Jean Piaget(1896-1980), Piaget was a psychologist who developed the cognitive learningtheory after he observed children for many years. Piaget formed the 4cognitive stagesJerome Bruner(1915- ), an American psychologist and educator who proposed thatlearning is an active process in which the learner constructs new ideas orconcepts based on current or past knowledgeLev Vygotsky(1896-1934), a Russian educational psychologist. He developed what isknown as social cognition, he believed that learning was influencedsignificantly by social development.John Dewey(1859-1952), was an education psychologist, philosopher, and politicalactivist who was an advocate for child-centered instruction. Believed thatlearning should be engage the learner.
Students learn by doing“When students actively participate in the learning process by using critical-thinking skills to analyze a problem, they will create, or construct their ownunderstanding of the topic or problem.”(p.376)Constructivist theory“based on a type of learning in which the learner forms, or constructs, muchof what he or she learns or comprehends.”(p.376)Adaption, Assimilation, Accommodation“Adaption is their cognitive understanding or development at any giventime. Assimilation: children assimilate new knowledge as the experiencenew things and learn new information. Accommodation: children fit thisinformation or these experiences into their lives to change their knowledgebase and to make sense of their environment”(p.378)Social Cognition“Vygotsky believed that learning was influenced significantly by socialdevelopment. He theorized that leaning took place within the context of achilds social development and culture. (p.380)
SensorimotorImitation, learn through senses and motor activities, do not understand theworld around them, and egocentricPreoperationalEgocentric, pretend play, drawing ability, speech and communicationdevelopment, concrete thinking, and intuitive reasoningConcrete operationalClassification, logical reasoning, problemsolving, and beginnings of abstract thinkingFormal operationalComparative reasoning, abstract thinking,deductive logic, and test hypotheses
Teachers use Teachers generally behave in an interactive manner mediating the environment for students. Teachers seek the students point of view in order to understand student learning for use in subsequent conceptions. Assessment of student learning is interwoven with teaching and occurs through teacher observation of students at work and through exhibitions and portfolios.Students use Students primarily work in groups. Curriculum is presented whole to part with emphasis on the big concept.(top - down) Pursuit of student questions is highly valued. Curricular activities rely heavily on primary sources. Students are viewed as thinkers with emerging theories about the world.
AlisonThis learning theory is present in the young children learning process. Toride a bike takes practice, its something that you just cant learn word ofmouth or through text. With math, this theory best expresses my learningstyle; I need to be able to practice the math example to actually understandit. In my opinion, this is also the major theory behind learning sports ormusic. You need to actually participate to thoroughly learn the lesson. Youcan sit there and read about football or baseball and have the concept down,but still not know how to actually play it until you go out and play.BryanThis theory holds that the purpose of learning is for a student to constructhis or her own meaning, not just memorize the “right” answers andregurgitate someone else’s meaning. One way I would incorporate thistheory into my classroom is by creating an activity, project or some kind ofexperience so that I can set students to work as soon as possible and thenteach what I want them to know and understand by offering suggestions asthey work. I feel that in a classroom setting the teacher needs to create theactivities that will motivate students to learn so that moments where you theteacher can explain something to each students can emerge like popcornsnapping to life in a popcorn machine.
“I hear and I forget. I see and Iremember. I do and I understand.” ~Confucius
Cognitive Stages Chart http://faculty.plattsburgh.edu/william.gaeddert/images/M13-1c2.jpg- (img on slide 4)from text book Slides 2,3,5Piaget Image http://www.flickr.com/photos/josemota/3617683026/ (img on slide 5)Children image http://01.edu-cdn.com/files/static/g/pcl_0001_0001_0_img0050.jpg (Slide 8)