International marketing (7)

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  • An important first step in adapting a product to a foreign market is to determine the degree of newness as perceived by the intended market. How people react to newness and how new a product is to a market must be understood. From a sociological viewpoint, any idea perceived as new by a group of people is an innovation. Whether or not a group accepts an innovation, and the time it takes to do so, depends on the product’s characteristics. Products new to a social system are innovations, and knowledge about the diffusion (i.e., the process by which innovation spreads) of innovation is helpful in developing a successful product strategy. A critical factor in the newness of a product is its effect on established patterns of consumption and behavior. The goal of a foreign marketer is to gain product acceptance by the largest number of consumers in the market in the shortest span of time. The question comes to mind of whether the probable rate of acceptance can be predicted before committing resources and, more critically, if the probable rate of acceptance is too slow, whether it can be accelerated.
  • Everett Rogers noted that “crucial elements in the diffusion of new ideas are (1) an innovation, (2) which is communicated through certain channels, (3) over time, (4) among the members of a social system.” The goals of the diffusion researcher and the marketer are to shorten the time lag between introduction of an idea or product and its widespread adoption. At least three extraneous variables affect the rate of diffusion of an object: the degree of perceived newness, the perceived attributes of the innovation, and the method used to communicate the idea. Each variable has a bearing on consumer reaction to a new product and the time needed for acceptance. An understanding of these variables can produce better product strategies for the international marketer.
  • Analyzing the five characteristics of an innovation can assist in determining the rate of acceptance or resistance of the market to a product. A product’s relative advantage (the perceived marginal value of the new product relative to the old); compatibility (its compatibility with acceptable behavior, norms, values, and so forth); complexity (the degree of complexity associated with product use); trialability (the degree of economic and/or social risk associated with product use); and observability (the ease with which the product benefits can be communicated) affect the degree of its acceptance or resistance. In general, the rate of diffusion can be postulated as positively related to relative advantage, compatibility, trialability, and observability, but negatively related to complexity. By analyzing a product within these five dimensions, a marketer can often uncover perceptions held by the market that, if left unchanged, would slow product acceptance. Conversely, if these perceptions are identified and changed, the marketer may be able to accelerate product acceptance.
  • Some consideration must be given to the inventiveness of companies and countries. Expenditures are about the same across member countries of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development at about two to three percent of GDP, so America’s large economy supports twice the R&D spending as does Japan, for example. This spending yields about three times the U.S. patents granted to American firms versus Japanese firms. Most interestingly, the Japanese government had diagnosed the problem as a lack of business training. Japanese engineers are not versed in marketing and entrepreneurship, and American-style educational programs are being created at a record pace to fill the gap. Finally, it must be recognized that new ideas come from a growing variety of sources, countries, acquisitions, and even global collaborations (in both R&D and marketing), the last now being referred to as “open innovation.”
  • A product is multidimensional, and the sum of all its features determines the bundle of satisfactions (utilities) received by the consumer. By using this model, the impact of the cultural, physical, and mandatory factors that affect a market’s acceptance of a product can be focused on the core component, packaging component, and support services component. These components include all a product’s tangible and intangible elements and provide the bundle of utilities the market receives from use of the product.
  • To identify all the possible ways a product may be adapted to a new market, it helps to separate its many dimensions into three distinct components as illustrated in Exhibit 12.1.
  • As we just saw in the previous illustration, the core component consists of the physical product—the platform that contains the essential technology—and all its design and functional features. It is on the product platform that product variations can be added or deleted to satisfy local differences. Major adjustments in the platform aspect of the core component may be costly because a change in the platform can affect product processes and thus require additional capital investment. However, alterations in design, functional features, flavors, color, and other aspects can be made to adapt the product to cultural variations. Functional features can be added or eliminated depending on the market.
  • The packaging component includes style features, packaging, labeling, trademarks, brand name, quality, price, and all other aspects of a product’s package. Packaging components frequently require both discretionary and mandatory changes. For example, some countries require labels to be printed in more than one language, while others forbid the use of any foreign language. Elements in the packaging component may incorporate symbols that convey an unintended meaning and thus must be changed. Package size and price have an important relationship in bottom of the pyramid countries. Companies find that they have to package in small units to bring the price in line with spending norms. Reasons why a company might have to adapt a product’s package are countless. Marketers must examine each of the elements of the packaging component to be certain that this part of the product conveys the appropriate meaning and value to a new market.
  • The support services component includes repair and maintenance, instructions, installation, warranties, deliveries, and the availability of spare parts. Many otherwise successful marketing programs have ultimately failed because little attention was given to this product component. Repair and maintenance are especially difficult problems in developing countries. Consumers in a developing country and in many developed countries may not have even one of the possibilities for repair and maintenance available in the United States, and independent service providers can be used to enhance brand and product quality. In some countries, the concept of routine maintenance or preventive maintenance is not a part of the culture. As a result, products may have to be adjusted to require less-frequent maintenance, and special attention must be given to features that may be taken for granted in the United States. Literacy rates and educational levels of a country may require a firm to change a product’s instructions. A simple term in one country may be incomprehensible in another.
  • Much of the advice regarding adapting products for international consumer markets also applies to adapting services. Moreover, some services are closely associated with products. However, many consumer services are distinguished by four unique characteristics—intangibility, inseparability, heterogeneity, and perishability—and thus require special consideration Products are often classified as tangible, whereas services are intangible. Automobiles, computers, and furniture are examples of products that have a physical presence; they are things or objects that can be stored and possessed, and their intrinsic value is embedded within their physical presence. The intangibility of services results in characteristics unique to a service: It is inseparable in that its creation cannot be separated from its consumption; it is heterogeneous in that it is individually produced and is thus unique; it is perishable in that once created it cannot be stored but must be consumed simultaneously with its creation. As is true for many tangible products, a service can be marketed both as an industrial (business-to-business) or a consumer service, depending on the motive of, and use by, the purchaser.
  • Hand in hand with global products and services are global brands. A global brand is defined as the worldwide use of a name, term, sign, symbol (visual and/or auditory), design, or combination thereof intended to identify goods or services of one seller and to differentiate them from those of competitors. Much like the experience with global products, the question of whether or not to establish global brands has no single answer. However, the importance of a brand name, even in the nonprofit sector, is unquestionable. A successful brand is the most valuable resource a company has. The brand name encompasses the years of advertising, good will, quality evaluation, product experience, and other beneficial attributes the market associates with the product. Brand image is at the very core of business identity and strategy. Research shows that the importance and impact of brands also vary with cultural values around the world.
  • Indeed, Exhibit 12.2 lists the estimated worth (equity) of the 20 top global brands. And, as we noted in previous chapters, protecting brand names is also a big business. Global brands play an important role in that process. The value of Sony, Coca-Cola, McDonald’s, Toyota, and Marlboro is indisputable. One estimate of the value of Coca-Cola, the world’s most valuable brand, places it at over $65 billion. In fact, one authority speculates that brands are so valuable that companies will soon include a “statement of value” addendum to their balance sheets to include intangibles such as the value of their brands.
  • Naturally, companies with such strong brands strive to use those brands globally. In fact, even perceived “globalness” can lead to increases in sales. The Internet and other technologies accelerate the pace of the globalization of brands. Even for products that must be adapted to local market conditions, a global brand can be successfully used with careful consideration. Ideally a global brand gives a company a uniform worldwide image that enhances efficiency and cost savings when introducing other products associated with the brand name, but not all companies believe a single global approach is the best. Companies that already have successful country-specific brand names must balance the benefits of a global brand against the risk of losing the benefits of an established brand. And some brand names simply do not translate. The cost of reestablishing the same level of brand preference and market share for the global brand that the local brand has must be offset against the long-term cost savings and benefits of having only one brand name world.
  • A different strategy is followed by the Nestlé Company, which has a stable of global and country-specific national brands in its product line. The Nestlé name itself is promoted globally, but its global brand expansion strategy is two-pronged. In some markets it acquires well established national brands when it can and builds on their strengths—there are 7,000 local brands in its family of brands. In other markets where there are no strong brands it can acquire, it uses global brand names. The company is described as preferring brands to be local, people to be regional, and technology to be global. It does, however, own some of the world’s largest global brands; Nescafé is but one. Multinationals must also consider rises in nationalistic pride that occur in some countries and their impact on brands. Finally, there is growing evidence that national brands’ acceptance varies substantially across regions in countries, suggesting that even finer market segmentation of branding strategies may be efficient
  • Brands are used as external cues to taste, design, performance, quality, value, prestige, and so forth. In other words, the consumer associates the value of the product with the brand. The brand can convey either a positive or a negative message about the product to the consumer and is affected by past advertising and promotion, product reputation, and product evaluation and experience. Country-of-origin effect (COE) can be defined as any influence that the country of manufacture, assembly, or design has on a consumer’s positive or negative perception of a product. A company competing in global markets today manufactures products worldwide; when the customer becomes aware of the country of origin, there is the possibility that the place of manufacture will affect product or brand image. Consumers have broad but somewhat vague stereotypes about specific countries and specific product categories that they judge “best”: English tea, French perfume, Chinese silk, Italian leather, Japanese electronics, Jamaican rum, and so on. Stereotyping of this nature is typically product specific and may not extend to other categories of products from these countries. Ethnocentrism can also have country-of-origin effects; feelings of national pride—the “buy local” effect, for example—can influence attitudes toward foreign products.
  • Countries are also stereotyped on the basis of whether they are industrialized, in the process of industrializing, or developing. These stereotypes are less product specific; they are more a perception of the quality of goods and services in general produced within the country. Industrialized countries have the highest quality image, and products from developing countries generally encounter bias. One might generalize that the more technical the product, the less positive is the perception of one manufactured in a less-developed or newly industrializing country. There is also the tendency to favor foreign-made products over domestic-made in less-developed countries. One final generalization about COE involves fads that often surround products from particular countries or regions in the world. These fads are most often product specific and generally involve goods that are themselves faddish in nature. European consumers’ affection for American products is quite fickle. There are exceptions to the generalizations presented here, but it is important to recognize that country of origin can affect a product or brand’s image significantly. Further, not every consumer is sensitive to a product’s country of origin.
  • Private brands owned by retailers are growing as challengers to manufacturers’ brands, whether global or country specific. Store brands are particularly important in Europe compared to the United States. Private labels are formidable competitors. This is particularly so during economic difficulties in the target markets. Buyers prefer to buy less expensive, “more local” private brands during recessions. Private brands provide the retailer with high margins; they receive preferential shelf space and strong in-store promotion; and, perhaps most important for consumer appeal, they are quality products at low prices. Contrast this with manufacturers’ brands, which traditionally are premium priced and offer the retailer lower margins than they get from private labels To maintain market share, global brands will have to be priced competitively and provide real consumer value. Global marketers must examine the adequacy of their brand strategies in light of such competition. This may make the cost and efficiency benefits of global brands even more appealing.

Transcript

  • 1. IMR300 – Lecture 8 Products and Services for Consumers Products and Services for Businesses
  • 2. Products and Culture
    • Psychological attributes
    • Diet Coca Cola in Japan:
      • Japanese women don’t like to admit to dieting
      • Weight loss – figure maintenance
  • 3. Products and Culture
    • The need for cultural adaptation is often necessary, affected by how the product conforms
      • Norms
      • Values
      • Behavior patterns
  • 4. Innovative Products and Adaptation
    • Determining the degree of newness as perceived by the intended market
    • New product diffusion
    • Established patterns of consumption and behavior
  • 5. Innovative Products and Adaptation
    • US cake mix company entered the British market
    • Carefully eliminated most of the newness of the product
    • 500 British housewives – favorite cake
    • The sponge cake mix first
  • 6. Innovative Products and Adaptation
    • Foreign marketing goal
      • Gaining the largest number of consumers in the market
        • In the shortest span of time
      • Probable rate of acceptance
  • 7. Diffusion of Innovations
    • Crucial elements in the diffusion of new ideas
      • An innovation
      • Which is communicated through certain channels
      • Over time
      • Among the members of a social system
  • 8. Diffusion of Innovations
    • The element of time
    • Variables affecting the rate of diffusion of an object
      • Degree of perceived newness
      • Perceived attributes of the innovation
      • Method used to communicate the idea
  • 9.  
  • 10. Adoption of innovation
  • 11. Five Characteristics of an Innovation
    • Relative advantage
      • Marginal value
    • Compatibility
      • Behavior, norms, values
    • Complexity
    • Trialability
      • Economic and social risk
    • Observability
  • 12. Production of Innovations
    • Inventiveness of companies and countries
      • USA and the internet
    • Expenditures (R&D)
    • New ideas come from a variety of sources
      • Countries
      • Acquisitions
      • Global collaborations
  • 13. Analyzing Product Components for Adaptation
    • Product is multidimensional
    • Sum of its features determines the bundle of satisfactions (utilities) received by consumer
    • Three distinct components
      • Core
      • Packaging
      • Support services
  • 14. Product Component Model
  • 15. Core Component
    • Product platform
    • Design features
    • Functional features
    • Product variations added or deleted to satisfy local differences
  • 16. Core Component Adaptation
    • Nestle Corn Flake in Japan
    • Not like a breakfast – snacks
    • Japanese eat fish and rice for breakfast
    • Nestle reformulated cereals with seaweed, carrots and zucchini, and coconut and papaya
  • 17. Packaging Component
    • Price
    • Quality
    • Packages
    • Styling
    • Trademark
    • Brand name
  • 18. Packaging Component Adaptation
    • Hong Kong Disney Land: Cantonese, Mandarin, English
    • Country of origin labeling for food products
    • Package size and price in bottom of the pyramid countries
    • Sunsilk shampoo – in a tiny plastic bag
  • 19. Packaging Component Adaptation
    • Labeling laws:
    • Saudi Arabia: product names must be specific “Hot chili” – “Spiced hot chili”
    • Venezuela: prices are required to be printed on the labels
    • Chile: putting prices on labels are illegal
  • 20. Support Services Component
    • Deliveries
    • Warranty
    • Spare parts
    • Repair and maintenance
    • Installation
    • Instructions
    • Other related services
  • 21. Marketing Consumer Services Globally
    • Consumer services characteristics
      • Intangibility
      • Inseparability
      • Heterogeneity
      • Perishability
    • A service can be marketed
      • As an industrial (business-to-business)
      • A consumer service
  • 22. Services Opportunities in Global Markets
    • Tourism
    • Transportation
    • Financial services
    • Education
    • Communications
    • Entertainment
    • Information
    • Health care
  • 23. Barriers to Entering Global Markets for Consumer Services
    • Protectionism
    • Restrictions on transborder data flows
    • Protection of intellectual property
    • Cultural barriers and adaptation
      • Spaniards talk during the lecture
      • Japanese tend to take a few long vacations
  • 24. Brands in International Markets
    • A global brand is the worldwide use of a name, term, sign, symbol, design, or combination
      • Intended to identify goods or services of one seller
      • To differentiate them from those of competitors
    • Importance is unquestionable
    • Most valuable company resource
  • 25. Top Brands 2010 http://www.interbrand.com/en/best-global-brands/best-global-brands-2008/best-global-brands-2010.aspx
  • 26. Global Brands
    • The Internet and other technologies accelerate the pace of the globalization of brands
    • Worldwide image
    • Balance
    • Ability to translate
    • Heinz brand, Gillete
  • 27. National Brands
    • Acquiring national brand names
    • Using global brand names
    • Nationalistic pride impact on brands
    • Use global brands where possible and national brands where necessary
  • 28. Nestle
    • A different strategy is followed by the Nestlé Company, which has a stable of global and country-specific national brands in its product line.
    • In some markets it acquires well established national brands when it can and builds on their strengths—there are 7,000 local brands in its family of brands.
  • 29. Nestle
    • In other markets - it uses global brand names.
    • The company is described
      • as preferring brands to be local,
      • people to be regional, and
      • technology to be global.
      • It does, however, own some of the world’s largest global brands; Nescafé is but one.
  • 30.
    • Country-of-Origin effect
      • Influences that the country of manufacture, assembly, or design
        • Has on a consumer’s positive or negative perception of a product
    Country-of-Origin Effects and Global Brands
  • 31. Country-of-Origin Effects and Global Brands
    • Consumers have broad but somewhat vague stereotypes about specific countries and specific product categories that they judge “best”
    • English tea, French perfume, Chinese silk, Italian leather, Japanese electronics, Jamaican rum
  • 32. Country-of-Origin Effects and Global Brands
    • Ethnocentrism
      • “buy American effect”
      • Chile - chopsticks
  • 33.
    • Countries are stereotyped
      • On the basis of whether they are industrialized
      • In the process of industrializing
      • In process of developing
    • More knowledgeable consumers are more sensitive to a product’s COE
    Country-of-Origin Effects and Global Brands
  • 34. Country-of-Origin Effects and Global Brands
    • Technical products
      • Perception of one manufactured in a less-developed or newly industrializing country less positive
    • Fads often surround product from particular countries or regions
  • 35. Private Brands
    • Growing as challengers to manufacturers’ brands
    • Private labels
      • Provide the retailer with high margins
      • Receive preferential shelf space and in-store promotion
      • Are quality products at low prices
    • Manufacturers brands must be competitively priced and provide real consumer value
  • 36. Chapter Learning Objectives
    • • The importance of derived demand in industrial markets
    • • How demand is affected by technology
    • • Characteristics of an industrial product
    • • The importance of ISO 9000 certification
    • • The growth of business services and nuances of their marketing
    • • The importance of trade shows in promoting industrial goods
    • • The importance of relationship marketing for industrial products
    • and services
  • 37. Global Perspective Intel, the Boom and the Inescapable Bust
    • In industrial markets, including global ones, what goes up must
    • come down
    • • The majority of export sales for industrialized countries is
    • technology
    • • Issues of standardization versus adaptation have less relevance to
    • marketing industrial goods than consumer goods
    • • Factors accounting for greater market similarities in industrial
    • goods customers versus consumer goods customers:
    • - The inherent nature of the product
    • - The motive or intent for the user differs
  • 38. Demand in Global Business-to-Business Markets
    • Demand in industrial markets is by nature more volatile
    • Stages of industrial and economic development affect demand for industrial products
    • The level of technology of products and services make their sales more appropriate for some countries than others
  • 39. The Volatility of Industrial Demand
    • Cyclical swings in demand
      • Professional buyers tend to act in concert
      • Derived demand accelerates changes in markets
    • Derived demand can be defined as demand dependent on another source.
  • 40. The Volatility of Industrial Demand
    • Measures to manage volatility:
    • Maintain broad product lines
    • Raise prices faster and reduce advertising expenditures during booms
    • Ignore market share as a strategic goal
    • Eschew layoffs (Southwest airlines)
    • Focus on stability
  • 41. Stages of Economic Development
    • Stage 1 – the traditional society – natural resources extraction (Africa, Middle east)
    • Stage 2 – preconditions for takeoff – Infrastructure (Vietnam)
    • Stage 3 – take off – equipment, supplies to support manufacturing (Russia and Eastern Europe)
    • Stage 4 – drive to maturity – all categories of industrial products (Korea and Czech Republic)
    • Stage 5 – the age of mass consumption – highest technology products and services from 5, consumer products from 3,4 (Japan, Germany)
  • 42. Technology and Market Demand
    • Education, economic growth, competitive edge
    • Trends spurring demand for technologically advanced products:
      • Expanding economic and industrial growth in Asia
      • The disintegration of the Soviet empire
      • The privatization of government-owned industries worldwide
  • 43. Quality and Global Standards
    • Perception of quality rests solely with the customer
    • Level of technology reflected in the product
    • Compliance with standards that reflect customer needs
    • Support services and follow-through
    • Price relative to competitive products
    • Relevant quality features
  • 44. Quality is Defined by the Buyer
    • How well a product meets the specific needs of the buyer
    • The price-quality relationship
    • Product design must be viewed from all aspects of use
      • Climate
      • Terrain
    • Total Quality Management (TQM)
    • Lack of universal standards
    • Country-specific standards
    • The metric system
  • 45. Total quality management
    • Since the late 1980s, firms around the world have launched ( TQM ) programs in an attempt to
      • retain competitiveness in order to achieve customer satisfaction in the face of increasing competition
  • 46. Total quality management
    • TQM is an integrative philosophy of management for continuously improving the quality of products and processes.
    • The practices of TQM as discussed in six empirical studies, Cua, McKone, and Schroeder (2001
  • 47. Total quality management
    • TQM - quality of the products and processes is the responsibility of everyone who is involved with the creation or consumption of the products or services
    • TQM capitalizes on the involvement of
      • management
      • workforce
      • suppliers
      • customers
  • 48. 9 common TQM practices
    • cross-functional product design
    • process management
    • supplier quality management
    • customer involvement
    • information and feedback
    • committed leadership
    • strategic planning
    • cross-functional training
    • employee involvement
  • 49. ISO 9000 Certification
    • The registration and certification of a manufacturer’s quality system.
    • Meet the published quality standards.
    • Do not apply to specific products – generic system standards that enable a company, through a mix of internal and external audit to provide assurance that it has a quality control system.
  • 50. ISO 9000 Certification: An International Standard of Quality
    • Positively affects the performance and stock prices of firms
    • Generally voluntary
    • EU Product Liability Directive
    • Now a competitive marketing tool in Europe and around the world
    • The ACSI approach
  • 51. Worldwide total of ISO 9001:2000/2008 certificates 1064785 982832 951486 896929 773867 Dec 2009 Dec 2008 Dec 2007 Dec 2006 Dec 2005
  • 52. Top 10 countries for ISO 9001 certificates - 2009 23400 Korea, Republic of 10 28935 USA 9 37493 India 8 41193 United Kingdom 7 47156 Germany 6 53152 Russian Federation 5 59576 Spain 4 68484 Japan 3 130066 Italy 2 257076 China 1 No. of certificates Country Rank
  • 53. Business Services
    • For many industrial products the revenues from associates services exceed the revenues from the products
      • Cellular phones
      • Printers
    • Leasing capital equipment
    • Services not associated with products
      • Boeing at-sea-satellite-launch services
      • Ukrainian cargo company space rental on giant jets
  • 54. After-Sale Services
    • Installation
    • Training
    • Spare and replacement parts
      • Delivery time
      • Cost of parts
    • Service personnel
    • Crucial in building strong customer loyalty
    • Almost always more profitable than the actual sale of the machinery or product
  • 55. Other Business Services
    • Client followers
    • Mode of entry
      • Licensing
      • Franchising
      • Direct investment
    • Protectionism
    • Restrictions on cross-border data flows
  • 56. Trade Shows: A Crucial Part of Business-to-Business Marketing
    • Secondary methods for marketing:
      • Advertising in print media
      • Catalogs
      • Web sites
      • Direct mail
    • Trade shows have become the primary and most important vehicle for doing business in many foreign countries
    • Total annual media budget spent on trade events:
      • Europeans – 22 percent
      • Americans – 5 percent
  • 57. Trade Shows: A Crucial Part of Business-to-Business Marketing
    • Trade shows:
      • Provide the facilities for a manufacturer to exhibit and demonstrate products to potential users
      • Allow manufacturers to view competitors products
      • Are an opportunity to create sales and establish relationships with agents, distributors, franchisees, and suppliers
    • Online trade shows:
      • Become useful in difficult economic and/or political circumstances
      • Are obviously a less than adequate substitute for live trade shows
  • 58. Relationship Marketing in Business-to-Business Contexts
    • It is not a matter of selling the right product the first time,
    • but rather of continuously changed the product to keep it right over time.
    • The objective of relationship marketing is to make the relationship an important attribute of the transaction, thus differentiating oneself from competitors.