Consumer Behavior - Attitudes ipad

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Consumer Behavior - Attitudes ipad

  1. 1. Ege UniversityFaculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences Business Administration Term Paper for Consumer Behavior Course Apple - Ipad Consumer Attitude Change 13080002898 Baris Istipliler 13080002851 Emin Ince 13080002866 Gamze Saba 13080002850 Hande Gumuskaya 13080002900 Nisan Karyenic
  2. 2. CHAPTER 1: LITERATURE REVIEW1.1. Introduction 1.1.1 Power of Attitudes 1.1.2. Forming Attitudes1.2. Focus Group Research Method1.3. Concept of Attitude 1.3.1. Effects of Attitude on Consumer Behavior 1.3.1.1. Functions of Attitudes 1.3.1.2. ABC Model of Attitudes 1.3.2. Factors Change Attitudes 1.3.2.1. Attitude Change Theories1.4. Analysis of Buying Process 1.4.1. Factors that Involve in Buying ProcessCHAPTER 2: IMPLEMENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF FOCUS GROUP RESEARCH2.1. Implementation Process 2.1.1. Definition of Case 2.1.1.1 Attributes Group Members 2.1.1.2 Questions and Aims of Them 2.1.1.3 Moderators and Way of Moderating 2.1.1.4 Recording of Data 2.1.1.5 Qualitative Analysis of Data2.2. Evidences and Their InterpretationCHAPTER 3: CONCLUSIONREFERENCES 2
  3. 3. CHAPTER 1: LITERATURE REVIEW1.1.1. Introduction The aim of this paper attempts to conduct theoretical research and understand theresults of focus group research. We tried to find relationships between our topic “attitude” andfocus group results. First chapter consider the contents of attitude and gives information abouttheoretical background. Second chapter interprets our focus group research results. 1.1. Power of Attitudes Consumer behavior specialists emphasizes that consumers improve some negative andpositive emotions that help forming consumer’s attitude toward a brand or product. We havedifferent attitudes and we gain them during our experiences. A person is not born with theidea ipad is better than Samsung Galaxy Tablet. How we get those attitudes ? It is important for consumer researchers to understand the nature and power ofattitudes. Attitudes are more complex than they first disappear. We can measure attitudes byusing some sophisticated models that identify specific compotents and combine them topredict what a consumer’s overall attitude will be. 1.2. Forming Attitudes An attitude can be formed in several ways. Classical Conditioning, reinforcement andvery complex cognitive processes are some examples. Why classical conditioning is soimportant in order to understand attitudes of consumers?: “(1) conditioning afforts arewidespread in advertising practices, (2) a long history of research has shown extensiveclassical conditioning of behaviors in lower animals as well as in humans and (3) thepossibility of attitude conditioning has important implications for consumer behavior theory”(Stuart, 1987). Usually a good product that satisfies the needs of consumers is already a goodreinforcement that shall keep them buying more of the same product (Asakainen, Martinez,2010). Furthermore, we observe that some celebrities shape people’s buying behavior behindvery complex cognitive processes. 3
  4. 4. 1.2. Focus Group Research Method A focus group is a qualitative research method. In this method, people are asked abouttheir perceptions, beliefs, attitudes and opinions toward a product, brand, concept, idea.Questions are defined before the meeting and directed by the moderator. There ought to be aninteractive atmosphere where people also feel comfortable in order to say their ideas withoutany pressure. The first focus groups were created at the Bureau of Applied Social Research inthe USA, by associate director, sociologist Robert K. (Merton Kaufman, February 24, 2003).There are some types of focus group such as dual moderator, two way, mini, online i.e. focusgroup. Dual moderator focus group, one moderator ensures the session progresses smoothly,while another ensures that all the topics are covered. We used this one in our research. 1.3. Concept of Attitude 1.3.1. Effects of Attitude on Consumer Behavior Consumer attitudes are both an obstacle and an advantage to a marketer. Choosing todiscount or ignore consumers’ attitudes of a particular product or service—while developing amarketing strategy—guarantees limited success of a campaign. In contrast, perceptivemarketers leverage their understanding of attitudes to predict the behavior of consumers.These savvy marketers know exactly how to distinguish the differences between beliefs,attitudes, and behaviors while leveraging all three in the development of marketing strategies. An attitude in marketing terms is defined as a general evaluation of a product orservice formed over time (Solomon, 2008). An attitude satisfies a personal motive—and at thesame time, affects the shopping and buying habits of consumers. Dr. Lars Perner (2010)defines consumer attitude simply as a composite of a consumer’s beliefs, feelings, andbehavioral intentions toward some object within the context of marketing. A consumer canhold negative or positive beliefs or feelings toward a product or service. A behavioralintention is defined by the consumer’s belief or feeling with respect to the product or service.“A marketer is challenged to understand the reason a particular attitude might exist.” Perhaps the attitude formed as the result of a positive or negative personal experience.Maybe outside influences of other individuals persuaded the consumer’s opinion of a product 4
  5. 5. or service. Attitudes are relatively enduring (Oskamp & Schultz, 2005, p. 8). Attitudes are alearned predisposition to proceed in favor of or opposed to a given object. In the context ofmarketing, an attitude is the filter to which every product and service is scrutinized. 1.3.1.1. Functions of Attitudes The functional theory of attitudes—developed by Daniel Katz—offers an explanationas to the functional motives of attitudes to consumers (Solomon, 2008). Katz theorizes fourpossible functions of attitudes. Each function attempts to explain the source and purpose aparticular attitude might have to the consumer. Understanding the purpose of a consumer’sattitude is an imperative step toward changing an attitude. Unlike Katz’s explanation ofattitude—as it relates to social psychology, specifically the ideological or subjective side ofman—consumer attitudes exist to satisfy a function (Katz, 1937). The utilitarian function is one of the most recognized of Katz’s four definedfunctions. The utilitarian function is based on the ethical theory of utilitarianism, whereas anindividual will make decisions based entirely on the producing the greatest amount ofhappiness as a whole (Sidgwick, 1907). A consumer’s attitude is clearly based on a utilityfunction when the decision revolves around the amount of pain or pleasure in brings. The value-expressive function is employed when a consumer is basing their attituderegarding a product or service on self-concept or central values. The association or reflectionthat a product or service has on the consumer is the main concern of an individual embracingthe value expressive function (Solomon, 2008). This particular function is used when aconsumer accepts a product or service with the intention of affecting their social identity. The ego-defensive function is apparent when a consumer feels that the use of aproduct or service might compromise their self-image. Moreover, the ego-defensive attitude isdifficult to change. The ego-defensive attitude—in general psychology—is a way forindividuals deny their own disconcerting aspects (Narayan, 2010). A marketer must treadlightly when considering a message strategy to a consumer with an attitude based on the ego-defensive function. 5
  6. 6. The knowledge function is prevalent in individuals who are careful about organizingand providing structure regarding their attitude or opinion of a product or service (Solomon,2008). A marketer can change a consumer’s knowledge function based attitude by using fact-based comparisons and real-world statistics in the message strategy. Vague and non-relevantmarketing campaigns are ineffective against a knowledge attitude audience. Advertising campaigns that appeal to consumer behaviors based on the value-expressive or utilitarian functions are the most common (Sirgy, 1991). Utilitarianadvertisements deliver a message regarding the benefits of using a product or service.Advertising targeted to consumers with value-expressive attitudes will typically includeproduct symbolism and an image strategy. In either case, it is important to understand why aconsumer holds a particular attitude toward the product or service. 1.3.1.2. ABC Model of Attitudes The ABC Model of Attitudes—consisting of the three components: affect, behavior,and cognition—accentuates the relationship between knowing, feeling, and doing (Solomon,2008). Affect is the feeling an individual has regarding an object. In the current context, affectrepresents the emotion or opinion about a product or service. Behavior is the responses of aconsumer resulting from affect and cognition. Behavior only implies intention. Cognition isan individual’s belief or knowledge about an attitude object. The hierarchy of effects is the result of all three components working together. Thehierarchy of effects is a concept used to distinguish between the involvement levels ormotivation an individual might have toward the attitude object. The standard-learninghierarchy, low-involvement hierarchy, and experiential hierarchy are the three hierarchies ofeffects. Dr. Jill Novack, from Texas A&M University, includes a fourth member of thehierarchy of effects. Novack states that behavioral influence should be included, andrepresented by the component order—behavior, belief, and affect (Novack, 2010). The standard-learning hierarchy, also known as the high-involvement hierarchyassumes that the consumer will conduct extensive research and establish beliefs about theattitude object. The consumer will then establish feelings regarding the attitude object. The 6
  7. 7. feelings—or affect—are followed by the individual’s behavior. The cognition-affect-behaviorapproach is prevalent in purchase decisions where a high level of involvement is necessary. The low-involvement hierarchy consists of a cognition-behavior-affect order ofevents. A consumer with an attitude formed via the low-involvement hierarchy of effectsbases the purchase decision on what they know as opposed to what they feel. The consumerestablishes feeling about a product or service after the purchase. This limited knowledgeapproach is not suitable for life-changing purchases such as a car or new home. The experiential hierarchy of effects is defined by an affect-behavior-cognitionprocessing order. In this scenario, the consumer is influenced to purchase based entirely ontheir feeling regarding a particular product or service. Cognition comes after the purchase andenforces the initial affect. Emotional contagion is common in attitudes formed by theexperiential hierarchy of effects (Solomon, 2008). Emotional contagion, in this situation,suggests that the consumer is influenced by the emotion contained in the advertisement. Multiattribute models are used to understand and measure attitudes. The basicmultiattribute model has three elements—attributes, beliefs, and weights. Attributes are thecharacteristics of the attitude object. Beliefs are a measurement of a particular attribute.Weights are the indications of importance or priority of a particular attribute. A multiattributemodel can be used to measure a consumer’s overall attitude. The most influential multiattribute model—the Fishbein model—also uses threecomponents of attitude. The first, salient beliefs, is a reference to the beliefs a person mightgain during the evaluation of a product or service. Second, object-attribute linkages, is anindicator of the probability of importance for a particular attribute associated with an attitudeobject. Evaluation, the third component, is a measurement of importance for the attribute. Thegoal of the Fishbein model is to reduce overall attitudes into a score. Past and predictedconsumer behavior can be used to enhance the Fishbein model (Smith, Terry, Manstead, &Louis, 2008). A more advanced and automated modeling technique, semantic clustering, is used toanalyze and predict consumer attitudes. While proven effective for measuring the flow anddirection of information, recently semantic clustering is being used to elicit attitudes toward 7
  8. 8. brands (Shaughnessy, 2010). Blogs and forums are a prime target for an analyst using thesemantic clustering technique. Results from a multiattribute will reveal several pieces of information that can be usedin various marketing applications. If the competitor scores higher on a particular attribute, amarketer should downplay the attribute and emphasize the importance of a high-scoringattribute of his or her own. Likewise, if the score reveals a broken connection between aproduct and attribute, the marketer can develop a message strategy to establish the link.Differentiation is an important advantage to marketers. Using the results of a multiattributemodel, a marketer can develop and market new attributes to existing products. Attitudes can be influenced by many factors outside the product attributes. Social andcultural environment as well as demographic, psychographic, and geographic conditions cansometimes shape consumer behavior. Consumer attitude, if positive, is an advantage to amarketer. A savvy marketer can build a model for prospecting new consumers from theattributes of a satisfied customer. Direct marketing companies create higher response rates byusing look-alike modeling based on existing customers—individuals with a positive attitude. Consumer behavior is the study of how a consumer thinks, feels, and selects betweencompeting products. Moreover,the study of attitudes is critical to understanding themotivation and decision strategies employed by consumers. The combination of beliefs,attitudes, and behaviors influence how a consumer reacts to a product or service. 1.3.2. Factors that Change Attitude Attitudes are the evaluations and associated beliefs and behaviors towards someobject. They are not stable, and because of the communication and behavior of other people,are subject to change by social influences, as well as an individuals motivation to maintaincognitive consistency when cognitive dissonance occurs--when two attitudes orwhen attitude and behavior conflict. Attitudes and attitude objects are functionsof affective and cognitive components. It has been suggested that the inter-structuralcomposition of an associative network can be altered by the activation of a single node. Thus,by activating an affective or emotion node, attitude change may be possible, though affectiveand cognitive components tend to be intertwined. 8
  9. 9. There are three bases for attitude change, which includes compliance, identification,and internalization. These three processes represent the different levels of attitude change. ComplianceOne of the pairs of cards used in the experiment. Thecard on the left has the reference line and the one onthe right shows the three comparison lines. Compliance refers to a change in behavior based on consequences, such as anindividual’s hopes to gain rewards or avoid punishment from another group or person. Theindividual does not necessarily experience changes in beliefs or evaluation towards an attitudeobject, but rather is influenced by the social outcomes of adopting a change in behavior. Theindividual is also often aware that he or she is being urged to respond in a certain way. Compliance was demonstrated through a series of laboratory experiments known asthe Asch experiments. Experiments led by Solomon Aschof Swarthmore College askedgroups of students to participate in a "vision test". In reality, all but one of the participantswere confederates of the experimenter, and the study was really about how the remainingstudent would react to the confederates behavior. Participants were asked to pick, out of threeline options, the line that is the same length as a sample and were asked to give the answer outloud. Unbeknown to the participants, Asch had placed a number of confederates todeliberately give the wrong answer before the participant. The results showed that 75% ofparticipants succumbed to the majoritys influence and gave the answer the confederatespicked. Variations in the experiments showed that compliance rates increased as the numberof confederates increased, which plateaus at around 15 confederates. Also, minorityopposition, such as if even one confederate gave the correct answer, the likelihood of 9
  10. 10. compliance drops. The basis for compliance is founded on the fundamental idea that peoplewant to be accurate and right. Identification Identification explains one’s change of beliefs and affect in order to be similar tosomeone who one admires or likes. In this case, the individual adopts the new attitude, notdue to the specific content of the attitude object, but more so because it is associated with thedesired relationship. Often, children’s attitudes on race, or their political party affiliations areadopted from their parents’ attitudes and beliefs. Internalization Internalization refers to the change in beliefs and affect when one finds the content ofthe attitude to be intrinsically rewarding, and thus leading to actual change in beliefs orevaluation towards an attitude object. The new attitude or behavior is consistent with theindividual’s value system, and tends to be merged with the individual’s existing values andbeliefs. Therefore, behavior adopted through internalization are due to the content of theattitude object. The Expectancy-value theory is based on internalization of atittude change. Thismodel describes the states that the behavior towards some object is a function of anindividual’s intent, which is a function of one’s overall attitude towards the action. 1.3.2.1. Attitude Change Theories Self Perceptıon Theory This theory provides an alternative explanation of dissonance effects. It assumes thatwe observe our own behavior to determine just what our attitudes are,much as we assumethat we know what another person’s attitude is when we watch what he does. For example inour focus group participants said that;"I love using I-Pad because it makes me feel special my friends use it, and it’s seen to be asan important person." Self perception theory helps to explain effectiveness of a strategy. Salespeople call the‘foot-in-the-door’ tecnique. They know that a consumer is more likely to comply with a big 10
  11. 11. request if he agrees to a smaller one. The name for this technique comes from the practice of‘door to door’ selling. Placing an order is consistent with the self perception that ‘I’m the kind of personwho is willing to buy something from a salesperson who knocks on my door.’ Social Judgement Theory People assimilate new information about attitude objects in light of what they alreadyknow or feel. They also assume that people assimilate new information about attitude objectsin light of what they already know or feel. The initial attitude acts as a frame of reference, andwe categorize new information in terms of this existing standard. If we should combine thistheory with our focus group, we could say that just as their decision that a product of Apple isgood depends in part on the quality of other products they use such as i-Pad, we develop asubjective Standard when we judge attitude objects. One important aspect of the theory is that people differ in terms of the information.They will find acceptable or unacceptable. They form latitudes of acceptance and rejectionaround an attitude Standard. They will evaluate ideas falling within a latitude favorably, butthey are more likely to reject those that fall outside of this zone. In this case, most of thepeople in our study group are closer the latidudes of acceptance on i-Pad. Balance Theory Fritz Heider originated Balance Theory to show how people develop theirrelationships with other people and with things in their environment. Balance Theory saysthat if people see a set of cognitive elements as being a system, then they will have apreference to maintain a balanced state among these elements. In other words, if we feel we are out of balance, then we are motivated to restore aposition of balance. The felt discomfort at imbalance will increase with the strength of theattitude and the overall interest in the matter. 11
  12. 12. Analytically, Balance Theory can be described as follows:  P: the a person to analyse  O: A comparison person (O)  X: A comparison thing, such as a impersonal entity, which could be a physical object, an idea or an event. This may also be a third person.The goal is now to understand the relationships between each pair (P-O, P-X, O-X), in termsof:  L: liking, evaluating and approving, or  U: A more general cognitive unit that is formed, such as similarity or belonging. This can be written in notation to show negative or positive relationship such as PLX(P Likes X) and P~UO (P does not have relationship U, or has negative relationship U, withX). Where just one relationship is being studied, it can also be written P+X and P-O to showpositive and negative relationships. The balance of balance theory considers the consistency of logic between eachrelationship and the triangle set of pairs can be in balance or out of balance. There are four sets of relationships that are usually balanced:  P+O, P+X, O+X  P-O, P-X, O+X  P-O, P+X, O-X  P+O, P-X, O-X There are also four typically unbalanced relationships, that are likely to be turned intothe above balanced relationships in order to restore balance:  P+O, P-X, O+X  P+O, P+X, O-X  P-O, P+X, O+X  P-O, P-X, O-X 12
  13. 13. Heider (1958) illuminated this thus: my friend’s friend is my friend my friend’s enemy is my enemy my enemy’s friend is my enemy my enemy’s enemy is my friend 1.4. Analysis of Buying Process The purchasing process can vary from one organization to another. Since we willfocus on i-Pad in our study, we will analyse some common key elements for i-Pad. 1.4.1. Factors that Involve In Buying Process Purchasing decisions include many factors that most consumers are not even aware of.Five steps are involved in nearly every purchase made: need recognition, information search,evaluation of alternatives, purchase decision, and finally post purchase behavior. Even thesimplest purchases can include any or all of these steps. (Brown, 2005) Purchases are furtherinfluenced by such things as personal, psychological, and social issues. A good marketresearcher will study the thought process undergone by consumers, compare it with theirdemographic data, and use the resulting information to market their products. (Armstrong etal, 2005) Problem/Need Recognition This is in general the first stage in which the consumer recognizes that what essentiallyis the problem or need and hence accordingly a consumer can identify the product or kind ofproduct which would be required by the consumer. Information Search In information search, the consumer searches about the product which would satisfythe need which has been recognized by the consumer in the stage previous to this one. 13
  14. 14. Evaluation of Alternatives In this stage, the consumer evaluates the different alternatives which the consumercomes across, when the consumer was searching for information. Generally in the informationsearch the consumer comes across quite a few products and thus now the consumer has toevaluate and understand which product would be properly suited for the consumer. Purchase After the consumer has evaluated all the options and would be having the intention tobuy any product, there could be now only two things which might just change the decision ofthe consumer of buying the product that is what the other peers of the consumer think of theproduct and any unforeseen circumstances. Unforeseen circumstances for example in this casecould be financial losses which led to not buying of the product. Post Purchase Behavior After the purchase the consumer might just go through post purchase dissonance inwhich the consumer feels that buying the other product would be better. But a companyshould really take care of it, taking care of post purchase dissonance doesnt only spread goodwords for the product but also increases the chance of frequent repurchase. Personal factors affecting consumer buying behavior Age and Life cycle Stage: Like the social class the human life cycle can have asignificant impact on consumer behaviour. The life cycle is an orderly series of stages inwhich consumer attitude and behavioural tendencies evolve and occur because of developingmaturity, experience, income, and status. Marketers often define their target market in termsof the consumers present lifecycle stage. The concept of lifecycle as applied to marketing willbe discussed in more details. Occupation And Income: Today people are very concerned about their image and thestatus in the society which is a direct outcome of their material prosperity. The profession orthe occupation a person is in again has an impact on the products they consume. The status ofa person is projected through various symbols like the dress, accessories and possessions. 14
  15. 15. Life Style: Our life styles are reflected in our personalities and self-concepts, same isthe case with any consumer. We need to know what a life-style is made of. It is a person’smode of living as identified by his or her activities, interest and opinions. There is a method ofmeasuring a consumer’s lifestyle. This method is called as the psychographics-which is theanalysis technique used to measure consumer lifestyles- peoples activities, interests andopinions. Then based upon the combinations of these dimensions, consumers are classified.Unlike personality typologies, which are difficult to describe measure lifestyle analysis hasproven valuable in segmenting and targeting consumers according to their lifestyleclassification. Personality: Personality is the sum total of an individual’s enduring internalpsychological traits that make him or her unique. Self-confidence, dominance, autonomy,sociability, defensiveness, adaptability, and emotional stability are selected personality traits. 15
  16. 16. CHAPTER 2: IMPLEMENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF FOCUSFOCUS GROUP RESEARCH2.1.Implementation Process 2.1.1. Definition of Case As we all know, Apple is an American multinational company that designs, develops,and sells consumer electronics, computer software, and personal computers. In this focusgroup implementation, we considered Apple as our project brand and Ipad as ourconsumption material and we planned to investigate the consumers attitudes toward Ipad andthe effects of that product on their buying decisions. While we were doing the research, we used the method of focus group to get theinformation we need. We organized a meeting with a group of people and implement a set ofquestions to them, steer them through their discussions (but not involve) and record theiropinion. We did this in a cafe that can create the sense of sincerity and we did not makepeople to think that it is a must to speak and give ideas, which helped us to get the real andefficient result we wanted. 2.1.1.1 Attributes of Group Members We knew that the attributes of a focus groups members are important to measure thevariable of attitude. Therefore, we have chosen a portfolio of members who have the productsitself, who are currently contemplating to buy it, who have a solid idea about the product andthe product line but do not have the products itself and who have a little idea and will to buythe product. The structure of the group can be seen below.Dual Moderator Focus Group • Quantity: 9 People • Gender: 2 female and 7 male • Age: between 22-28 16
  17. 17. • Occupation: Mostly students, also some professionals who frequently use their i-Pad as a tool • Possesion of I-pad: Most of them have the product, some of them are contemplating to buy, and a few do not think of buying 2.1.1.2 Questions and Aims of Them Some of the questions we asked or encouraged our focus group members to discusscan be seen below questions can be seen below:  What is the first factor that lead you to buy an Ipad ?  Which specifications do you consider before buying a Tablet ?  Which differences in Apples products make you prefer it to other brands products?  What is the alternative brand if you can not find an Apple product in your country ?  Which specialities make you feel special when you buy an Ipad ?  How was your attitude before entering an Apple Store or buying an Apple product first time?  After seeing an Apple’s product, which attitudes or ideas did you change?  How quickly do you make this decision before buying an Ipad ?  Who are influencers ?  Where are you finding information on Tablets and Ipad ?  How do you speak about the product/brand?  How do you relate to product/brand?  Is there any additional information you need to make purchase/decision?  Do you follow Apple/Ipad on Social Media? Does it affect your decisions? 17
  18. 18. 2.1.1.3 Moderators and Way of Moderating As the group, we have chosen a moderator who can moderate and give the necessaryinduction to the focus group to discuss about product and the issues. Also two other memberswere sitting on the table to increase the power of discussion by issuing their ideas to the table.With this method, we were able to conduct a focus group session for 75 minutes and it washighly efficient and we have observed that everyone was willing to talk about the product as aproof of this efficiency. The moderator and two other members of group who have joined to session tried notto intervene and give any subjective ideas about the product and brand. 2.1.1.4 Recording of Data We used a voice recorder to use the data. Also as the group members who attended tothe meeting, we used papers to note down the important points and the answers of thequestions as we received them. After that, we gave these materials to the other groupmembers to let them use these materials as they evaluate their assignments. 2.1.1.5 Qualitative Analysis of Data As it can be read from the following part, we tried to use qualitative analysis of datainstead of quantitative analysis. Since the method we use is focus group implementation andwe want the maximum subjective and free ideas of our experimental subjects, we were verycareful not to ask yes/no questions to our focus group. Also we did not ask so much technicaland quantitative questions such as "How many times a week...?" , "How much money wouldyou spend for..." etc. Therefore the reader of this project is not going to see any tables andillustrations that are used to help us to show the tendencies, preferences or numeric values.Instead of this, we tried to work on the data we received and tried to transfer it to the reader ina logical set that can be understood easily. Therefore, before reading the following section, we highly recommend you to scan allthe questions and the attributes of our experimental subject to gain the context of our focusgroup implementation. 18
  19. 19. 2.2. Evidences and Their Interpretation As we conduct our group we have seen lots of evidences about the attitudes of thepeople toward iPad and brand Apple. Forming Attitudes Positive reinforcement is experienced in our focus group, Ipad advertisementshighlight how to make your life better and easier in order to increase effectivity of work andlife. Other apple products such as iphone, ipod, reinforced people to buy an ipad. Becausethey had an Apple product. They used it. They were quite satisfied and the product satisfiedtheir wants more than they expected. An ipod jumped in water and did not break. It is stillworking after 7 years our focus group member bought it. That was a positive reinforcementfor him. A social media specialist, said ipad make thing easier without having any problemduring synchronizing with his smart phone and computer. On the other hand Android tabletsoften have this synchronization problem and it is even hard to synchrone different types ofAnroid for a person who is not really interested in technology. Complex cognitive processes are observed in our every habits during buying orfeeling brand loyality. We see that Apple do not use any commercial face for its products.However, we see that Apple designers and software specialists give informations about theproduct that is introduced by the company. So that, people get the feeling they have theknowledge of the product and they are geek persons as Apple specialists. They are innovatorsand they love technology, they love design. Apple uses some lights around ipad, in order toseem sophisticated, powerful, and colorful energy inside of the product. They virtualizeeverything such as resolution in every inch behind the screen. Our focus group members areeffected by all those lightining method in ipad advertisement. Structure and the Functions of the Groups Attitude First, we can see that there are some utilitarian attitude functions behind the interestof people to the iPad. They always talk about the operating system IOS and its smoothnessand fluency. They say that, they can use the device conveniently with the help of thisoperating system and it performs almost perfect with all of the duties. And almost all of themare aware of the variety of applications in Apple store and the benefits of them. They like the 19
  20. 20. service capabilities of the shops that sell apple products. The ones that also have i-Phone saysthat they decided to buy this product because of wide touch screen and availability of highlyintegration with other devices. We observed and decided to classify the people who possesboth devices and always talk about the features of the iPad, as the die-hard fans. Second, we could have the opportunity to observe some value expressive attitudefunctions of iPad on the group members. Almost all of them were sure about that the designof the iPad is elegant. Some of them also thinks that there are some effects of the inventor ofthe device (Steve Jobs) on it, such as futuristic and revolutionary technologies of the device.We also heard a different idea that was spelled by an owner. He stated that iPads price neverdrops down and the money that he gives to the products is always protected. Last, we observed ego-defensive functions of attitude on our subjects. Some of them,especially ones who contemplated to buy the product and did not buy, and the ones that doesnot want to buy the product, have a bad image of iPad because of the users who use theproduct just to look trendy. These members of group think in a way like "if this people usethis product, I will not use it". A few other professionals also think that the product is notanswer the core utilities which they need to conduct to reach the aims in their profession.Their way of thinking can be described with the following sentence; "We conduct serious jobsand we cannot use i-pad, we use PC, iPad is only a toy to spend some entertaining time" .Also one of the group members who does not have the product thinks really in a differentway. He stated that he does not live in a wealthy society and it is not comfortable to buy anexpensive device like this and use it in public areas. Involvement and Power of iPad on the Members Attitudes We observed that our experimental subjects with high involvement (Cognition-Affect-Behavior track), have the most consistent state of consumption; mostly motivated byutilitarian drives (which they show tendency to promote, encourage and renew theconsumption habit with powerful reasoning; buying new versions of i-Pad). They follow orthey are related to the social media groups for the product and brand. They always tend toanswer the criticism with logical answers and act like volunteer marketers of the product. Oneof them even wanted to come to the presentation of this project and also speak there. 20
  21. 21. The subject who carry this low involvement attitude toward the product iPad(cognition – behavior – affect track), have doubts to have i- Pad or they have but do not use itas intensive as others. They think that iPad is a device at all and there are no reason topromote its features and think about this issues so much. They buy it, use it and forget it. The subjects with experiential hierarchy of involvement (affect – behavior –cognition track), are in no doubt; they have i-Pad or not and this is their last and proved belief.When it is asked why do they use the product or not, they do not prefer to explain it, butsimply they like it or not. Basically either they feel special by buying this product from anapple shop, having this product with them, showing it to the people or they hate to do all ofthese. We believe that the effect of the influencers and environment is extreme on this groupof members. 21
  22. 22. CHAPTER 3: CONCLUSION As it can be seen from the evidences we have found through our focus group research,it is clear that the success of the apple and its product iPad is not a coincidence. Most of thepeople from varied professions, ages and cultures have some reasons to buy iPad and use it.With the help of our group members efforts and theory of attitude in the science of consumerbehavior, we tried to explain and get insights for all of these attitudes, their reasons, causesand structures. As it can be seen, they are diversified like the people who like Apple and itsproducts. Therefore, it is really worth to investigate more and learn about this miraculousmarketing strategy and excellent use of consumer behavior discipline which is conducted byApple for decades and helped it to make a marketing phenomenon and a giant in its sector. We believe that one of the first steps of succeeding a competitive advantage in amarket as Apple did, is getting more information about Apples marketing strategies that cancreate attitude in the minds of people and answer them correctly to let them consume. 22
  23. 23. REFERENCESStuart, Elnora W. (1987). Classical Conditioning of Attitudes: Four Experiment inAdvertising Context.From : http://www.psych.appstate.edu/~kms/classes/psy5150/Documents/Stuart1987.pdfAsikainen J., Martinez N. (2010) Learning in Consumer BehaviourFrom : http://www.doria.fi/bitstream/handle/10024/61559/nbnfi-fe201004291741.pdf?sequence=3Michael T. Kaufman (February 24, 2003). "Robert K. Merton, Versatile Sociologist andFather of the Focus Group, Dies at 92". The New York Times.From : http://www.nytimes.com/2003/02/24/nyregion/robert-k-merton-versatile-sociologist-and-father-of-the-focus-group-dies-at-92.htmlKatz, D. (1937). Attitude measurement as a method in social psychology. [Electronicversion]. Social ForcesFrom : http://www.jstor.org/stable/2571413Narayan, S. (2010). The perils of faking it.From: http://64.74.118.102/2010/02/04214927/The-perils-of-faking-it.htmlNovack, J. (2010). Internal influences – lifestyle and attitude. Retrieved, October 3, 2010,From: http://www.marketingteacher.com/lesson-store/lesson-internal-influences-lifestyle-attitude.htmlPerner, L. (2010). Consumer behavior: the psychology of marketing.From: http://www.consumerpsychologist.com/Shaughnessy, H. (2010). How semantic clustering helps analyze consumer attitudes.From: http://blogs.hbr.org/research/2010/07/every-day-in-the-english.htmlSirgy, J. (1991). Value-expressive versus utilitarian advertising appeals: when and why to useeach appeal.From: http://www.allbusiness.com/professional-scientific/advertising-related-services/270171-1.htmlMicheal R. Solomon (2011). Consumer Behavior Buying, Having and Being (Global Ed.Ninth Edition), pp. 288-289“Attitude Change”, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Attitude_change“Balanced Theory”’, http://changingminds.org/explanations/theories/balance_theory.htm “Factors that Involve In Buying Process”,http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Buyer_decision_processeshttp://www.marketing91.com/personal-factors-affecting-consumer-buying-behavior/http://www.studymode.com/essays/Involvement-And-Involvement-Factors-When-Buying-489380.htmlhttp://voices.yahoo.com/marketing-factors-consumer-buying-behavior-15975.html 23

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