHerMal: Heating air orientation of the build- ergy while a fan or pump moves theand water ing will have an impact on heated water or air where it is need-While photovoltaic and concentrat- ed.127 how the sun heats the build-ing solar power technology convert ing. Even without speciallysunlight to electricity, solar thermal Because of the moving parts involved, designed heating panels, asystems use the sun’s heat directly. active solar systems usually cost more well-designed building withThere are two ways to harness the than passive solar systems and always southern exposure can takesun’s heat: passive and active solar require maintenance. However, if you advantage of the sun’s heatsystems. are dealing with an existing building, and keep heating bills lower. active solar heating systems are oftenIn a passive solar heating system much easier to install than passivethere are no moving parts. Energy solar systems. Consideration mustefficient “superwindows” are strate- also be given to the winter operationgically placed on a building in order of any solar heating system using wa-to gather solar energy from the sun ter to prevent freezing and damage toand insulation prevents the collected the system.solar energy from escaping.126 Pas-sive solar systems also often include‘thermal mass,’ which stores and re-leases heat on cloudy days or at nightwhen the sun is not shining. Passive | 35 |
  • Sustainable Tribal Economies: A Guide to Restoring Energy and Food Sovereignty in Native Americasolar Hot water solar Hot airWater heating can constitute up to A solar heating panel uses the sun’s solar energy advantages25% or more of a home’s energy ex- energy to heat the air inside a build- and considerationspenditures; installing a solar hot wa- ing, like a furnace. A solar air heating Advantagester system can reduce a building’s en- system often looks like a large black • Solar systems require little mainte-ergy bills. Solar hot water heaters are door (varying in size but often 4’x8’). nance;often the most cost effective renew- The system should be mounted on • Solar systems produce power forable energy system. a sunny south-facing exterior wall, decades at a very low operating as this is the side of the house that cost. The life cycle cost of operatingSolar hot water panels are most often gets the most sunlight. The sun heats a house with a passive solar systemroof-mounted. The basic design of a the panel, which heats the air in the installed is 30-40% lower than itsolar hot water system includes a so- panel which is then circulated into would be without solar energy;128lar thermal collector, which consists the home by a fan. Solar heaters are • Solar hot air and hot water can be in-of a simple metal box with a glass or straightforward systems and can typi- expensive to install and pay for them-plastic cover, and an absorber plate. cally be installed after a small amount selves in a short time frame. A passiveThe absorber plate is painted black of training or by the manufacturer. solar system typically adds 5-10%to attract as much sunlight as pos- onto the construction cost of a homesible. Cold water is heated as it passes When considering embarking on new but, with cost saving associated withthrough the thermal collector. A wa- construction, the placement of win- maintaining the home, will typicallyter storage tank can be pre-heated dows, overhangs and orientation of pay for itself within 3-7 years.for household use. Hot water is then the building will have an impact onpiped to showers and sinks for use. how the sun heats the building and ConsiderationsSeveral simple do-it-yourself designs how the airflow cools it. Even without • Solar electric systems (PV) can befor batch type solar heaters are avail- specially designed heating panels, a expensive, costing between $7 andable. This type of solar water heater well-designed building with south- $12 a watt installed. This cost hasworks where and when the outside ern exposure can take advantage of steadily been decreasing and withtemperature is above freezing. the sun’s heat and airflow keeping advances in the technology along both heating and cooling bills lower. with increased mandates for clean Building energy efficient homes pow- energy, solar electric will become ered by local fuel sources is an im- more cost competitive in the future; portant element of building essential • With passive solar, it may be neces- self-reliance. sary to have a backup heating system. It is also very important to design your system properly so the house is not in danger of overheating. Solar Hot Water Heater solar energy resources Solar Energy International • www.solarenergy.org Solar Energy Resources • www.findsolar.com/Content/SolarResources.aspx | 36 |
  • Solutions for Building Sustainable Tribal EconomiesHenry Red Cloud, Lakota Solar Enter- Debby Tewa , formerly of NativeSUN NAPV Installs Panels on the The Sebaprises. Photo credit: Kandi Mossett Dalkai School on the Navajo Nation. Photo credit: NAPVtriBal solar energy: ProJect nativesun: self-sufficiency off balance of the plaza and ceremonialProFiles the grid areas, at the same time blocking the aesthetics of the sky and the pan-The profiles below showcase a variety The phrase Hopi potskwaniat means oramic vistas of the mesas.”of examples of solar energy being put “Hopi pathway to the future” and itto use in tribal communities. can be aptly applied to the work of Solar power has allowed remote com- NativeSUN on the Hopi Reservationlakota solar enterprises: local munities access to electricity without in northeastern Arizona. NativeSUNProduction, local Benefits power lines and also maintain Hopi has brought over 800 household-size self-sufficiency. “When you get yourHenry Red Cloud works primarily solar units to Native peoples in the own system,” says Tewa, “It’s yours.in the Great Plains region, installing region. There’s no power line, no right of wayLakota-built solar heating panels on into the villages.” Clients can choosetribal houses and buildings. His com- Many Hopi have resisted electrifica- from a variety of systems: two panels,pany, Lakota Solar Enterprises (LSE), tion by major utilities, and one-third four panels, eight panels, stationaryis 100% Native American owned and of the villages have never allowed or rotating. Most of these options areoperated and produces all of their own electric power lines in their commu- already operational on the reserva-panels, creating local employment on nities. Doran Dalton, one of the own- tion or on display at their head office.the Pine Ridge Reservation. In part- ers of NativeSUN explains that, “Thenership with Trees, Water & People, Hopi had no objection to electricity NativeSUN started with the supportHenry and LSE are also developing the itself. It was the power lines.” Former of a set of foundation grants and areservation-based Red Cloud Renew- NativeSUN electrician Debby Tewa revolving loan program to help theable Energy Center which will house said that the Hopi traditionals “don’t community buy the solar panels. To-manufacturing and training facilities allow power lines into the villages, day, a local bank has absorbed thefor solar heating panels along with a because the utilities will have right of loan program and NativeSUN is nowgreenhouse, organic garden and mod- way. [Village leaders] think that if we run as a small business.el wind and solar electric systems. LSE don’t pay the bills, they will take evenhas installed more than 200 solar heat- more land.” There are also profound native american Photovoltaics:ing panels on 10 reservations. From spiritual considerations. As the Hopi teaching the wayUtah to Montana, Minnesota to Okla- Foundation states, “The force field of Native American Photovoltaicshoma, tribal homes are harnessing the electricity emanating from the power (NAPV) is also implementing a solarsun’s energy to provide heat during lines is considered to be disruptive strategy in Indian Country. Foundedbitter cold Great Plains winters. to the atmosphere, ambience and | 37 |
  • Sustainable Tribal Economies: A Guide to Restoring Energy and Food Sovereignty in Native Americain 1998, NAPV has constructed 44 so- skull valley goshutes: small-lar systems for off-grid homes on the scale solar successNavajo Reservation near Winslow and This project was a partnership be-Dilkon in Arizona. NAPV’s mission is tween Honor the Earth and Solarto bring electricity to those currently Energy International in 2007 and in-without it. Their staff installs PV pan- cluded a solar PV array installationels and offers monthly maintenance and a community training on theservice and also teaches conserva- Skull Valley Goshute Reservation intion and efficiency. Dave Silversmith, Utah. The installation took place atfrom NAPV explains, “I teach people tribal member Margene Bullcreek’show to use the electricity from solar home, which is also the office for thepanels efficiently, what kinds of ap- local, grassroots group Ohngo Gau-pliances they can run, how to con- Honor the Earth and Solar Energy dadeh Devia (OGD). OGD led a suc-serve electricity, things like that.” Sil- International solar installation in cessful grassroots campaign against aversmith also plays an important role Skull Valley nuclear waste dump for more than aas an educator, translating solar ter- decade, and their office now hosts aminology into Navajo and explaining has a grid-tied, medium-sized solar solid example of a safe alternative tocultural concepts that are still new to project. The project, a collaboration nuclear energy. The “take-apart” 1.8many people. with Black Rock Solar, will put money kW solar system can be used for fu- directly back into the school to ben- ture trainings. It involves an array ofNAPV also assists with financing solar efit the students by saving more than 10 panels, 180 watts each, and is tiedpanels. While a Department of Ener- $13,000 a year in electricity costs.129 to the electrical grid. When the panelsgy grant supported the initial project produce more power than the houseand capital costs in the early years of Black Rock Solar focuses on the “so- is using, the power goes back into theNAPV, the project is now designing cial, rather than the financial bottom- grid, the meter spins backwards andadditional business plans that will line.”130 Tom Price of Black Rock Solar Margene’s electricity bill goes down.help finance future projects. Initially, states that the company’s goal “is tofamilies paid $50 per month for ten help stop climate change by build-years toward the purchase of the PV ing renewable energy for people whounits (this fee also includes repair and can’t afford it.”maintenance service), but the projectforesees additional grants and small The Natchez Elementary School in-monthly payments for projects that stallation consists of 240 panels, andsupport 20 or 30 systems. cost $360,000. The utility and thenatchez elementary school: state provided nearly $300,000 in re-Bringing solar Benefits to the bates and the school district was ableclassroom to make up the difference. “This is about being a free and independentThe Natchez Elementary School on the power and a future which is about selfPyramid Lake Reservation in Nevada determination,” Price explains.131 | 38 |
  • Solutions for Building Sustainable Tribal Economies winD energy“We believe the wind is wa-kan, or sacred, and bringingthe power of the wind to ourcommunities and our futureis key to our survival and apart of honoring our instruc-tions.” — Pat Spears, President, Intertribal Council On Utility Policy.132Wind power presents an immense the period of one year or more. Data cations uses. Many tribes have smallopportunity for localizing tribal en- collected from the station is analyzed wind turbines already installed, serv-ergy economies and even for creating and compared with long-term data ing homes, offices, schools and lighta source of revenue from exporting from local sources to provide an esti- industry. Small wind can be used inpower. It turns out that some of our mate of the long-term wind resource. remote locations off-grid, or in sys-poorest reservations have the rich- This information is then used to de- tems that are grid-tied.est wind resources in the world. Wind termine the financial feasibility ofcan produce inexpensive clean ener- different wind turbines at the site.gy on many different scales, making it large-scale wind energyan energy source well suited to tribes’ The Department of Energy (DOE) of- Large-scale wind installations arevarying needs. fers tribes excellent resources to de- nearly always grid-connected andwind energy Basics termine wind feasibility. The DOE’s usually require interconnection and Wind Powering America Program capacity on the regional transmissionWind power uses the movement of air loans tribes and tribal organizations system, which is more complicatedto spin blades, which turn a generator anemometers and assists in analyz- and costly than connecting to the lo-that produces electricity. Wind gener- ing and evaluating wind data, and the cal distribution system. The energy isators come in a variety of sizes, from DOE’s Tribal Energy Program offers usually sold directly to electric utili-small turbines that power part of one grants to assess the feasibility of tribal ties as opposed to being consumedhome to huge turbines that produce wind projects of various sizes. by local loads. Wind installationsseveral megawatts of power, enough that have multiple turbines are calledfor hundreds of homes. sMall-scale wind energy ‘wind farms’ and are often referred Generally wind turbines rated less to in terms of their total generatingMeasuring your resource in order to than 100 kW are considered ‘small capacity. For example, a wind farmdetermine whether wind power is a wind.’ The benefits of small-scale wind that has twenty 2 MW turbines is aviable option for your area is an es- include their lower height, smaller 40 MW wind farm. Large wind farmssential first step. A meteorological footprint and lower cost. Smaller sys- exist around the country already, andstation, which includes an anemom- tems can be more easily tied into the more are planned.eter, is a device used to measure wind local electrical distribution systemspeed, direction and duration over for residential and community appli- | 39 |
  • Sustainable Tribal Economies: A Guide to Restoring Energy and Food Sovereignty in Native Americawind energy oPtions: newversus used wind energy advantagesYour budget is probably the most lim- and considerationsiting factor in determining your winddevelopment options. Clearly, the Advantageslarger the installation is, the higher • Wind energy is less expensive inthe cost– but there are other factors terms of power output comparedto consider in relation to your budget. to other renewable energy like solarA used turbine may be less expensive photovoltaic.than a similarly sized new model, and • After construction, wind turbinesallow for a larger project, but used can exist alongside livestock and ag-turbines cost money to refurbish and ricultural operations with a minimalexperience higher maintenance and footprint.repair costs over the life span of the • A variety of sizes and designs offerunit. ways to match wind projects with specific tribal needs. Erecting the Fort Peck turbine. Cour-If buying used, it’s very important to tesy: Fort Peck Tribescarefully analyze the specific equip- Considerationsment and its history, including where • Wind turbines require regular elec- triBal wind energy: ProJectit was used and stored. Different wind trical and mechanical maintenance ProFilesturbine companies have different re- from trained professionals. Because Below are examples of the variety ofcords. Be sure you’re getting equip- they involve moving parts, wind tur- wind power installations in Nativement that has a good reputation for bines require much more mainte- communities.long-term reliability and that whom- nance than solar installations.ever you buy it from documents the • On average, wind turbines experi- Fort Peck: Fueling tribalwork conducted to refurbish the ma- ence more mechanical down time Headquarterschine and warranties its parts. Ensure than solar. The Assiniboine and Sioux tribes ofa certified installer commissions and • The life span of some ultra-small tur- Fort Peck in Montana installed twoprovides a performance check on the bines (under 10 kW) is five to seven Entegrity 50 kW wind turbines nearunit. This extra diligence will pay off years, which is much shorter than a the tribal headquarters building inby offering the best chance that your similarly sized solar installation. 2006. The project was funded by theturbine will operate reliably to pro- Department of Energy. The turbinesduce clean energy far into the future. reduce the amount of electricity that the tribe must purchase from out- side sources and represent phase one of the tribe’s wind development plans.133 wind Power resources spirit lake wind: wind Powered Windustry • www.windustry.org/wind-basics casino Wind Powering America • www.windpoweringamerica.gov/nativeam- The Spirit Lake Dakota in North Da- ericans/index.asp kota put up a 100 kW Micon brand wind turbine in 1996. The turbine American Wind Energy Association • www.awea.org provides about ¼ of Spirit Lake Ca- sino’s power, displacing power that would have been purchased from the local electric utility. The tribe and the | 40 |
  • Solutions for Building Sustainable Tribal EconomiesRaising the nacelle at Spirit Lake. The turbines at Toksook Bay. The turbines at St. Paul Island.Courtesy: Spirit Lake Community Courtesy: AVEC Courtesy: AK Energy AuthoritySchool DistrictDepartment of Energy jointly funded facility supplies affordable energy white earth: Powering thethe turbine, and casino employees to the community as well as provid- northmaintain it.134 ing a profit for the tribal corporation, Tanadgusix (TDX) Corporation. A recently funded wind project ontoksook Bay: keeping the the White Earth Reservation in north-Power clean western Minnesota will bring more The successes of TDX continue as theyThree Northwind 100 kW turbines proudly announce, “We have installed power to tribal lands in the upperhave been operating in the Native a total of three of the largest wind tur- Midwest. A 75 kW refurbished Lolandvillage of Toksook Bay, Alaska, since bines in Alaska and have plans for two brand turbine will power White EarthJuly 2006. Owned and operated by more for a total of five wind turbines Land Recovery Project’s office build-the nonprofit Alaska Village Electric to have the potential to meet the ing and any excess power will be soldCooperative, these turbines produce needs of the whole community.”135 back to the utility on the grid.over 600,000 kilowatt-hours per year. kili radio: small windEvery kilowatt-hour they produce The project supplies electricity and lessons learnedmeans one fewer kilowatt-hour is space heat to an industrial/airport fa-generated by the diesel generators cility. The TDX power plant is a com- Over the course of several years,that would otherwise provide power mercial project that did not utilize Honor the Earth, Intertribal Councilfor this remote village. Critical fi- any grants in the funding process. On Utility Policy and a host of localnancing for the turbines was made The corporation has been recognized allies have worked to bring a remanu-available through NativeEnergy’s sale by the Department of Energy, which factured turbine to the Pine Ridgeof renewable energy credits. is now funding the Aleutian Pribilof Reservation’s KILI radio station as a Islands Association (APIA) to conduct flagship wind project. KILI is the larg-st. Paul aleut: an innovative est Indian radio station in the country an economic and technical wind andHybrid system and requires a significant amount of diesel plant feasibility study for fiveThe St. Paul Island Aleut (Alaskan Na- communities based on the St. Paul energy. By powering this station withtive) community has taken advantage success.136 a turbine, the Plains winds will satisfyof wind in combination with die- the largest consumer of electricity onsel, building a first of its kind hybrid the Pine Ridge Reservation. Unfor-wind and diesel power plant. This tunately there have been many ob- | 41 |
  • Sustainable Tribal Economies: A Guide to Restoring Energy and Food Sovereignty in Native AmericaSetting up the White Earth wind Turtle Mountain Turbine Kumeyaay Large Scale Wind Farmtower. Photo credit: Nellis Kennedystacles to overcome, teaching several positive note, the Department of the in Southern California, is the onlyimportant lessons the hard way. In Interior’s Office of Indian Energy and reservation-based commercial wind2008, a used 65 kW Nordtank turbine Economic Development is providing farm in the country. Undertaken withwas installed but due to technical funding and technical guidance to re- a developer, Superior Energy LLC,problems was never fully operation- place the KILI wind turbine, and the the tribe receives revenues from theal. In the summer of 2009, mechani- project’s goal of acting as a concrete lease of the land and the developercal failure in strong winds caused the model of community wind will be re- receives the revenues from the sale ofturbine to detach and it was rendered alized. the energy. The project uses twenty-inoperable. Since that time, KILI al- five 2 MW Gamesa wind turbines.138 turtle Mountain: a wind-lies have been working to assess what Plans are underway to expand the Powered tribal collegewent wrong, and the best way to pro- installation to a total of 160 MW, serv-ceed to ensure a successful turbine is The Turtle Mountain Band of Chip- ing some 104,000 homes during peakinstalled. pewa Indians has taken advantage production.139 of clean energy by installing a 660 Mille lacs Band of ojibwe: windThe most important lesson learned kW turbine at Turtle Mountain Com- investmenton the long road to get KILI a working munity College in North Dakota. Thisturbine is that in wind power, like in turbine is expected to cover 90% of The Mille Lacs Band of Ojibwe hasany business, there are reputable, ex- the college’s annual electrical costs. become a major investor in Mariahceptional companies and companies The college plans to seek out other Power.140 Mariah is a manufacturerthat do sub-par work and are more clean energy sources (possibly solar that builds ultra-quiet vertical-axisinterested in profit than progress. It photovoltaic) for the remaining 10%, wind turbines called Windspires foris very important to look into a com- making the college powered by 100% residential and commercial use. Thispany’s history and references before clean energy.137 tribal investment has the potential todeciding who to work with and what create 15 new jobs and a reservation- kumeyaay wind Project:equipment to purchase, particularly based manufacturing facility to house commercial-scale wind Farmin the used and refurbished market. operations.It is our hope that our learning ex- The Kumeyaay project, a 50 MW windperience can help others avoid the farm on lands held by the Campo andproblems we have encountered. On a Viejas bands of Kumeyaay people | 42 |
  • Solutions for Building Sustainable Tribal EconomiestHougHts on wind ProJect ownersHiP and Financingby Chase Iron Eyes (Standing Rock Lakota),Executive Director, Wind Energy Tribes United (WETU)If an entity has capital, developing its wind resource is easier. For those without capital, a reliance on some othersource such as federal dollars is most promising.With respect to commercial wind, the developer driven model is also an option. Tribes are faced with the negotia-tion task of ensuring optimum equity positions without putting up or risking any of the investment capital. Tribesalmost always need a partner to facilitate wind resource measurement via anemometers and to negotiate the equityand revenue positions of each party. The more capital a party puts at risk in developing a wind asset, the stronger itcan expect its equity and revenue positions to be. There are many sources of capital for tribes including tax-exemptbonds, Clean Renewable Energy Bonds, grants, low interest loans, federally backed loans and New Markets TaxCredits.A general investment figure to develop 100 megawatts (MW) is around $2 million. Typically, a developer could thensell the right to develop the asset (100 megawatts) to a project company for roughly $100,000 per megawatt. Theproject company, assuming it is successful with respect to power purchase agreements, interconnections and otherrelated processes, could then sell the power generated for a significant profit - depending on power prices.In commercial and community wind development, tribes benefit from seeking funding from federal sources. How-ever, community wind is almost impossible for tribes without an effective fund raising campaign, including grantapplications.WETU is working to actualize Indigenous-led renewable resource development. We are all responsible for directingour world toward a state of balance.(Chase Iron Eyes is an attorney with the Climate and Law Policy Center, working to address climate change throughtribal renewable energy and energy efficiency.) | 43 |
  • Sustainable Tribal Economies: A Guide to Restoring Energy and Food Sovereignty in Native America generation process, micro-hydro has miCro hyDropower a minimal environmental impact on local ecosystems. The possibility ofSmall-scale, sustainable hydro devel- low-level environmental effects fromopment can be an exceptionally de- diverting part of a stream’s flow mustpendable and cost-effective source of be considered prior to construction.clean, renewable energy to consider if Careful planning to ensure there is noyou live in a location with falling wa- impact on local fish stocks may resultter from a river or stream on or near in designing a smaller system with ayour property. lower energy output.Micro Hydro Basics Micro Hydro advantagesMicro hydro is often considered to be and considerationsthe ideal small-scale renewable en-ergy system because while solar and Advantageswind rely on less predictable, inter- • Only a small amount of water flowmittent weather phenomena, energy (as little as two gallons per minute)can be derived from micro hydro sys- or a drop as low as two feet is need-tems 24 hours a day year-round if you ed to generate electricity.have a consistent flow of water. • Micro hydro produces a continuous supply of electrical energy in com-Micro hydro systems convert the en- parison to other small-scale renew-ergy from falling water into usable able technologies.electricity. The technology is relative- • Maintenance fees are relativelyly simple. All that is required to set up small in comparison to other tech-a micro-hydro system is falling water, nologies.piping, a turbine generator system,and wiring to connect the power to Considerationsyour home. • Stream size, including the speed and rate of water flow and the length ofBuilding a small-scale hydropower the vertical drop, determines elec-system can cost from $1,000 - $20,000, trical potential. The size and flow ofdepending on site electricity require- small streams may restrict energyments and location. Maintenance fees generation capacity and future ex-are relatively small in comparison to pansion.other technologies. Energy output is • Stream size fluctuates seasonally independent on two major factors: the many locations. During the sum-stream flow, or the volume of water mer, there will likely be less flow andthat runs through the system, and the therefore less power output. Micro hydro installaton. Photosdrop (or head), which is the vertical courtesy Sustainable Nationsdistance the water will fall throughthe water turbine. Micro Hydro resourcesMicro hydro systems are commonly Sustainable Nations • www.sustainablenations.org/resources/howtosknown as ‘run-of-river’ systems be-cause water runs straight through the US Department of Energy’s Hydropower Basicsgenerator and back into the stream. www1.eere.energy.gov/windandhydroSince there is no loss of water in the | 44 |
  • Solutions for Building Sustainable Tribal Economies PennElys GoodShield from Sustainable Nations, a grassroots organization promoting Indigenous sovereignty writes about a recent micro hydro installation for a tribal family: Sustainable Nations recently co-hosted a workshop in Weitchpec, on the Yurok Reservation, with a local family and Don Harris, from Harris Hydropower. The Yurok Reservation is rich in fast-moving creeks, tumbling down steep mountains, the ideal location to efficiently produce micro-hydroelectric power. These systems are also affordable to install. Most parts for homemade systems can be purchased cheaply from a hardware store, and pre-manufactured systems are relatively inexpensive, as well. A local elder had been making these systems for years out of car alterna- tors. It’s important to know that homemade systems do take more maintenance than pre-manufactured turbines. Our system was a pre-manufactured turbine that was installed by the participants and the hosting family, costing a total of $5,000. This system will produce enough electricity for the small family, with room to expand their need! We hosted a two-weekend series, and had great attendance. The Yurok community has a high percentage of homes without electricity, and many community members were excited to learn about the system, how much it cost to in- stall, and the installation process. Participants included representatives from Yurok Tribal departments, surround- ing community members, a local tribal journalist, and students from the nearby university, Humboldt State. It was wonderful to see community members offering to help one another obtain the materials, labor, and resources to install more systems in the future, and good connections and friends were made. Sustainable Nations is working on creating a ‘how-to’ documentary film about the training and installation. This film will also feature statements from participants about the need for alternative energy systems on a reservation that is fighting to remove a large-scale and very destructive hydroelectric dam complex on the Klamath River.Micro hydro diagram courtesy Home Power Magazine | 45 |
  • Sustainable Tribal Economies: A Guide to Restoring Energy and Food Sovereignty in Native America verse habitats for birds, pollinators, sustainable biomass anD and other species. tHe BioFuel Beginnings biofuels: fuel, heat anD oF tHe diesel engine In appropriate ecosystems, local tree eleCtriCity farms of fast-growing trees may be The diesel engine is named for its inventor, Rudolf Die- considered for biomass energy as sel. He designed the dieselBiomass and biofuels are controver- well, since they grow back repeatedly engine to run on peanut oil.sial because, as discussed in the False after being cut close to the ground. His first diesel engine wasSolutions section of this booklet, Poplar, willow, sycamore and sweet- unveiled in Paris in 1900. Ru-unsustainable production methods, gum are examples of short-rotation dolf Diesel died mysteriouslyparticularly those that utilize indus- wood crops that can grow up to 40 before his vision of plant oiltrial agriculture, actually cause more feet in less than eight years and can powered engines became aenvironmental and climate damage be harvested for 10 to 20 years before reality. The petroleum indus-than they help to reduce. This section replanting. try co-opted Diesel’s name,focuses on sustainably produced bio- Burning BioMass For energy and plant oil as a fuel supplymass and biofuels for tribal use. was forgotten. Most biomass is converted to energyBioMass Basics the same way it has been for millen-Biomass refers to organic matter, nia—by burning it. The heat can besuch as plants, animal fats and even used directly for heating buildings, orwaste that can be converted into en- it can also be used to produce steamergy. Native plants with high energy and generate electricity.yields, fast growing trees in tree farmsand waste wood, crop residues, ma- The Shakopee Mdewakanton Siouxnure and food wastes are all forms of Community in Minnesota, in partner-biomass that can be produced sus- ship with Rahr Malting Company, hastainably at a local level. completed a 22 MW biomass-fired plant that produces electricity andindigenous Perennial Plants heat by primarily burning byproductsFor energy from cereal manufacturing, such asRestoring Indigenous plants for local discarded oat hulls. Gathering wasteenergy and fuel can also restore our from local businesses such as Gener-land by driving the conversion of mar- al Mills, Wood Chip of Princeton, andginal cropland back to ancient peren- Rahr Malting to use as the biomassnial grassland cover. Wild perennials to fuel the plant, Shakopee producessuch as switchgrass, bluestem, reed more than enough electricity to runcanarygrass and wheat grass are ex- its tribal operations, which includecellent energy crops because they operating an expansive casino, as wellgrow quickly, produce high energy as Rahr Malting, which produces andyields and can be harvested annually distributes malt and industry-related The Biodiesel Process, courtesy Reichfor several years before replanting. brewing supplies. The tribe sells the ChemistryIndigenous perennials re-establish excess energy it produces to Xcel En-soil quality, enhance the structure of ergy, the regional energy provider.141the soil, increase its organic content,serve as filters to protect waterways On a residential scale, new efficientfrom chemical runoff and restore di- biomass fuel-based appliances, like | 46 |
  • Solutions for Building Sustainable Tribal Economieswood pellet stoves and heaters, canprovide cost effective heating with lessindoor air pollution and increased ef-ficiency over standard wood stoves.Pellets are made from compactedsawdust, wood chips, bark, agricul-tural crop waste, waste paper, andother organic materials, which other-wise would end up in a landfill.converting BioMass to gas:BiodigestersIn addition to being burned directly,biomass can be converted into a gasby heating it under pressure withoutoxygen in a biodigester. A biodigest-er is simply a large insulated tank,sealed to keep all air away from thebiomass.Biodigesters can convert organicwastes, such as manure from live- Algae-based Biodiesel Cycle, www.safeenvironment.files.wordpress.comstock or horses, into biogas. Their useis widespread in remote village areas Biodiesel: diesel Fuel FroM Biodiesel can be produced on anof India, Nepal, China and Vietnam. Plants extremely small scale as well as onAs organic wastes break down, they a large commercial scale. An entire Plant based oils and/or animal fatsrelease methane, a potent green- subculture of “homebrew” biodie- can also be converted into a liquidhouse gas but a biodigester traps the sel enthusiasts has grown in North form for diesel tanks. Biodiesel is amethane as it is produced, making America over the past decade. Small refined diesel fuel alternative that canit available for heating, cooking or biodiesel operations are a great way be made from virgin agricultural oilssmall-scale electricity generation. By for tribal communities to recapture coming direct from an oilseed crush-utilizing the methane’s energy rather the energy used in cooking oil at ca- er, from animal fats like tallow andthan letting it vent freely into the at- sinos, community centers and tribal poultry fats, or it can be made frommosphere, these systems can help schools and cut down on their reli- recycled and re-used oils that comereduce emissions that contribute to ance on imported petroleum. from restaurants and other kitchenclimate change. facilities. Many Indigenous foods and The Sustainable Biodiesel Alliance plants, such as hazelnuts, peanutsBiogas is a sustainable substitute for (SBA), a non-profit organization and hemp, are excellent raw materi-the propane and kerosene that many whose members include Farm Aid als for biodiesel. Making biodieselrural families use for their domestic and Institute for Agriculture and from used cooking oil has the addedenergy needs. A biodigester can save Trade Policy, provides tools to sup- benefit of reducing waste — restau-hundreds of dollars every year on port community-based biodiesel and rants usually pay to have their usedfuel. Biodigesters also have the added is developing a sustainability certifi- oil hauled away and dumped — butbenefit of producing a nutrient rich cation program. The SBA offers a host with biodiesel, that waste oil is recy-fertilizer for gardens and community of free resources at: www.fuelrespon- cled into fuel.farms. sibly.org and www.sustainablebiodie- selalliance.com | 47 |
  • Sustainable Tribal Economies: A Guide to Restoring Energy and Food Sovereignty in Native America rial, a sustainable balance can beadvantages and maintained between carbon emit-considerations ted and absorbed. • Collecting or growing biomass fuelAdvantages of biomass for heat and in sufficient quantities can be dif-electricity ficult.• Biomass can be sourced and manu- • Some biomass materials, whether factured locally, contributing to se- plants or waste materials, are not curity of supply and support for lo- available year round. cal economies.• Local production and usage net- works reduce the financial and en- vironmental costs of manufacturing triBal BioFuels: ProJect and transporting fuel. ProFiles• Biomass made from recycled and As the examples below show, tribes waste materials keeps them out of are already putting biofuels to use in landfills and reduces carbon emis- energy systems. sions by burning alternate fuels. Art by Star Wallowing Bull southern ute Biodiesel: reduceAdvantages of biodiesel fuel emissions, create cleaner Fuel Biodiesel provided restaurants with• Biodiesel has the highest net energy grease hoppers and collects the hop- The Southern Ute Tribe has invested ratio of any plant-based transpor- pers every two weeks. Green Range in a facility that makes biodiesel out tation fuel. It burns significantly pays for the grease— a mixture of of algae grown next to a natural gas cleaner than petroleum-derived canola, olive, soybean and other veg- processing facility. CO2 emissions diesel, with substantial reductions etable oils. By cleaning and using of from the natural gas plant are piped in greenhouse gas emissions and waste oil, the process is less resource to the pools where CO2-gathering al- other harmful pollution.142 intensive and more efficient than ex- gae plants grow and feed on the CO2.• Biodiesel production does not re- tracting virgin oil from plants.144 The algae are harvested and their oil quire the heavy use of process heat is used to produce biodiesel. In refer- taos Pueblo garn: Biomass and water that is the hallmark of ence to the project’s dual benefits of Heating system at work ethanol production, nor does it pro- being a good investment and envi- duce significant odor, and manufac- Also capable of lowering carbon ronmentally conscious, Tribal Chair- turing plants may be located in light emissions while heating homes is the man Matthew J. Box stated, “It’s a industrial facilities in proximity to GARN system. The GARN is a wood- marriage of an older way of thinking towns and larger settlements with- fired hydronic heater. It is an extreme- into a modern time.”143 out affecting quality of life. ly efficient biomass-burning central white earth Biodiesel: local heating system, which has been usedConsiderations waste into local Fuels widely in European communities and• Producing energy from biomass is is now being applied in innovative Selling fuel on the White Earth Reser- carbon neutral only if the resources ways in some tribal communities. vation is Green Range Biofuels, locat- used to produce the energy are re- ed in Ironton, MN. Using waste grease placed more quickly than they are The purpose of the GARN is to heat collected from local restaurants, the harvested. The combustion of bio- a home using a system that can burn facility produces about a half a mil- mass returns the CO2 to the atmo- wood (harvested in a sustainable lion gallons of fuel a year. In order to sphere that was absorbed by the manner) in a clean and carbon-re- secure the used grease (which is usu- plant over the previous few months duced manner by making optimum ally hauled by waste management or years. Provided the land contin- use of fuel and emitting very little and other vendors), Green Range ues to support growing plant mate- smoke. Carbon emissions are reduced | 48 |
  • Solutions for Building Sustainable Tribal Economiesthrough the GARN by eliminatingthe short cycling of burners. In otherwords, the GARN does not allow anyidle combustion to occur, thus mak-ing the most of the fuel being used.145Searching for a way to prevent for-est fires, 146 the Taos War Chief’s Of-fice in the Taos Pueblo in NorthernNew Mexico took the initiative toconnect its Red Willow EducationCenter with a GARN representativebased out of Minnesota. The projectreceived a three-year Forest HealthCollaborative Grant that funded thecollection of a substantial amountof forest thinnings to be used as fuelfor the system.147 Further funding forthe project came as a joint initiativefrom the Taos Renewable Energy Of-fice and Education and Training Divi- The GARN system has good potential to be replicated in Native communities andsion, where it received $60,000 from can heat a cluster of houses in a tribal community, as well as a single facility.the New Mexico Energy, Minerals andNatural Resources Department. Thesemonies have been used for the pur-chase and installation of the GARN, aswell as the training of five tribal staffin maintenance and operation of thesystems. This training will result inthe creation of two full-time jobs.The product of this effort is a success-fully installed biomass district heatingsystem that now heats three green-houses. The Taos system functions byheating a large metal water tank in afirebox that channels the water intoa radiant floor heating system. As aresult, the Pueblo will no longer needworry about the rising costs of fossilfuels like propane to heat the threebuildings.The GARN system has great potential Photo credit: Marty Curryto be replicated in Native communi-ties and can heat a cluster of housesin a tribal community, as well as asingle facility. | 49 |
  • Sustainable Tribal Economies: A Guide to Restoring Energy and Food Sovereignty in Native America sustainaBle triBal econoMic develoPMent exaMPles A diverse set of clean energy projects can work together to meet a tribe’s needs. Below are examples of two tribal communities utilizing a mix of renewable power sources to build sustainable economies. A Tribal Alternative Energy Mix: Mohegan Sun Mohegan Sun, the Mohegan Tribe’s casino in Connecticut, uses a variety of alternative energy sources to run its op- erations. The complex has over 10,000 employees and over 50,000 patrons a day— and aside from being highly prof- itable, their sustainability efforts are extensive. First, the tribe purchased two PC25TM fuel cell systems. Each cell produces 200 kilowatts of electricity and 900,000 BTUs, which will be used for space heating and hot water. While traditional generating systems create as much as 25 pounds of pollutants to generate 1,000 kilowatt-hours of power, the same production by fuel cells results in less than one ounce of pollutants. Further, the waste grease produced on the complex is sent to a local pig farm, alternative energy is used in the casino’s transportation system, and the tribe even uses some hybrid cars in the casino fleet. A Model Diversified Tribal Energy Economy: Shakopee Mdewakanton Sioux Community The Shakopee Mdewakanton Sioux Community (SMSC) in Minnesota is a leader in utilizing the sun, wind and plants to restore a sustainable way of life. The tribe produces enough biodiesel from waste oil to meet 100% of their needs in summer months and part of their needs during winter months when weather condition require a blend with conventional diesel so it won’t congeal. In addition, the tribe utilizes solar water heaters, waste heat, and a geothermal system for efficient heating and cooling. The tribe is also a partner in Koda Energy, which produces heat and power at a biomass plant utilizing recycled cereal hulls. In addition, SMSC also installed a 1.5 MW wind turbine that will meet most of the community’s residential electricity demand. The Shakopee community has shown vision in implementing a set of innovative sustainable technologies that increase self-sufficiency, reduce costs and honor Unci Maka (Grandmother Earth).148 Learn more about the SMSC projects at www.shakopeedakota.org | 50 |
  • Solutions for Building Sustainable Tribal Economies Solution Three: restoring traditional FoodsNationally and internationally, thereis a great deal of work underway tosupport the restoration of locallyproduced food as integral to the res-toration of biologically diverse, re-silient ecosystems and the develop-ment of sustainable economies. In atime of peak oil and climate change,compounded by the epidemic of di-et-related illness in our Indigenouscommunities, the restoration of ourtraditional foods is an essential strat-egy for tribal survival.tHe BeneFits oF restoringlocal Food econoMies:traditional Foods Heal ourPeoPles and our landsTraditional food restoration throughorganic farming is not only a tool toadapt to climate change, as discussedearlier in this booklet, but it can alsohelp mitigate climate change by limit-ing and even capturing carbon emis-sions. The Rodale Institute found that indigenous agricultureorganic farming can sequester carbonby using composting, cover crops and Indigenous peoples developed highly sophisticated agricultural systemscrop rotation, pulling carbon dioxide based on the unique qualities of our ecosystems and tens of thousandsfrom the air and storing it as carbon in of years of cultivating diverse varieties. As a result, more than 60% of thethe soil.152 Simply stated, if the world’s plant foods sustaining the world today derive from crops originally cul-3.5 billion tillable acres used biologi- tivated by peoples indigenous to the Americas.149cal, regenerative practices, this wouldsequester up to 40% of current car- Some of the crops our peoples developed and harvested over millenniabon dioxide emissions.153 include numerous varieties of: Acorns Crab apples PumpkinsTraditional farming practices can also Arrowroot Cranberries Squashoffer improved yields over American- Artichokes Elderberry Stag sumacized monoculture or row farming. The Avocados Hazelnuts StrawberriesSix Nations Iroquois Confederacy, Beans Hickory nuts Tomatoesthe Haudenosone, traditionally grew Black mustard Maple syrup Turnipsdiverse strains of corn along with Black walnuts Mint Vanillasquash and beans. Planted together, Blueberries Mushrooms Watercresscorn, squash and beans – the three Cherries Peanuts Wintergreensisters – naturally repel insects and Chili peppers Pecans Yellow and redweeds. Today, community farms in Chokecherry Pinon nuts bell peppers 150 151Haudenosone and other Indigenous Corn Potatoesterritories are replicating traditional | 51 |
  • Sustainable Tribal Economies: A Guide to Restoring Energy and Food Sovereignty in Native Americapolyculture, or “inter-cropping,” with has less fat and cholesterol than skin- Layout/Designamazing results. less chicken, and is listed as one of • Measure the dimensions of your the top five heart healthy foods for garden plot.Along with these benefits, restoring women because of its high iron con- • Look at seed catalogues and gardenour foods and returning to a tradi- tent and its richness in good fats.160 books to help determine what youtional diet can rapidly undo much of Buffalo and elk are also loaded with would like to grow.the illness and harm western foods vitamins and minerals such as niacin,have caused in our communities. Our vitamin B6, phosphorus, vitamin B12 • Check the US Department of Agri-foods are just healthier for us. Hom- and zinc.161 culture’s website at www.usna.usda.iny corn, high in carbohydrates and gov/Hardzone/ushzmap.html toprotein, also yields 47% of the recom- In addition to restoring our physical understand what will grow in yourmended daily value for fiber and 33% health, restoring the species unique area and climate zone. For example,of the recommended daily value for to our ecosystems heals our lands. Minnesota is hardiness zone 3-4.B vitamin Thiamine; it also has only For example, buffalo cultivate the • Determine the space, zone hardi-half the calories of market corn.154 soil, stimulating the return of diverse ness and days to maturity require-Arikara squash contains 13% of the indigenous plant species. Prairie res- ments for individual crops by look-recommended daily value of fiber, toration, buffalo restoration and cul- ing at seed catalogues.64% of the recommended daily value tural restoration are intertwined, and • Draw and lay out your garden on pa-of vitamin A, and half the calories and all are connected to a promise of a per. Using graph paper is helpful fordouble the calcium and magnesium healthier future for the coming gen- designing your garden beds.of the market equivalent.155 Pota- erations. • Order seeds and find a source forwatomi lima beans are low in fat, and starter plants.high in carbohydrates, protein, and Bvitamins; they also provide 24 grams • Protect from predators (deer, rab- How to start a garden bits, groundhogs, moles etc) with aof fiber per serving, and 21 timesthe antioxidants found in market Every garden is unique to the ecosys- fence or wall.beans.156 Ancient foods simply con- tem and community in which it istain superior nutrition for the specific grown. Here are general steps you can Soil and Bed Preparationneeds of our communities over mar- use or adapt to start a garden: • Create the boundaries of your gar-ket varieties. den with string, chalk, or marking Site Selection paint.Moving away from industrial meat • Watch the sunlight and shadows. • Dig an edge around the garden withwill also go a long way to restoring our Your garden site will need at least six a sharpened square spade.environment and our health. While hours of full sun a day. • Remove existing grass, prairie,switching to local, free range meat is a bramble or weeds by digging them • A gentle south-facing slope thatcritical strategy for stemming climate out, roots and all, with a spade or drains well is best.change, even better for our peoples sod stripper.is the restoration of the indigenous • Dig a hole and look at the soil. Is it very sandy? If so, you will have to • Spread rotted manure, leaf or kitch-species we relied on for millennia. add compost and other water-re- en scrap compost to a depth of 3Compared to domesticated meat, taining amendments. If it is heavy, inches on top of the garden. All com-wild meat like elk, deer and buffalo like clay, you may have to add com- post should be well broken down.have significantly higher amounts ofomega 3 heart-healthy fats.157 Wild post and sand to lighten it up. • Add natural fertilizers before dig-game also contains more than five • Locate the site away from the com- ging. Natural fertilizers like alfalfatimes the amount of polyunsaturated petition of tree roots, shrubs and meal, granite dust, bone meal, etc.fat per gram than is found in live- poison ivy and oak. can be found in some good organic,stock.158 Polyunsaturated fat can help • It is very important that the site have commercial fertilizer mixes.lower bad cholesterol.159 Buffalo meat easy access to water. | 52 |
  • Solutions for Building Sustainable Tribal Economies Garden design by Lisa Ringer• Turn the soil to a spade’s depth (8 of 3 times their width. Water them mediately come back. inches – 1 foot) and for best results, very gently at first so they don’t wash • Weed barriers, such as cardboard or loosen subsoil with a digging fork to away. newspaper covered with hay, help another spade’s depth (16-24 inches • The temperature of the soil is im- discourage weeds in the paths. total). portant to the timing of the sowing • Once the soil temperature has• Rake out and break up clods in beds of different seeds and planting of warmed up sufficiently, mulch the with a garden rake until the soil is starts. garden with marsh hay, composted fine enough to plant garden seeds. • Transplants need to be watered im- manure, or other composts to dis- You may want to rent or purchase a mediately and regularly. courage weeds and conserve water. tiller if you are preparing a large gar- • Once the seeds sprout, they need to den plot. Watering be kept evenly watered.• Create planting beds and paths ac- • The conservation of water in the • Some plants like peas and beans cording to your plan using stakes root zone of plants is best achieved may want to climb and will need a and string. with ample organic matter in garden trellis. It is useful to learn about the growth habit of each crop. soil, the application of mulches, andPlanting the Garden consistent watering.• Read seed packets carefully and Weeding • One can water a garden via over- plant accordingly. head sprinkler, soaker hose or haul- • Once established, cultivate carefully• Tomatoes, peppers, eggplants, many around plants and seedlings using a ing with buckets and using a water- woody herbs and perennial plants hoe to disturb weed seeds and roots ing can. are best started in a greenhouse, with out harming crop root space. • It is important not to water the purchased as seedlings at a nursery, leaves during the heat of the day • Perennial weeds such as burdock, or divided from other plants. when the sun is high. This can burn quackgrass, crabgrass, and dandeli-• Seeds are usually planted to a depth ons must be dug out or they will im- the leaves, like a magnifying glass, | 53 |
  • Sustainable Tribal Economies: A Guide to Restoring Energy and Food Sovereignty in Native America during evaporation. Morning or late afternoon watering is best.• Plants thrive when deeply watered. Light watering causes roots to stay on the surface, thereby making them vulnerable when the soil sur- face dries out.• Cabbage family and leafy greens require even moisture. Other crops such as corn, beans and squash (The Three Sisters), survive with regular watering but like to dry out a bit so their roots grow deeper. It is helpful to understand the water re- quirements of your crops.Making Compost• Compost is made by layering car- bon rich, organic matter, such as fallen leaves, hay, or wood chips with nitrogen rich materials, such as food scraps, manures, and grass clippings.• The carbon/nitrogen ratio to make compost is roughly 3/1.• Kitchen scraps (non-meat) are gold for making soil-improving com- post.• Compost can be made in piles or bins and can be turned every 3-6 months.• Because of the continual stream of kitchen scraps and organic matter, it is a good idea to have more than one pile or bin.• Compost layers need to be watered during the layering process.• Apply compost when it is close to feeling and smelling like soil.• Compost can also further be bro- ken down with Red Wriggler Worms (Eisenia fetida). See www.lavermes- worms.com for more information on this technique. Garden design by Lisa Ringer | 54 |
  • Solutions for Building Sustainable Tribal Economieslearn More aBout seeds and seed savingOur seeds hold our past and our future. Each crop grows its own seeds for planting in the years to come.The following organizations offer resources on indigenous seeds and seed preservation.Native Seeds/SEARCH526 N. 4th Ave.Tucson, AZ 85705(520) 622-5561www.nativeseeds.orgNative Seeds/SEARCH (Southwestern Endangered Aridlands Resource Clearing House) conserves, distributes, anddocuments the adapted and diverse varieties of agricultural seeds, their wild relatives and the role these seeds playin cultures of the American Southwest and Northwest Mexico.Seed Savers Exchange3076 North Winn RoadDecorah, IA 52101(563) 382-5990www.seedsavers.orgThe members of Seed Savers Exchange plant and preserve more than 5,000 varieties of heirloom seed stocks.Eastern Native Seed ConservancyP.O. Box 51Great Barrington, MA 01230(413) 229-8316This organization preserves and distributes heirloom varieties with an emphasis on the seeds of eastern andnorthern plants.Saving Our SeedsP.O. Box 1304Charlottesville, VA 22902www.savingourseeds.orgThe mission of Saving Our Seeds is to promote sustainable, ecological, organic vegetable seed production in theMid-Atlantic and South. Saving Our Seeds provides information, resources, and publications for gardeners, farmers,seed savers, and seed growers.USDA Seed BankNational Center for Genetic Resources Preservation1111 South MasonFort Collins, CO 80521-4500(970) 495-3200The mission of the National Center for Genetic Resources Preservation (NCGRP) is to acquire, evaluate, preserve,and provide a national collection of genetic resources to secure the biological diversity that underpins a sustainableUS agricultural economy through diligent stewardship, research and communication. | 55 |
  • Sustainable Tribal Economies: A Guide to Restoring Energy and Food Sovereignty in Native AmericaPhotos of traditional foods by Martin CurrytriBal Food restoration: Native variety of white corn. Students As a result of the tribe’s agriculturalProJect ProFiles from the surrounding school districts restoration efforts, tribal members and students from the University of have been learning to garden on theirWe invite you to take a look at some of Wisconsin at Green Bay are part of own land, and many operate farmthe amazing work being done in our the entire process from raising the stands informally, selling producecommunities to restore traditional seed to hand-harvesting the corn. from their own front yards. The tribefood systems. Below are examples of The community participates in the also offers a number of programs andre-localized tribal food economies annual corn harvest and comes to- ways for youth to be involved in ag-and a brief analysis of their impact. gether to cook traditional foods like ricultural life. Oneida youth can nooneida community integrated corn soups, breads and mush. longer think that food only comesFood systems (ociFs) and from a grocery store after spendingtsyunhehkwa Farm The Tsyunhehkwa Farm contributes time at Tsyunhehkwa. greatly to Oneida cultural preserva-The work of the Oneida Tribe of In- tion. As an offshoot of its harvest, For more information contact:dians in Wisconsin is exemplary in Tsyunhehkwa provides significant Ted Skenandorethe realm of developing healthy, local foods to the Longhouse ceremonies. tskenan2@oneidanation.orgfood and food education. The organi- By placing placards around the farm (920) 869-2718cally certified Tsyunhehkwa Farm, in both English and Oneida and speak- www.oneidanation.org(meaning “it provides life for us”), ing key agricultural words in Oneida, www.tsyunhehkwa.orgspreads the tribe’s agricultural tradi- the culture of the tribe lives on.tions, engaging community members Mvskoke Food sovereigntyand people living outside the reser- initiative (MFsi) The Farm processes 250 free rangevation with the agricultural fields, a chickens a year, sells produce from a Mvskoke food traditions go back incannery and a retail store. half-acre plot on the farm at a farm- time long before the Trail of Tears ers’ market, maintains a pick-your- forced them from their southeast-The Three Sisters Mounds encompass own raspberries patch and sells beef ern homelands to Oklahoma. Forthe most important traditional crops and eggs. This local food production centuries, the Mvskoke maintainedon the Farm. The corn serves as the system demonstrates a forgotten tra- a successful agricultural culture thattrellis for the beans, while the squash dition on the reservation, which is sustained large populations living inbecomes living mulch. Throughout having a direct connection with the towns along the rivers and creeks (Eu-the year, people come to Tsyunhehk- land. ropean settlers called them “Creek In-wa to learn about a nutritionally rich | 56 |
  • Solutions for Building Sustainable Tribal EconomiesChildren in the garden at Pine Point School on the White Earth Reservation. Photos courtesy WELRPdians”). These were the mound build- Education and Extension Service. A 37 munity development, and strength-ers who developed a sophisticated foot mobile unit is driven into com- ening Anishinaabe spiritual andcivilization, taking care of the food munities within Okmulgee County to cultural heritage. Providing futureas well as the spiritual and political provide financial and technical assis- generations of Anishinaabeg with aneeds of their people. tance to farmers, ranchers, and those sustainable, secure future has meant interested in pursuing loans, grants, protecting and preserving sacredToday, these cultures still exist as cost shares and incentive programs foods and traditional seeds on Whitethe Muscogee, Seminole, Chickasaw, available through federal, state and Earth in addition to expanding localChoctaw, Cherokee and Yuchi tribes. regional sources. These projects are food production capacity, creating aThe respective languages are still just a few of the ways MFSI is work- market for local foods and passing onspoken by many and the ceremonial ing to revitalize the Mvskoke peoples’ food cultures and traditions to youth.dances, songs and practices are still heritage as an agrarian society.carried on. Traditional foods still play In the spring, food production effortsan important role in cultural activi- For more information about MFSI, move to the woods, where dozens ofties. The Mvskoke Food Sovereignty contact: Anishinaabe workers and teams ofInitiative (MFSI) seeks to preserve the Vicky Karhu Percheron horses collect sap fromfood heritage and traditions of their Mvskokefood@gmail.com sugar maple stands to produce maplepeoples through hands-on classes, (918) 756-5915 syrup. Beyond managing its own op-educational programs, intergenera- www.mvskokefood.org erations, WELRP has assisted othertional sharing and sustainable agri- small-scale producers to procure white earth land recoveryculture practices. equipment and infrastructure to be- Project (welrP) gin their own rice mills and sugarMFSI’s Community Tradition, Foods For the past twenty years, the White bushes. When the snow finally meltsand Future Project works to improve Earth Land Recovery Project (WEL- in northern Minnesota, planting sea-public nutrition programs, reconnect RP) has been fulfilling its mission to son begins. WELRP tills upwards oftribal members with traditional foods facilitate recovery of the original land 200 gardens each year for individualsand promote community-based agri- base of the White Earth Indian Reser- and organizations in each communi-culture. Another project, entitled the vation, while preserving and restoring ty on the 36 x 36 mile reservation andCommunity Outreach for Producer’s traditional practices of sound land has erected greenhouses in six com-Empowerment Project, is funded by stewardship, language fluency, com- munities thus far. The organizationthe USDA Cooperative State Research also distributes plants and trees at a | 57 |
  • Sustainable Tribal Economies: A Guide to Restoring Energy and Food Sovereignty in Native AmericaIn the gardens at Tohono O’odham Community Action.subsidized rate to anyone on the res- The Pine Point Farm to School Pro- tohono o’odham communityervation wishing to begin a garden. gram began in 2007 to revamp the action (toca) Pine Point School’s breakfast and TOCA is an organization that worksThe Gitigaaning (‘Garden’) Farm, lunch menu. Breakfast and lunch are to restore and strengthen the lo-owned and operated by WELRP, pro- served daily to 120 students, 98% of cal agricultural traditions of the To-duces organically certified raspber- whom qualify for free and reduced hono O’odham community. Locatedries, strawberries, potatoes, and price meals. Working with more than in Southern Arizona, the Tohonovegetables along with ceremonial fifty local farmers, gardeners and O’odham Reservation is roughly thetobacco and sage. A separate plot is businesses, program and kitchen size of Connecticut, and has only onededicated to traditional Three Sisters staff have replaced pre-packaged, major grocery store.Gardens featuring corn, beans and processed foods with fresh, local,squash. At harvest times, seeds are sustainably grown ingredients. Tra- TOCA is working to establish schoolcarefully selected and saved. WELRP ditional foods like wild rice, blue- garden and lunch programs. Current-has also worked with local farmers berries, hominy, venison and maple ly, three schools have gardens: theon a native corn restoration project, syrup were reintroduced and tasty, Santa Rosa Boarding School and theseeking to grow varieties of corn par- kid-friendly foods such as corn on Santa Rosa Ranch Day School, bothticularly suited to Minnesota’s harsh the cob, organic all-beef hot dogs run by the Bureau of Indian Educa-85-day growing season. Food pro- and buffalo burgers were substituted tion, and the Indian Oasis Primaryduced by these year-round efforts is for out-of-the-can or off-the-truck School, run by Pima County. Theput to good use. Locals and tourists versions. The shift in the school caf- school gardens produce enough foodalike enjoy locally-sourced meals at eteria has been accompanied by the for special occasions, and when thethe Minwanjige (‘Eat Well’) Café, a creation of a corresponding cultural food is harvested teachers integrateWELRP project that also serves as a curriculum. traditional Tohono O’odham recipespoint of sale for Native Harvest prod- into their classrooms. TOCA has beenucts and an educational event center. For more information, contact: working to empower the surround-The Mino-Miijim (‘Good Food’) Pro- Winona LaDuke ing community to ensure that schoolgram delivers fresh seasonal produce info@welrp.org or curriculum and food services incor-along with wild rice, hominy, buffalo, www.nativeharvest.com porate traditional meals and knowl-honey, and tea each month directly (218) 375-2600 edge on a regular basis.to the homes of 180 tribal elders withdiabetes. | 58 |
  • Solutions for Building Sustainable Tribal Economies intertribal Bison cooperative (itBc) ITBC takes an alternative approach to solving the food insecurity issues on Native reservations. The InterTribal Bison Cooperative currently works with 57 tribes from 18 different states to develop self-sufficient, tribally run bison herds. ITBC advocates for tribes to raise their bison to be organic and free range, but they do not certify their meat due to the costs involved with organic certification. ITBC is cur- rently focused on getting bison meatTOCA also runs a non-certified or- The community uses TOCA as a re- into each tribe’s schools, the Oneidaganic farm on the reservation that source for information, classes, Tribe of Indians of Wisconsin and thecultivates traditional plants such as seeds, starting gardens, and restarting Southern Ute Tribe in Colorado beingyellow meat watermelon, sixty-day farms. Now, traditional foods appear exemplary leaders in these efforts.corn, brown and white tepary beans, at special events across the commu- Learning from each tribe’s strugglesand O’odham squash. The TOCA farm nity, indicating that there is growing in getting local bison meat in theirhas been working to establish a local community support for eating local, schools, ITBC hopes to compile a re-food economy by packaging and sell- indigenous foods. TOCA’s small staff source detailing all the discouraginging their harvest in the supermarket of eight carries on the enormous task setbacks tribal members have had toand in the small markets at gas sta- of operating the farm and programs cope with in their area and how theytions across the reservation. Students that educate the community about a can overcome them. By learning fromalso visit the farm and TOCA teaches local food system. TOCA believes that others’ experiences, these setbacksthe children how to start a water if people speak up; institutions such will not seem insurmountable, butline, separate beans from pods, pick as the schools will listen, and begin to merely part of the course towards get-squash, and remove and store seeds change. ting healthy foods into their schoolsfor next year. and communities. For more information, contact:Tohono O’odham culture comes alive Karen Blaine For more information, contact:through songs, dances, and language kblaine@tocaonline.org Jim Stoneat the TOCA farm. TOCA staff mem- (520) 383-4966 jstone@itbcbison.combers frequently go into local schools www.tocaonline.org (605) 394-9730at the teacher’s request to teach nu- www.itbcbison.comtrition and cooking education. Theyuse a variety of activities and presen-tations to get the students engaged,including videos, cooking demos andtaste tests of local food. | 59 |
  • Sustainable Tribal Economies: A Guide to Restoring Energy and Food Sovereignty in Native America Glossary: terMs and aBBreviations used in tHis BookBritish Thermal Unit (BTU): The Grid-tied: Electrical generation that Off-grid/remote: Electricity that isamount of heat required to raise the is connected to the electric grid (pow- produced and not hooked into thetemperature of one pound of water er lines etc.) as opposed to electrical broader electric grid.one degree Fahrenheit. generation which only powers an in- dependent electric system. Organic Farming: The form of agri-Carbon: A chemical element that is culture that relies on crop rotation,in carbon dioxide (CO2) which is the Gross Domestic Product (GDP): The green manure, compost, biologicalmost prolific greenhouse gas. When total market value of all the goods and pest control, and mechanical culti-talking about global warming, “car- services produced within the borders vation (uprooting or burying weeds)bon” is often used to refer to carbon of a nation during a specific time pe- to maintain soil productivity anddioxide and other greenhouse gases. riod. control weeds and problem insects, excluding or strictly limiting the useClean Renewable Energy Bonds Interconnection Agreement: A le- of synthetic fertilizers and synthetic(CREBs): A CREB is a special type of gally binding document that defines pesticides, plant growth regulators,bond that can be used to create loans the technical and contractual terms livestock feed additives, and geneti-for energy projects that are effectively under which an electricity generator cally modified organisms.interest-free.162 can connect and deliver energy to a transmission system.163 Parts Per Million (PPM): A way of ex-Fossil Fuel: Any combustible organic pressing very dilute concentrationsmaterial, such as oil, coal, or natural Kilowatt (kW): A unit of power, equal of substances. Just as per cent meansgas, derived from the remains of for- to 1,000 watts. (See below for defini- out of a hundred, parts per millionmer life. tion of watt) means out of a million. PPM is often used to describe atmospheric con-Genetically Modified Organism Kilowatt Hours (kWh): A unit of en- centrations of greenhouse gases.(GMO): An organism whose genetic ergy, equivalent to the energy trans-makeup has been altered by the tech- ferred or expended in one hour by Peak Oil: The point in time when theniques of genetic engineering so that one kilowatt of power. maximum rate of global petroleumits DNA contains one or more genes production is reached, after whichnot normally found there. Also known Megawatt (MW): A unit of power, the rate of production enters termi-as a Genetically Engineered Organ- equal to one million watts. nal decline.ism (GEO). Sometimes shortened toGM or GE. Monoculture: The agricultural prac- Photovoltaic (PV): A type of solar tice of producing or growing one panel which produces electricityGreenhouse Gases (GHG): Gases in single crop over a wide area. Creates when exposed to radiant energy, es-the atmosphere that absorb and emit a single, homogeneous food culture pecially light.heat within the atmosphere, trapping without diversity.the heat and not letting it escape intospace. | 60 |
  • GlossaryPower Purchase Agreement (PPA): A Tribal Energy Program (TEP): A De-legal contract between an electricity partment of Energy program that pro-generator and a power purchaser. The vides financial and technical assis-power purchaser purchases energy, tance to tribes for the evaluation andand sometimes also capacity and/or development of renewable energyancillary services, from the electric- resources. The program also providesity generator. Such agreements play education and training to help builda key role in the financing of inde- the knowledge and skills essential forpendently owned (i.e. not owned by a sustainable energy projects.166utility) electricity generating assets. Watt: A basic unit of power which isProduction Tax Credit (PTC): Pro- used to measure electricity. One wattvides the investor or owner of qualify- is a small amount of power so kilo-ing property with an annual tax credit watts and megawatts are frequentlybased on the amount of electricity referred to in energy discussions.generated by that facility.164 ‘Kilowatt hours’ is a term used to re- fer to watts used over time (see aboveRenewable Energy: Any naturally oc- definitions).curring, theoretically inexhaustiblesource of energy, such as biomass, so- Definitions are from or modified fromlar, wind, tidal, wave, and hydroelec- dictionary.com and wikipedia.orgtric power, and is not derived from (verified with original sources) unlessfossil or nuclear fuel. otherwise noted.Renewable Energy Certificate (REC):Tradable, non-tangible energy com-modity in the United States that rep-resent proof that a specified amountof electricity was generated from aneligible renewable energy resource.Sustainable: Sustainability meansmeeting the needs of the presentwithout compromising the ability offuture generations to meet their ownneeds.165 | 61 |
  • Sustainable Tribal Economies: A Guide to Restoring Energy and Food Sovereignty in Native AmericaNotes: | 62 |
  • Sources Sources1 “Happiness Doesn’t Cost the Earth,” BBC News (July 12, 2006) available at: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/5169448.stm2 Ajl, Max, “Life Expectancy, Carbon Footprints and a Happy Planet,” SolveClimate.com (July 19, 2009), available at: http://solveclimate. com/blog/20090719/life-expectancy-carbon-footprints-and-happy-planet3 “Calculating the HPI,” The Unhappy Planet Index 2.0, available at: http://www.happyplanetindex.org/learn/4 “Happiness Doesn’t Cost the Earth,” BBC News (July 12, 2006) available at: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/5169448.stm5 LaDuke, Winona; Shimek, John; Thomsen, Carly & Triplett, Mike, White Earth Anishinaabe Nation Energy Plan (2006).6 Sontag, Viki, “Why Local Linkages Matter: Findings from the Local Food Economy Study,” Sustainable Seattle (April 2008) available at: http://www.sustainableseattle.org/Programs/localfoodeconomy7 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, “Climate Change 2007: Synthesis Report,” (IPCC Report) available at: http://www.ipcc.ch/ pdf/assessment-report/ar4/syr/ar4_syr.pdf8 “Climate change,”Dictionary.com, available at: http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/climate%20change9 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change,“ Climate Change 2007: Synthesis Report,” (IPCC Report) available at: http://www.ipcc.ch/ pdf/assessment-report/ar4/syr/ar4_syr.pdfIPCC Report.10 Ibid.11 U.S. Global Change Research Program, Global Climate Change Impacts in the United States (USGS Report)“Executive Summary,” (2009) available at: http://downloads.globalchange.gov/usimpacts/pdfs/executive-summary.pdf12 US Energy Information Administration, “Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 2008,” Report #: DOE/EIA-0573 (2008) Release Date: December 3, 2009.13 US Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy, “Fossil Energy Homepage,” available at: http://fossil.energy.gov/14 “Climate Change- Greenhouse Gas Emissions,” Environmental Protection Agency, available at: http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/ emissions/index.html15 Ibid.16 NASA, “Recent Warming of Arctic May Affect Worldwide Climate,”(Oct. 23, 2003) available at: http://www.nasa.gov/centers/goddard/ news/topstory/2003/1023esuice.html17 Greenfacts, “Figure 6.1. Linkages and Feedback Loops among Desertification, Global Climate Change, and Biodiversity Loss,” available at: http://www.greenfacts.org/en/desertification/figtableboxes/figure-6-1.htm18 TerraNature, “Melting Permafrost Methane Emissions: Another Threat to Climate Change,” available at: http://www.terranature.org/ methaneSiberia.htm19 USGS Report.20 IPCC Report.21 National Resources Defense Counsel (NRDC), “Global Warming Puts the Arctic on Thin Ice” available at:http://www.nrdc.org/globalwarming/qthinice.asp22 GAO Report to Congressional Committees, Alaska Native Villages, “Most Are Affected by Flooding and Erosion, but Few Qualify for Federal Assistance,” p. 2 (Dec. 2003).23 Ibid. at 53.24 Ibid.25 Ibid.26 Brooks, Walter, “Mirant Canal Electric Plant Owners Sued For Causing Global Warming,” Cape Cod Today (Feb. 28, 2008) available at: http://www.capecodtoday.com/blogs/index.php/2008/02/28/mirant_canal_plant_owners_sued_for_causi?blog=5327 Keteltas, Gil, “Kivalina global warming litigation dismissed on political question grounds,” Global Climate Law Blog (Oct. 16, 2009) available at: http://www.globalclimatelaw.com/2009/10/articles/climate-change-litigation/kivalina-global-warming-litigation-dis- missed-on-political-question-grounds/28 The Center for International Environmental Law, “The Inuit Case,” available at: http://www.ciel.org/Climate/Climate_Inuit.html29 Butler, Rhett A., “Arctic Inuit Sue U.S. Government Over Global Warming Pollution,” Mongabay.com (Dec. 8, 2005) available at: http:// news.mongabay.com/2005/1208-icc.html30 The Center for International Environmental Law, “The Inuit Case,” available at: http://www.ciel.org/Climate/Climate_Inuit.html31 United Nations Framework Convention On Climate Change (March 25, 2009) available at: http://unfccc.int/resource/docs/2009/ awg7/eng/misc01a01.pdf | 63 |
  • Sustainable Tribal Economies: A Guide to Restoring Energy and Food Sovereignty in Native America32 Castaldi, Andrew, Swiss Reinsurance America Corp. testimony before Senate Committee on H.S. and Governmental Affairs (April 19, 2007) available at http://www.swissre.com/resources/334d8400455c5e82aa73ba80a45d76a0-Senate_testimony_Andrew_Castaldi_19_ April_2007_final.pdf33 U.S. Government Accountability Office, “Climate Change: Financial Risks to Federal and Private Insurers in Coming Decades are Po- tentially Significant,” (May 3, 2007) available at: http://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-07-820T34 Hirsch, Robert, “The Inevitable Peaking of World Oil Production,” The Atlantic Council of the United States Bulletin (Oct. 2005) available at: http://www.acus.org/docs/051007-Hirsch_World_Oil_Production.pdf35 “Gas Prices Rise for 48th Day, but Oil Sells Off,” USA Today (June 16, 2009) available at: http://www.usatoday.com/money/industries/ energy/2009-06-15-gas-prices_N.htm,36 Floegel, Mark, “Half a Tank: The Impending Arrival of Peak Oil,” Multinational Monitor (Jan./Feb. 2007) available at: http://www.mul- tinationalmonitor.org/mm2007/012007/floegel.html37 Belasco, Amy, “The Cost of Iraq, Afghanistan, and Other Global War on Terror Operations Since 9/11,” Congressional Research Service (May 15, 2009) available at: www.fas.org/sgp/crs/natsec/RL33110.pdf38 U.S. Geological Survey, “90 Billion Barrels of Oil and 1,670 Trillion Cubic Feet of Natural Gas Assessed in the Arctic” (July 23, 2008) avail- able at: http://www.usgs.gov/newsroom/article.asp?ID=1980&from=rss_home39 Rowell, Andy, “Oil Frontiers: The Future of Oil,” Multinational Monitor, (Jan./Feb. 2007) available at: http://www.multinationalmonitor. org/mm2007/012007/rowell.html40 Indigenous Environmental Network, “IEN and REDOIL Environmental Justice Win in Alaska,” available at: http://www.ienearth.org/ news/WIN_IN_ALASKA!.html41 Ibid.42 Sierra Club, “Keystone XL Pipeline: Tribes Have Filed Lawsuit” (Aug. 4, 2009) available at: http://southdakota.sierraclub.org/Livin- gRiver/KeystonePipeline.htm43 “Environment Statistics: CO2 Emissions (most recent) by Country,” NationMaster.com, available at: http://www.nationmaster.com/ graph/env_co2_emi-environment-co2-emissions44 Western Canada Wilderness Committee, “Canada’s Tar Sands: What the Government Doesn’t Want You to Know,” available at: http:// wc-zope.emergence.com:8080/WildernessCommittee_Org/campaigns/wildlands/boreal/alberta/reports/Vol27No04/article345 Holt, John, “Nigeria of the North: Oil Sands Frenzy Threatens Alberta Environment,” E- The Environmental Magazine, available at: http://www.emagazine.com/view/?300746, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57 Native Agriculture & Food Systems Initiative, “Time for the Harvest: Renewing Native Food Sys-tems,” available at: www.firstnations.org/publications/NAFSIFinalPR92903.pdf58 Ibid.59 Ibid.60 The FAO Price Indices, “Food Outlook: Global Market Analysis” (June 2009) available at: http://www.fao.org/docrep/011/ai482e/ ai482e15.htm61 Johns Hopkins Center for a Livable Future, “The Agriculture and Public Health Gateway,”available at: http://aphg.jhsph. edu/?event=browse.subject&subjectID=1862 Tomczak, Jay, “Implications of Fossil Fuel Dependence for the Food System,” EnergyBulletin (Dec. 11, 2005) available at: http://www.energybulletin.net/node/1703663 Pirog, R.; Van Pelt, T., Enshayan, K. and Cook, E. “Food, Fuel, and Freeways: An Iowa perspective on how far food travels, fuel usage, and greenhouse gas emissions,” Leopold Center for Sustainable Agriculture, p. 1. (June 2001), available at: http://www.leopold.iastate.edu/ pubs/staff/ppp/index.htm64 Cox and Atkins, qtd. in Wes Jackson, “Natural Systems Agriculture: A Radical Alternative,” The Land Institute Journal (April 17, 2001).65 Weil, Andrew, Guide to Healthy Eating, p. 25 (2009).66 Klein, Ezra, “The Meat of the Problem,” The Washington Post (July 29, 2009) available at: http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/ content/article/2009/07/28/AR2009072800390.html67 Fanelli, Daniele, “Meat is Murder on the Environment,” New Scientist (July 18, 2007) (discussing study by Akifumi Ogino of the National Institute of Livestock and Grassland Science in Japan) available at: http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg19526134.50068 Ogino, Akifumi; Orito, Hideki; Shimada, Kazuhiro & Hirooka, Hiroyuki, “Evaluating Environmental Impacts of the Japanese Beef Cow– Calf System by the Life Cycle Assessment Method,”Animal Science Journal (July 9, 2007) available at: http://www3.interscience.wiley. com/journal/117979629/abstract?CRETRY=1&SRETRY=0 | 64 |
  • Sources69 Goodwin-Nguyen, Sarah, “Vegetarianism is Good for the Environment: How Reducing Meat, Fish, and Poultry Consumption Helps the Planet,” Suite101.com (July 26, 2009) available at: http://ecosystem-preservation.suite101.com/article.cfm/why_vegetarianism_is_ good_for_the_environment#ixzz0WUUCgWRx70 Ibid.71 Ibid.72 Ibid.73 “USDA Recalls 143 Million Pounds of Beef,” MSNBC, (March 3, 2008) available at: http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/23212514/74 “Chemicals: Messing Around in Nature’s Lab,” EcoHealth, available at: http://ecohealth101.org/whats_left/eat5.html75 Morley, H.V., “Methods to Assess Adverse Effects of Pesticides on Non-Target Organisms,” London Research Center, available at: http:// www.icsu-scope.org/downloadpubs/scope49/chapter06.html76 Duhigg, Charles, “Health Ills Abound as Farm Runoff Fouls Wells,” (Sept. 17, 2009) available at: http://www.nytimes.com/2009/09/18/ us/18dairy.html?_r=1&scp=1&sq=wisconsin%20farms&st=cse77 U.S. Geological Survey, “The Quality of Our Nation’s Waters: Nutrients and Pesticides,” p. 6, National Water Quality Assessment Program (1999).78 Ibid.79 Ibid.80 Glover, Jerry, “Characteristics of Annual vs. Perennial Systems,” The Land Institute (Feb. 20, 2003) available at: http://www.landinsti- tute.org/vnews/display.v/ART/2003/02/20/3e78b3f2d033681 Ibid.82 “150 ‘Dead Zones’ Counted in Oceans: U.N. Report Warns of Nitrogen Runoff Killing Fisheries,” msnbc, (March 29, 2004) available at: http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/4624359/83 Larsen, Janet, “Dead Zones Increasing in the World’s Coastal Waters,” Earth Policy Institute, (June 16, 2004) available at: http://www. earth-policy.org/index.php?/plan_b_updates/2004/update4184 GAO Audits of the Commodity Food Area, T-RCED-90-15 (Nov. 15, 1989).85 Wolfe WS, Sanjur D., “Contemporary diet and body weight of Navajo women receiving food assistance: an ethnographic and nutritional investigation,” Journal of American Dietetic Association, 822-27 (1988).86 Mihesuah, at 16 (citing research from the Native American Diabetes Initiative).87 Ibid.88 Ibid. at 51.89 Ibid.90 Rainforest Action Network, “Rainforest Agribusiness,” available at: http://ran.org/what_we_do/rainforest_agribusiness/about_the_ campaign/91 Fogarty, David, “Indonesia Applies for World Bank forest CO2 Scheme,” Reuters (March 4, 2009) available at: http://www.reuters.com/ article/latestCrisis/idUSSP39405192 Pierce, Lizana K., “DOE’s Tribal Energy Program,” U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, avail- able at: http://www.harvestcleanenergy.org/conference/HCE9/Post-conference/PPT/LizanaPierce.pdf93 Ibid.94 Honor the Earth staff interview with Bob Gough, Secretary of Intertribal Council On Utility Policy (2009).95 “Renewable & Alternative Energy Portfolio Standards,” Pew Center on Global Climate Change, available at: http://www.pewclimate. org/what_s_being_done/in_the_states/rps.cfm96 Wiser, Ryan, “Renewables Portfolio Standards: A Factual Introduction to Experience from the United States,” Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, available at: eetd.lbl.gov/ea/EMS/reports/62569.pdf97 Alliant Energy, “Wind Power The Fastest-Growing Energy Source Anywhere,”Alberta Lea Tribune (May 30, 2009) available at: http:// www.albertleatribune.com/news/2009/may/30/wind-power-fastest-growing-energy-source-anywhere/98 “Wind: AWEA Trumpets Success, CanWEA Laments ‘Failure,’” Clean Break (Jan. 28, 2009) available at: http://www.cleanbreak. ca/2009/01/28/wind-awea-trumpets-success-canwea-laments-failure/99 Ibid.100 “Growth in Wind Power Will Create ‘Green Collar’ Jobs, According to Duke Study,” Duke University Website (describing study by Duke University’s Center for Globalization, Governance & Competitiveness (CGGC) entitled “Wind Power: Generating Electricity and Em- ployment,”) available at: http://news.duke.edu/2009/09/windpower.html | 65 |
  • Sustainable Tribal Economies: A Guide to Restoring Energy and Food Sovereignty in Native America101 Devlin, Katy, “Solar market suffers in the face of lost incentives and the recession,” Glass (Oct. 27, 2009) available at: http://www.glass- magazine.com/news-item/commercial/solar-market-suffers-face-lost-incentives-and-recession102 Galbraith, Kate, “Solar Industry Posts Strong Growth in 2008,” The New York Times (March 19, 2009) available at: http://greeninc.blogs. nytimes.com/2009/03/19/solar-industry-posts-strong-growth-in-2008/103 Rascoe, Ayesha, “Recession Cools Solar Energy Growth,” Reuters (March 18, 2009) available at: http://www.reuters.com/article/idUS- TRE52H4PC20090318104 Osborne, Mark, “U.S. solar market to top 440MW in ’09, says GTM Research: 50% annual growth through 2012,” PV-Tech.org (Dec. 8, 2009) available at: http://www.pv-tech.org/news/_a/u.s._solar_market_to_top_440mw_in_09_says_gtm_research_50_annual_ growth_thr/105 Organic Consumers Association, “Organic Food: Growth Will Continue” (Jan. 26, 2009), available at: http://www.organicconsumers. org/articles/article_16656.cfm106 Nield, Jeff, “Organic Food Sales Still Growing Despite Economic Woes” (Feb. 1, 2009) available at: http://www.treehugger.com/ files/2009/02/organic-food-sales-still-growing.php107 Ibid.108 “Despite Recession, the Market for ‘Ethical’ Consumer Products Remains Healthy,” Earth Times (Oct. 5, 2009) available at: http://www. earthtimes.org/articles/show/despite-recession-the-market-for-ethical-consumer-products-remains-healthy,985725.shtml109 Ibid.110 Ibid.111 Zabarenko, Deborah, “$100 billion Could Yield 2 million ‘Green’ Jobs,” Reuters (Sept. 9, 2008) available at: http://www.reuters.com/ article/environmentNews/idUSN0930092120080909112 “Putting Renewables to Work: How Many Jobs can the Clean Energy Industry Generate,” Renewable and Appropriate Energy Laborato- ries, (April 2004) available at: http://rael.berkeley.edu/files/2004/Kammen-Renewable-Jobs-2004.pdf113 Reiss, Jeremy “High Performance Buildings: Promoting Economic Development and a Healthy City,” Urban Agenda, (Sept. 27, 2004) available at: http://www.urbanagenda.org/publications/jeremy_intro324_testimony.htm114 Bezdek, Roger, “Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency: Drivers for the 2lst Century,” American Solar Energy Society, (2007) available at: http://www.greenforall.org/resources/renewable-energy-and-energy-efficiency-economic115 Testimony of Marshall R. Goldberg, In the Matter of Otter Tail Power Company, Case No. EL05-022 (May 19, 2006) available at: http:// www.ucsusa.org/assets/documents/clean_energy/testimony_goldberg.pdf116 Ibid.117 “Navajo Council OKs Effort to Create Green Jobs,” CNBC (July 23, 2009) available at: http://www.cnbc.com/id/32102138118 Iowa Lakes Community College, “Programs of Study,” available at: http://www.iowalakes.edu/programs_study/index.htm119 Minnesota West Community & Technical College, “Alphabetical Listing of Programs,” available at: http://www.mnwest.edu/programs/ alphabetical/#4845120 “Grijalva Introduces Bill to Facilitate Renewable Energy Projects on Tribal Lands,” Yuma News Now (June 19, 2009) available at: http:// yumanewsnow.com/index2.php?option=com_content&do_pdf=1&id=1583121 Ibid.122 NativeEnergy, “NativeEnergy Supports An Evolving Portfolio of Carbon Reducing Projects,” available at: http://www.nativeenergy. com/pages/our_carbon_projects/413.php123 Solar Energy International, “Technology Primers: Solar Energy” available at: http://www.solarenergy.org/technology-primers124 US Department of Energy, “Solar FAQs—Concentrating Solar Power, The Basics,” available at: http://apps1.eere.energy.gov/solar/ cfm/faqs/third_level.cfm/name=Concentrating%20Solar%20Power/cat=The%20Basics125 Ibid.126 Miller, Tyler G., Living in the Environment, p. 409 (2000).127 Ibid. at 410.128 Ibid. at 410.129 Kostelecky, Kendra “Natchez Elementary Unveils Solar Power Project,” Go Green, (Jan. 27, 2009) available at: http://www.kolotv.com/ green/headlines/19416849.html130 “Black Rock Solar: About,” available at http://www.blackrocksolar.org/?page_id=8131 Interview with Tom Price by Winona LaDuke (June 30, 2008). For more information please email Tom Price at tom@blackrocksolar. org.132 Honor the Earth staff interview with Pat Spears, President of the Intertribal Council On Utility Policy. | 66 |
  • Sources133 “Tribal Renewable Energy - Final Report for the Fort Peck Reservation Wind Project,” DOE Tribal Energy Program (Aug.15, 2007) avail- able at: http://apps1.eere.energy.gov/tribalenergy/pdfs/fortpeck03final.pdf134 “Spirit Lake Sioux Wind Energy Project,” Department of Energy, available at: http://www.windpoweringamerica.gov/nativeameri- cans/sioux.asp135 “Message From the Chairman & CEO, Ron Philemonoff,” Kachix: Special Edition (Nov. 11, 2008) available at: http://www.tanadgusix. com/kachix-wind-se.pdf136 Wright, Bruce & Fredeberg, Connie, “Wind Energy Development in the Aleutian Pribilof Islands: The Birthplace of the Wind,” Tribal Energy Program Review (Nov. 18, 2008) available at: http://apps1.eere.energy.gov/tribalenergy/pdfs/0811review_19wright.pdf137 Falcon, James C., “Wind Turbine is Going Up,” Turtle Mountain Star (March 10, 2008) available at: http://www.turtle-mountain.cc.nd. us/news/turbnews.asp138 For additional information see “Kumeyaay Wind Energy Project: San Diego County’s First Commercial Wind Project.” Available by typ- ing “Kumeyaay Wind Energy” in Google’s search engine.139 Soto, Onell R., “Wind-Farm Project Set for Campo Reservation,” The San Diego Union Tribune (June 2009) available at: http://www3. signonsandiego.com/stories/2009/jun/11/wind-farm-project-set-campo-reservation/140 Hellman, Jennifer, “Mille Lacs Band of Ojibwe: Press Release,” available at: http://www.millelacsojibwe.org/page_PressReleaseCon- tent.aspx?prid=228141 Geiger, Bob, ”With New Biomass Plant, Xcel Energy Becomes Electricity Customer” (June 26, 2009) available at: http://www.finance- commerce.com/article.cfm/2009/06/27/With-new-biomass-plant-Xcel-Energy-becomes-electricity-customer142 “Biodiesel Q&A,” Idaho Office of Energy Resources, available at: http://www.energy.idaho.gov/renewableenergy/biodiesel_qa.shtml143 Johnson, Kirk, “A New Test for Business and Biofuel,” The New York Times Aug. 16, 2009) available at: http://www.nytimes. com/2009/08/17/business/energy-environment/17algae.html?_r=2&hp144 Staff Interview with Green Energy.145 “Why Thermal Storage?,” GARN Website, available at: http://garn.com/content/storage.aspx146 Romancito, Rick, “Taos Pueblo Fires Up County’s First Biomass Heating System,” The Taos News (March 14, 2008) available at: http:// taosnews.com/articles/2008/03/14/news/doc47d8169db7af9849932953.txt147 Ibid.148 “Energy Solutions,” Shakopee Mdewakanton Sioux Community Website, available at: http://www.shakopeedakota.org/3energy.html149 Weatherford, Jack, Indian Givers, p. 71 (1988).150 Mihesuah, Devon Abbott, Recovering Our Ancestors’ Gardens, p. 23 (2005).151 Ibid. at 24.152 LaSalle, Tim J. & Hepperly, Paul, Rodale Institute, “Regenerative Organic Farming: A Solution to Global Warming”(2008) available at: www.rodaleinstitute.org/files/Rodale_Research_Paper-07_30_08.pdf.153 Ibid.154 Hassel, Craig, “Good Nutrition at Harvest Time,” Harvest Newsletter of the Dream of Wild Health Network (Oct. 2003).155 Ibid.156 Ibid.157 Hunting for Tomorrow, “From the Field to the Table: The Benefits of Eating Wild Game” available at: www.huntingfortomorrow.com/ HFTF.../FS%2015%20Oct%2008.pdf158 Ibid.159 Ibid.160 Ibid.161 Ibid.162 Modified from document entitled “Clean Renewable Energy Bonds,” prepared by the National Rural Electric Cooperative Association, available at: http://www.nreca.org/documents/publicpolicy/cleanrenewableenergybonds.pdf163 Modified from Windustry, “Interconnection Agreement,” available at: http://www.windustry.org/interconnection-agreement164 Clean West Capital, “Glossary,” available at: http://www.cleancapitalwest.com/glossary.html165 Modified from Brundtland Commission, Our Common Future (1987).166 Modified from US Department of Energy description of the Tribal Energy Program, available at: http://apps1.eere.energy.gov/trib- alenergy/ | 67 |
  • Sustainable Tribal Economies: A Guide to Restoring Energy and Food Sovereignty in Native AmericaNotes: | 68 |
  • NotesNotes: | 69 |
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