AANTECEDENTS AND CONSEQUENCES OF AUTHENTIC LEADERSHIPGarazi Azanza1 , Marjan Gorgievski1, Juan A. Moriano3 & Fernando Molero31 University of Deusto2 Erasmus University Rotterdam3 Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia (UNED)
Purpose1) to examine what predicts followers perceptions ofleaders’ authentic leadership, specifically leadersself-perceptions, leaders’ PsyCap, gender and leader-follower distance, and 2) its effect on employees’PsyCap and work engagement.
Authentic leadershipPositivePsychologicalCapacitiesPositiveOrganizationalContextPositiveself-developmentAuthenticleadershipTrigger events/ChallengesConfidenceHopeOptimismResiliencyHighlydevelopedorganizationAuthentic leadership development model. Adapted from Avolio and Luthans (2003).Positive outcomeson followers
Authentic leadershipAuthenticleadershipSelf-awarenessRelationaltransparencyBalancedprocessingInternal moralperspectiveComponents of authentic leadership (Walumbwa et al., 2008)
PositivePsychologicalCapacitiesPositiveOrganizationalContextPositiveself-developmentAuthenticleadershipTrigger events/ChallengesConfidenceHopeOptimismResiliencyHighlydevelopedorganizationAuthentic leadership development model. Adapted from Avolio and Luthans (2003).Antecedents of authentic leadershipPositive outcomeson followersPsyCap
Antecedents of authentic leadershipLeader’s self-perceptions Leaders’ self-awareness is considered a key element for self-others agreement:A self-aware leader may be more conscious of how others perceive him or her,resulting in a more accurate self-assessment (Atwater &Yammarino, 2006). Since self-awareness is a component of authentic leadership, we expect to find arelationship between self-ratings of authentic leadership and followers’ perception.
Antecedents of authentic leadershipLeader-follower distance Followers’ perception about their leaders can be influenced by the leader-followerdistance (Antonakis & Atwater, 2002). The different impact of distant or close leaders on followers may stem from thedifference in the information followers have about their leaders (Dvir & Shamir,2003). Authentic leaders may be able to give information about their relationaltransparency and build authentic relationships in close leader-follower situations, andhaving a frequent communication may give the followers the opportunity to knowthe leaders deeper and evaluate their moral perspective.
Antecedents of authentic leadershipLeader’s gender Women exceed men on transformational factors (Eagly, Johannesen-Schmidt, vanEngen &Vinkenburg, 2003) and are perceived to display more transformationalbehaviors (Vinkenburg, van Engen, Eagly & Johannesen-Schmidt, 2011) Women exhibit higher ethical beliefs and intentions to act more ethically than men(Valentine & Rittenburg, 2007). Given that authentic leadership is highly correlated with transformational leadership(Walumbwa et al., 2008) and considering the moral component of authentic leadership,we expect that women will be evaluated to be more authentic than men.
Positiveorganizationaloutcomes onfollowersPositivePsychologicalCapacitiesPositiveOrganizationalContextPositiveself-developmentAuthenticleadershipTrigger events/ChallengesConfidenceHopeOptimismResiliencyHighlydevelopedorganizationAuthentic leadership development model. Adapted from Avolio and Luthans (2003).PsyCapWorkengagementConsequences of authentic leadership
Consequences of authentic leadershipPsyCap PsyCap may explain the positive effects of authentic leaders on their followers(Walumbwa et al., 2008). Through contagion effects (Ilies et al., 2005), the psychological strengths of authenticleaders may promote the employees PsyCap (Luthans, et al., 2007).Work Engagement The relationship between work engagement and authentic leadership has beenpreviously analysed (Walumbwa,Wang,Wang, Schaubroeck & Avolio, 2010). Authentic leadership may positively impact on employees’ engagement through amodelling process which may transmit leader’s engagement and commitment to hisor her work and the organization to the followers.
Method40 team leaders and 190 team members from big private Spanish retail companies.On average, each team had 5.9 members (SD = 1.48) Employees: 33.88 years old (SD = 7.49) and predominantly female (65.3%). 48.7%had graduated from vocational school and 31.6% had a university degree. Onaverage, participants had been members of their current organization for 5.04years (SD = 3.77). Leaders: 35.94 years old (SD = 6.06) and primarly female (61.1%) and had auniversity degree (68.9%) or vocational training (20.2%). They had been membersof their current organization for 6.25 years (SD = 4.56).Sample
Authentic leadership: Spanish adaptation (Moriano, Molero & Lévy Mangin, 2011) ofthe 16-item Authentic Leadership Questionnaire (Walumbwa et al., 2008). PsyCap: Spanish adaptation (Azanza, Domínguez, Moriano & Molero, in press) of the24-item Psychological Capital Qustionnaire (PCQ) developed by Luthans, Avolio, Youssefand Norman (2007). Work engagement: Spanish version (Salanova, Schaufeli, Llorens, Peiro, & Grau, 2000)of the 17 item Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (Schaufeli & Bakker, 2003). Leader-follower distance: 3-item scale (e.g., “How often do you meet yoursupervisor?”) which assesses how often employees and leaders meet and communicatetogether. Demographic Variables: age, gender, education level, and tenure with theorganization.MeasuresMethod
Means (M), Standard Deviations (SD), Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICC) and correlations**p < .01, *p <.05Note: aggregated results are in the upper diagonal and disaggregated in the lower diagonalConstruct M (SD) ICC 1 2 3 4 5 61. AL rated by leaders 4.43 (.51) - .04 .62** .24** .14* .112. Perceived AL 4.05 (1.05) .63 .02 -.00 .10 .17* .47**3. Leader’s PsyCap 4.35 (.68) - .62** -.00 .23** .12 .22**4. Follower’s PsyCap 3.94 (.68) .77 .16* .20** .15* .62** .38**5. Engagement 4.18 (.85) .74 .09 .29** .08 .57** .36**6. Leader-followerdistance 3.80 (1.32) .74 .07 .52** .14* .28** .34**Results
Discussion Self-others discrepancy for authentic leadership ratings. Leader’s gender (being woman) and leader-follower distance(frequent communication) are antecedents of authentic leadership. Follower’s rated authentic leadership predicts follower PsyCap throughits influence on work engagement.
Limitations and future research:• Outcome variables based on follower assessment Include objectiveindicators and leader assessment.• Longitudinal study to track the process of the way antecedents lead toa perception of authentic leadership. Analysis of the role of both leader’s and follower’s ratings of leader’sauthentic leadership and its effect on follower’s outcomes. Introduction of the concepts of leader-follower distance and leader’sgender.Discussion