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The Oral approach is focused on the theories
developed in England. Two of the leaders in this
movement were Harolds Palmer and Daniel Jones.
What they attempted was to developed a more
scientific foundation for an oral approach to teaching
English than was evidenced in the Direct Method.
The first step in the learning process was to
become familiar with the new sound system and
to understand simple spoken language and the use
of simple speech patterns
2)The target Language (L2) was the language of instruction
and the native language (L1) was to be avoided .However,
in order to correct some of the flaws they had observed in
the language teaching system of the direct method.
3)Grammar is the underlying sentence patterns of
the spoken language. The linguists analyzed
English and classified its major grammatical
structures into sentence patterns.
Likewise vocabulary was graded to ensure
that an essential general service
vocabulary was covered
Reading and writing were introduced once a
sufficient lexical and grammatical basis was
established. Occasional translation was hollowed
as a checking method on comprehension of
precise details in reading.
The audio-lingual method, Army Method, or New Key, is a style of
teaching used in teaching foreign languages. It is based on behaviorist
theory, which professes that certain traits of living things, and in this
case humans, could be trained through a system of reinforcement—
correct use of a trait would receive positive feedback while incorrect
use of that trait would receive negative feedback.
The audio-lingual method advised
that students be taught a language
directly, without using the students'
native language to explain new
words or grammar in the target
language. However, unlike the direct
method, the audio-lingual method
didn’t focus on teaching vocabulary.
Rather, the teacher drilled students
in the use of grammar.
Applied to language instruction, and often
within the context of the language lab, this
means that the instructor would present the
correct model of a sentence and the students
would have to repeat it.
The teacher would then continue by presenting new words for the
students to sample in the same structure. In audiolingualism,
there is no explicit grammar instruction everything is simply
memorized in form. The idea is for the students to practice the
particular construct until they can use it spontaneously. In this
manner, the lessons are built on static drills in which the students
have little or no control on their own output.
Drills and pattern practice are typical of the Audio-lingual
method. These include:
the student repeats
an utterance as
soon as he hears it
Inflection: Where one
word in a sentence
appears in another
form when repeated
Where one word
is replaced by
The student re-
Teacher : I ate the sandwich.
Student : I ate the sandwiches.
Teacher : He bought the car for half-
Student : He bought it for half-price.
Teacher : Tell me not to smoke so
Student : Don't smoke so often!
The term cognitive-code refers
to any conscious attempt
made to organize material
around a grammatical syllabus
while allowing for meaningful
practice and use of language.
Sub skills in listening ,speaking,
reading, and writing such as sound
discrimination, pronunciation of
specific elements, distinguishing
between letters that are similar in
appearance and so on are learned
before the student participates in
real communication activities.
Lessons are highly structured
using a deductive process, and
often practicing the `rule of the
day,' Although research advises
second language acquisition
precede second language
approach emphasizes content
over form. Phonemes are
learned before words, words
before phrases and sentences,
simple sentences before
1)Conscios learning of the language system is
promoted. Learners need to understand the
system of rules in order to be able to generate
their own language in new situation
2)Conscious focus on grammar acknowledges
the role of abstract mental processes in
learning rather than defining learning simply in
terms of habit formation
3)Learning must go from the know to the
unknown, so that the learners can familiars
themselves with rules first and apply them
4)Learning must be meaningful, it must
be related to the new materials and
adapted to the learners needs. Thus
learning is under the learner's control.