Entrepreneurial intention and values in the Basque Country Garazi Azanza, University of Deusto Tontxu Campos, University of Deusto Juan A. Moriano, UNED
Purpose The purpose of this study is to examine the value-intention link in a sample of 450 Basque university students, in order to identify which types of values predict university students’ entrepreneurial intentions.
Cognitive perspective in entrepreneurship research Economic growth EntrepreneurshipEntrepreneurial intention Cognitive perspective: ? Analyses the internal process that takes place beforehand in which education can be influential
Values and entrepreneurial intention Desirable and trans-situational goals which act as principles Values that guide peoples lives Values can cause behaviour Desires Indicator of entrepreneurial intention Habits Beliefs Entrepreneurial intention
Definition of values identified by Schwartz (1992) Achievement Power Stimulation Personal success, through Hedonism Social status and prestige; Emotion, novelty and demonstrating competence, Sensual pleasure and control or domination of achievements in life, for in accordance with social satisfaction, for oneself. people and resources. variety and change. standards. Benevolence Tradition. Self-direction Universalism Preservation and Respect, commitment andIndependence of thought and Understanding, appreciation, enhancement of the welfare acceptance of the customsdecision-making, creation and tolerance and protection for of those people with whom and ideas that traditional exploration (creativity, the welfare of all people and one is in frequent personal culture and religion provide independence, freedom). nature. contact. people with. Conformity Control of actions, Security inclinations and impulses Harmony and stability of likely to injure others, and society, both of relationships violating the social norms and and oneself. expectations.
Structure of relationships between values Source: Ros et al. (1999), p.53. Self-transcendenceOpenness to change Universalism Self-direction Benevolence Stimulation Conformity Tradition Hedonism Security Conservation Achievement Power Self-enhancement
Previous research Kecharananta and Moriano, Palaci and Moriano, Palaci and Licht (2010), Baker (1999) Trejo (2001) Morales (2006) Noseleit (2010)• Individualism • Values of an • Individualistic values • Openness to• Independence individualistic positively predict change• Resistance to nature (hedonism, the entrepreneurial • Self-enhancement authority achievement, intention power, stimulation and self-direction)
Research hypotheses Openess to change + Self-enhancement + Entrepreneurial - intentionSelf-transcendence - Conservation
Entrepreneurial intention and socioeconomic variables Family environment Gender Entrepreneurial intention Work Age experience
MethodSample and procedure Others Economic 24% and Men Business 43%450 university students Women 30% 57%Average age: 20.06 (DT=3.50) Law 21% Engineering 25%Invitation to participate in the research via e-mail Objectives Confidentiality Link to the online questionnaire (15’)
MethodMeasures Values Entrepreneurial intention Socio-demographic data • Age,• Spanish version of the • Scale of 5 items used in • Gender Portrait Values Questionnaire previous studies on • Province (PVQ) from Schwartz, et al. entrepreneurial intention • Socio-economic level (2001) (Liñan and Chen, 2009; • Employment status• 10 value types (40 items) Moriano et al., 2007) • Work and self-employed• "For him/her being rich is • "One day Im going to create a experience, important. He/she wants to business initiative" • Contact with support have a lot of money and organisations for expensive things” entrepreneurs, • Parents education • Existence of family entrepreneurs
MethodData analysis Partial Least Squares (PLS): SmartPLS Estimates of standardised regression coefficients for the model paths, which can be used to measure the relationship between latent variables. Outer model: Relationship between constructs and their indicators Inner model: Relationship between constructs
ResultsData analysis:Outer model. Convergent and discriminant validity.Means (M), Standard Deviations (SD), correlations, and discriminant validityConstruct M (SD) 1 2 3 4 51. Entrepreneurial intention 3.45 (1.30) .832. Openness 3.74 (.65) .34** .783. Self-transcendence 2.78 (.87) .13** .46** .844. Self-enhancement 3.93 (.62) .33** .32** .04** .875. Conservation 2.99 (1.30) .26** .26** .38** .29** .72Notes. Diagonal elements are the square root of AVE between the constructs and their indicators. For discriminantvalidity, diagonal elements should be greater than off-diagonal elements in the same row and column (**p<.01).
ResultsInner model Openness .24** Gender Self- -.14** enhancement .15** .14** Entrepreneurial Entrepreneurial intention Self- family transcendence .19** Business studies Conservation **p<.01.
To conclude:Openness to change & self-enhancement IntentionImplications: Adaptation of studies: Efforts should be devoted to developing these values and work should then be done to foster entrepreneurial intention in individuals. Gender, entrepreneurial family, and business administration education are important psychosocial aspects for the development of entrepreneurial intention.
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Research supported by:CC- by inlinguaManchester CC- by Victor1558 CC- by Victor1558 CC- by Victor1558 CC- by Victor1558 CC- by Horia Varlan