International marketing (6)

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  • 1. Global marketing management
  • 2. Global marketing management
    • In the 1970s - standardization versus adaptation.
    • In the 1980s - globalization versus localization
    • In the 1990s - global integration versus local responsiveness.
  • 3. Global marketing management
    • Some companies are answering global as the way to go.
      • Twix Cookie bars - a new global advertising agency
      • a global campaign does make sense for Twix.
    • Some companies that are going in the other direction
      • Levi’s jeans have faded globally in recent years.
      • Ford - Mazda, Jaguar, and Volvo.
      • Coca-cola is peddling two brands in India – Coke and Thums Up
    • Consumers have become pickier more pennywise or a little more nationalistic and they are spending more of their money on local drinks
  • 4. Global marketing management
    • From the marketing perspective customization is always best.
    • Forward looking proactive firms have the ability and willingness
      • To accomplish both tasks ( standardization and localization ) simultaneously.
  • 5. Global marketing management
    • Standardization versus adaptation is simply not the right question to ask.
    • What are the most efficient ways to segment markets?
    • The information explosion allows marketers to segment markets ever more finely
  • 6. Benefits of global marketing
    • Introduce products by using advertising
    • Economies of scale in production and distribution
    • Lower marketing costs
    • Power and scope
    • Consistency in brand image
    • Ability to leverage good ideas quickly and efficiently
  • 7. Benefits of global marketing
    • Uniformity of marketing practices
    • Helps to establish relationships outside of the "political arena"
    • Helps to encourage ancillary industries to be set up to cater for the needs of the global player
    • Benefits of e-Marketing over traditional marketing
  • 8. Planning for global markets
    • Planning is a systematized way of relating to the future.
    • It is an attempt to manage the effects of external, uncontrollable factors on the firm’s strengths, weaknesses, objectives, and goals to attain a desired end.
  • 9. Planning for global markets
    • International corporate planning is
      • essentially long term,
      • incorporating generalized goals for the enterprise as a whole.
  • 10. Planning for global markets
    • Each new market can require a complete evaluation
    • Defining objectives clarifies the orientation of the domestic and international divisions, permitting consistent policies.
    • The lack of well-defined objectives - conflict with or detract from the companies’ primary objectives.
  • 11. Planning for global markets
  • 12. Planning for global markets
  • 13. International planning process
    • Preliminary analysis and screening – matching company and country needs
      • Environmental factors, company character, and screening criteria
      • First Xmas promotion for Dec 25 in Holland, unaware that Dutch celebrate St.Nicolas day and give gifts on Dec 6.
  • 14. International planning process
    • 2. Adapting the marketing mix to target market
      • Matching mix requirement
      • In Germany, product manager for coffe
        • How does a German rank of coffee?
        • Is Germany a high or a low per capita consumption market?
        • Annual per capita of consumption: Sweden - 7.5 kg, USA - 2.2kg, Japan – 0.8kg
  • 15. International planning process
    • 3. Developing the marketing plan
      • Situation analysis
    • 4. Implementation and control
  • 16. Alternative market entry strategies
  • 17. Alternative market entry strategies
  • 18. Alternative market entry strategies
  • 19. Alternative market entry strategies
  • 20. Alternative market entry strategies
  • 21. Alternative market entry strategies
  • 22. Alternative market entry strategies
  • 23. Alternative market entry strategies
  • 24. Alternative market entry strategies
  • 25. Alternative market entry strategies
  • 26. Alternative market entry strategies
  • 27. Organizing for global competition
  • 28. Organizing for global competition
    • The turbulence of global markets requires flexible organizational structures
    • 43 large US companies – 137 organizational change over 5 years
  • 29. Product, Geographic and Functional approaches
  • 30. Organizing for global competition
  • 31. Organizing for global competition
  • 32. Products and Services for Consumers
  • 33. What Should You Learn?
    • The importance of offering a product suitable for the intended market
    • The relationship between product acceptance and the market into which it is introduced
    • The importance of quality and how quality is defined
    • Country-of-origin effects on product image
    • Physical, mandatory, and cultural requirements for product adaptation
    • The need to view all attributes of a product in order to overcome resistance to acceptance
  • 34. Global Perspective Hong Kong – Disney Rolls the Dice Again
    • Tokyo Disneyland – successful
    • EuroDisney – disaster
    • Hong Kong Disneyland – open for business
    • Opportunities and challenges for international marketers of consumer goods and services are great and diverse
    • Any marketing firm’s goal should be quality products and services that meet the needs and wants of consumers at an affordable price
  • 35.
    • Which products and services should we sell?
  • 36. Global competition
    • Shortening product life cycle
    • Focusing on the importance of quality
    • Competitive prices
    • Innovative products
  • 37. Quality
    • Shift to a customer’s market
      • More competition, more choices
    • Increased customer knowledge
      • What is best, cheapest and highest quality
    • The customer defines quality
      • Needs and resources
    • The cost and quality of a product
      • Among the most important criteria by which purchases are made
  • 38. Quality
    • Two dimensions
      • Market-perceived quality (customer requires)
      • Performance quality (customer expects)
    • In many industries quality is measured by third parties
      • JD Power and Associates
  • 39. Maintaining Quality
    • Damage in the distribution chain
      • Russia’s Red October chocolate (open market, Russian taste)
  • 40. Maintaining Quality
    • Quality is essential for success in today’s competitive global market
    • The decision to standardize or adapt a product is crucial in delivering quality
  • 41. Physical or Mandatory Requirements for a new market
    • Product homologation
      • Changes mandated by local product and service standards
      • Electrolux: Cold-wash-only washing machine in Asia (electric power is expensive and scarce)
  • 42. Physical or Mandatory Adaptation
    • Product adaptation requirements
      • Legal, Economic, Political, Technological, Climate
      • Pepsi Cola – Lehar Pepsi in India
  • 43. Green Marketing and Product Development
    • Green marketing concerns the environmental consequences of a variety of marketing activities
    • Critical issues affecting product development
      • Control of the packaging component of solid waste
      • Consumer demand for environmentally friendly products
    • European Commission guidelines for ecolabeling
    • Laws to control solid waste
  • 44. Products and Culture
    • A product is the sum of the physical and psychological satisfactions it provides the user
      • Primary function (automobile: to move passengers from point A to point B)
      • Psychological attributes (color, size, design, brand name, price)