Basic concepts of sport


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Basic concepts of sport

  1. 1. BASIC CONCEPT OF SPORT Ma. Katryn T. Calumpang
  2. 2. SPORT • part of the civilized societies through out history • Greece in the 5th century B.C. – sport was the central importance to the culture
  3. 3. • Middle Ages – sport was officially frowned on but still enjoyed by the common people in villages and towns.
  4. 4. • Roman Empire – athletes formed a strong labor union for higher fees and prizes • Early America - sports flourished in different forms
  5. 5. Sport – The Natural Religion Sport is a natural religion and that we must understand it as such to grasp its fundamental importance. Michael Novak (1970)
  6. 6. How is Sport a Religion? Sport is organized and dramatized in a religious way • Rituals Toss coin, opening lineups etc.
  7. 7. Vestments Costumes
  8. 8. Figure who enforce rules and mete out punishments Referees
  9. 9. • Religion teaches perseverance, courage and sacrifice Sport if taught well, teaches perseverance, courage and sacrifice • sense of powers that are outside one’s control the ball bounces to the left etc.
  10. 10. Saints Heroes and Heroines
  11. 11. Believing in sport does not preclude being Christian, Jewish or Muslim Sport, like religion, can be intensely personal, yet, in its fullest sense, it is communalFor or by a group rather than individuals
  12. 12. Sports provides humans with the greatest opportunity to achieve human excellence and it is that striving for excellence that he sees the best of sport. (Paul Weiss 1969)
  13. 13. Sport creates conditions within which people test themselves and find out a great deal about who they are in moments of self-revelation during competition. (Eleanor Metheny 1970)
  14. 14. • Sport has the power to teach • Sport is not necessarily a force for good, but it is indeed a force (Wilfred Sheed 1995)
  15. 15. A powerful force that it not only tells you much about yourself as an individual but also reveals a great deal about the society within which sport is pursued.
  16. 16. Four Related Concepts: • Leisure • Play • Games • Competition
  17. 17. Leisure: • an attitude of freedom or release from the demands of ordinary life • an activity shifts the focus from the person to the event and those who are responsible for providing services the event represents
  18. 18. • traditionally been the discretionary time left over after work, family, and personal maintenance commitments are handled Leisure attitude, leisure activities, and leisure time are often thought to be related to play – that is a playful attitude, play activities, and play time.
  19. 19. Play: Sports a Form of Play • sport is a manifestation of play • play is a motivating impulse underlying the development of drama, art, music.
  20. 20. It is a free activity standing quite consciously outside “ordinary” life as being “not serious,” but at the same time absorbing the player intensely and utterly. (Johan Huizinga)
  21. 21. Characteristics of Play (Sociologist Roger Caillois 1961) • free • Separate • Uncertain • Unproductive • Governed by rules or by make-believe
  22. 22. 1. Free – sport is most playful when people either into it voluntarily 2. Separate – Sport conduct in places where the time and space limits are fixed in advance. 3. Uncertain – Sport is most playful when it is uncertain, when the contestants in a competition are evenly matched.
  23. 23. 4. Economically unproductive – Activity is most playful when it does not result in any new wealth being created (opposed to work) 5. Governed by rules – Play is almost always regulated, these rules standardizes the competition 6. Governed by make-believe – Play that is not rule governed dominated by make-believe
  24. 24. Play: Child’s Play and Adult Play • play is the most basic form of behavior in young children • through play, children acquire much of their early knowledge about the physical and social world in which they live
  25. 25. • adults play: calculation, subordination to rules, contrivance, and ritual • children’s play: turbulence, gaiety, spontaneous, diversion
  26. 26. Games: • any form of playful competition whose outcome is determined by physical skill, strategy or chance employed singly or in a combination 1. Games derive from play 3 Important parts: 2. Games involve competition 3. The outcome of the game is determined by use of physical skill, strategy, or chance.
  27. 27. • Games that have outcomes determined primarily by chance – (dice) – are not sports • Games that involve strong elements of strategy but involve no physical skill are not sport, e.g. bridge, chess, and other board games
  28. 28. 1. Primarily Rules – Each sport game is different because each game poses a problem to be solved. 2. Secondary Rules – defines the institutionalized form of the game or what we might called the parent game. • Can be altered or modified
  29. 29. Classification of Games: 1. Territory or invasion games – defined by the problem of needing to invade the space of the opponent to score 2 Types: 1. Goals are used (basketball, soccer etc.) 2. Lines are used ( Rugby etc.)
  30. 30. 2. Target games – the primary rules of propelling objects with great accuracy toward the targets 2 Types: 1. Directly opposed 2. Indirectly opposed
  31. 31. 4. Field Games – primary rules that require one opponent to strike an object such as to elder defenders on the field 3. Court Games – an object is strategically propelled in ways cannot be returned by the opponent
  32. 32. Competition in Sports and Games Competition – a rivalry in which opponents strive to gain something at the expense of each other 3 related meanings of the concept: 1. To come together 2. To strive to achieve an objective 3. To be is a state of rivalry
  33. 33. The Institutionalization of Sport • Rules were suggested, someone thought of a new game to play, the goal of the game was explained, equipment was probably assigned and special space was acquired.
  34. 34. The Codification of Rules: • the rules governing the sport are codified • defined primarily by the rules and secondarily by the traditions that develop within the sport as it becomes institutionalized.
  35. 35. The Role of the Referee: It is to ensure fairness by seeing that all contestants honor the rules and that no contestants get an advantage that is disallowed by the rule.
  36. 36. The Genesis of Sport Organizations: • the forming of sports organizations
  37. 37. Importance of Records: • provide standards against which participants measure their improvement and set goals. • provide great items of great interest to those who follow the sport but do not necessarily participate in it. • primary motivation: increased competence and getting better
  38. 38. The Public Nature of Institutionalized Sport: • the public role becomes part of the culture • the facet of institutionalized sport that is responsible for sport journalism, sport broadcasting, and sport literature
  39. 39. Sport Spectating • most frequently mentioned leisure time activities • sport spectator is not just a fan • often a sophisticated, knowle dgeable, and appreciative viewer
  40. 40. Sport Aesthetics • sports and athletes have always been subjects for art • to understand aesthetic in sports, we must find beauty in sport rather than in paintings • the beauty of the art is found in the performance itself
  41. 41. Aesthetics of Form Sports • the physical form of the performance is the determining factor in the competition – diving, gymnastics and figure skating
  42. 42. • sport performances are decided by a judging system and the judges look for aesthetic qualities in the performance
  43. 43. Aesthetic Quality of other Sports: 4 Beauty Present in Sports 1. The beauty of a well-developed body in motion 2. The beauty of a brilliant play or a perfectly executed maneuver. 3. The beauty in a dramatic competition 4. The beauty in the unity of a entire performance
  44. 44. Sport Ethics • ethics or moral philosophy, is concerned with how the people ought to behave, particularly in situations in which there is potential for behaving well or poorly • most people believe deeply that participation in sport builds character
  45. 45. Fair Play: • concept of fair play encompasses how a sportsperson behaves not only during a contest but before • a sport should be played fairly and vigorously, with opponents always honoring one and another
  46. 46. Rules and Nature of Games: • a competition should be viewed as a test among opponents in which all have agreed what the test will be.
  47. 47. Sport cannot ultimately survive, if participants regularly abuse the rules and conventions that define the sport
  48. 48. THANK YOU!