Oral approach,audiolingual method and congnitive code aproach


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Oral approach,audiolingual method and congnitive code aproach

  1. 1. The Oral approach is focused on the theories developed in England. Two of the leaders in this movement were Harolds Palmer and Daniel Jones. What they attempted was to developed a more scientific foundation for an oral approach to teaching English than was evidenced in the Direct Method.
  2. 2. The first step in the learning process was to become familiar with the new sound system and to understand simple spoken language and the use of simple speech patterns 2)The target Language (L2) was the language of instruction and the native language (L1) was to be avoided .However, in order to correct some of the flaws they had observed in the language teaching system of the direct method. 3)Grammar is the underlying sentence patterns of the spoken language. The linguists analyzed English and classified its major grammatical structures into sentence patterns. 1) 2) 3)
  3. 3. Likewise vocabulary was graded to ensure that an essential general service vocabulary was covered Reading and writing were introduced once a sufficient lexical and grammatical basis was established. Occasional translation was hollowed as a checking method on comprehension of precise details in reading. 4) 5)
  4. 4. The audio-lingual method, Army Method, or New Key, is a style of teaching used in teaching foreign languages. It is based on behaviorist theory, which professes that certain traits of living things, and in this case humans, could be trained through a system of reinforcement— correct use of a trait would receive positive feedback while incorrect use of that trait would receive negative feedback.
  5. 5. The audio-lingual method advised that students be taught a language directly, without using the students' native language to explain new words or grammar in the target language. However, unlike the direct method, the audio-lingual method didn’t focus on teaching vocabulary. Rather, the teacher drilled students in the use of grammar.
  6. 6. Applied to language instruction, and often within the context of the language lab, this means that the instructor would present the correct model of a sentence and the students would have to repeat it. The teacher would then continue by presenting new words for the students to sample in the same structure. In audiolingualism, there is no explicit grammar instruction everything is simply memorized in form. The idea is for the students to practice the particular construct until they can use it spontaneously. In this manner, the lessons are built on static drills in which the students have little or no control on their own output.
  7. 7. Drills and pattern practice are typical of the Audio-lingual method. These include: Repetition: where the student repeats an utterance as soon as he hears it Inflection: Where one word in a sentence appears in another form when repeated Replacement: Where one word is replaced by another Restatement: The student re- phrases an utterance
  8. 8. Inflection : Teacher : I ate the sandwich. Student : I ate the sandwiches. Replacement : Teacher : He bought the car for half- price. Student : He bought it for half-price. Restatement : Teacher : Tell me not to smoke so often. Student : Don't smoke so often!
  9. 9. The term cognitive-code refers to any conscious attempt made to organize material around a grammatical syllabus while allowing for meaningful practice and use of language. Sub skills in listening ,speaking, reading, and writing such as sound discrimination, pronunciation of specific elements, distinguishing between letters that are similar in appearance and so on are learned before the student participates in real communication activities.
  10. 10. Lessons are highly structured using a deductive process, and often practicing the `rule of the day,' Although research advises second language acquisition precede second language learning, cognitive-code approach emphasizes content over form. Phonemes are learned before words, words before phrases and sentences, simple sentences before complicated ones.
  11. 11. 1)Conscios learning of the language system is promoted. Learners need to understand the system of rules in order to be able to generate their own language in new situation 2)Conscious focus on grammar acknowledges the role of abstract mental processes in learning rather than defining learning simply in terms of habit formation 3)Learning must go from the know to the unknown, so that the learners can familiars themselves with rules first and apply them afterwards. 4)Learning must be meaningful, it must be related to the new materials and adapted to the learners needs. Thus learning is under the learner's control.