CHI 2011 Gamification Workshop
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CHI 2011 Gamification Workshop



The collected presentations from the Gamification Workshop held on May 7, 2011 at CHI 2011 in Navcouver, BC. More at

The collected presentations from the Gamification Workshop held on May 7, 2011 at CHI 2011 in Navcouver, BC. More at



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CHI 2011 Gamification Workshop Presentation Transcript

  • 1. CHI 2011WorkshopGamificationS. Deterding, D. Dixon, L. Nacke, R. Khaled, K. O‘Hara Vancouver, May 7, 2011c b n
  • 2. Hashtag #gamichi
  • 3. Gamification
  • 4. Workshop Outset & Goals Outset •  Rich but disconnected body of existing research •  Mass-market proliferation of gameified applications Goals •  Stocktaking and integration of existing research •  Identification of new research opportunities (offered by mass-market applications)
  • 5. Workshop Questions •  What is the current state of research, and how to integrate it? •  Which existing approaches are well-suited to study gamification? •  Do gamified applications feature specific or novel, unresearched characteristics? •  What happens when game design elements are transferred into non-game contexts? •  Which promising (new) research topics and data sources do gamified applications provide?
  • 6. What is this »gamification« thing? Whole Elements »The use of game design elements in non-game Serious Games Game-based tech contexts« Serious Gaming •  Games, not play GWAP Gamification •  Elements, not whole Game games •  Design, not technology Play or practices •  Digital & non-digital Playful interaction •  Non-game contexts, not specific
  • 7. Who are these people? •  Lennart Nacke •  Rilla Khaled •  Dan Dixon •  Sebastian Deterding •  Kenton O’Hara •  (Miguel Sicart)
  • 8. Game Design Building Blocks Lennart Nacke •  What are formal core game elements? – Rewards – Challenge – Progress – Theme •  With what elements can we gamify HCI applications (Experimental tasks)?
  • 9. Thoughts on Gamification and Culture Rilla Khaled •  current gamification design strategies do not make sense in many cultural contexts •  e.g. Janteloven in Scandinavia is about not standing out •  how to make sense of gamification in cultural contexts? •  cultural values matter: gamification blurs boundaries with the real world •  culture and games share common conceptual ground •  people‘s background culture does influence people‘s interpretation of games – how can we harness this in design? •  gamification is somewhat subordinated to games: need to satisfy two literacies
  • 10. Types of player types Dan Dixon •  Bartle (1996) 4 types of players in MUDs •  Yee (2005) 3 main and 10 subcomponents in MMORPGS •  Klug and Schell (2006) 9 player types •  Jackson et al (2009) 8 orientations in Adventure Rock •  Canossa & Drachen (2009) 3 types of behaviour  in Tomb Raider: Underworld •  Kallio et al (2010) 9 reasons to play •  Commonalities Achievement, Competition, Socialization
  • 11. Situated Motivational Affordances Sebastian Deterding Game Motivation Social Context Intrinsic (frames) • Competence • Autonomy • Relatedness Artifact (patterns, affordances) Extrinsic •  RQ: How are situational and artifactual autonomy support in games and gamified applications related to intrinsic motivation and the experience of ‘play’? •  Method: Interviews, video ethnography, experiment •  Theory: Frame Analysis (Goffman), SDT (Ryan, Deci), motivational affordances (Zhang)
  • 12. Agenda: Morning 9.00–9.20 Introduction 9.20–10.15 Papers I 10.15–10.30 Coffee break 10.35–11.35 Papers II 11.35–11.45 Industry perspective 11.45–12.15 Identification of emerging topics 12.15–13.15 Lunch
  • 13. Agenda: Afternoon 13.15–15.30 World Café (with 15 min break) 15.30–15.45 Coffee break 15.45–17.30 Presentation and general discussion 17.30–17.45 Wrapup 17.45–18.15 Demos 19.30 Dinner at Cardero‘s
  • 14. Game rules 1.  Each player belongs to one of four teams: red, yellow, blue, green. 2.  Each player is dealt one creativity card. 3.  Each time a player makes a remark that uses the card, she scores a point for her team. She does so by announcing it to the table host. 4.  Between rounds, players may swap cards within their team. 5.  The team with the most points at the end wins. 6.  Please return the cards at the end of the workshop.
  • 15. World Café 1.  There are four rounds with 45 minutes each. Each table has a topic and host. 2.  Choose the table that most interests you, keeping participants per table roughly equal. 3.  Note ideas on the table cloth. At the end of each round, the table host will summarize results on the cloth. 4.  At the end of each round, •  switch to a table you haven‘t been to yet, •  create a new one with a new topic if you find at least four participants (you‘ll be the first host), •  close a table if everyone agrees 5.  The previous table host now presents the results of the past round and then hands her role over to a new host of the new round. 6.  For the final round, again choose the table that most interests you.
  • 16. World Café summary Please summarize the results as follows: •  What is agreed on? •  What is contentious? How might it be resolved? •  What is open or unknown? How might it be answered?
  • 17. Workshop summary •  What have we already done? •  What should happen next? •  How would we do that? •  What will you do next?
  • 18. Thank you Sebastian Deterding Dan Dixon Lennart E. Nacke Rilla Khaled Kenron O‘Hara s.deterding@hans-bredow-  
  • 19. Presentations 1.  Antin & Churchill: Badges in Social Media: A 11.  Inbar et al: Driving the Scoreboard: Motivating Social Psychological Perspective Eco-Driving Through In-Car Gaming 2.  Brewer et al.: Lights Off. Game On. The Kukui 12.  Kukkaniemi et al.: Play Society Research Cup: A Dorm Energy Competition Project 3.  Cheng et al.: Finding Moments of Play at Work 13.  Laschke & Hassenzahl: Mayor or Patron? The Difference Between a Badge and a Meaningful4.  Cheung: Consciousness in Gameplay Story 5.  Choe: Roleplaying gamification to encourage 14.  Lee: What could media art learn from recent social interactions at parties experimental games? 6.  Ahmet & Cramer: Gamification and Location- 15.  Müller: Gamification and Exertion: Using Sharing: Some Emerging Conflicts Gaming to Facilitate the Investment of Physical Effort 7.  Diakopoulos: Design Challenges in Playable Data 16.  Nikkila et al: Playing in Taskville: Designing a8.  Gerling: Exploring the Potential of Gamification social game for the workplace among Frail Elderly 17.  Narasimhan: The Gamification of Television: Is9.  Hoonhout & Meerbek: Brainstorm Triggers: game there life beyond badges? characteristics as input in ideation 18.  Reeves, Cummings & Anderson: Leveraging10.  Huotari & Hamari: “Gamification” from the the Engagement of Games to Change Energy perspective of service marketing Behavior 19.  Paharia:
  • 20. Badges in Social Media: A Social Psychological Perspective Judd Antin and Elizabeth F. Churchill Internet Experiences Group Yahoo! Research {jantin, echu} @juddantin, @xeelizYahoo! Presentation, Confidential 1 5/5/2011
  • 21. This is Not a New Idea
  • 22. The Social Purposesof Badges
  • 23. Goal Setting
  • 24. Instruction & Shepherding Instruction & Shepherding
  • 25. Reputation Reputation
  • 26. Status & Affirmation
  • 27. Group Identification Group Identification
  • 28. Thanks Judd Antin Elizabeth F. Churchill Internet Experiences Group Yahoo! Research {jantin, echu} @juddantin, @xeeliz You earned the “You Earned a Badge!” badge!
  • 29. Lights Off. Game On. The Kukui Cup: A Dorm Energy Competition Robert Brewer, George Lee, Yongwen Xu, Caterina Desiato, Michelle Katchuck, and Philip Johnson Collaborative Software Development Laboratory Dept of Information and Computer Sciences University of Hawaii at Manoa
  • 30. Motivation  Many energy challenges •  Environmental impacts •  Peak oil •  Energy security  Our relationship with energy must change  Energy conservation •  Behavior can be major driver  Energy literacy(2)
  • 31. Question  How can we obtain sustained, positive behavioral changes with respect to energy usage?(3)
  • 32. The Kukui Cup  A “next generation” dorm energy competition •  Real-time energy data •  Behavior change tools •  Energy literacy “baked in”  Built for reusability •  Open source systems: WattDepot & Makahiki  Inaugural competition •  October 2011, 3 weeks long •  4 residence halls •  1000 first-year students(4)
  • 33. Engagement  How do we get students to participate? •  Prizes •  Hype •  Gamification  Two parallel competitions •  Energy conservation •  Kukui Nut points  Side games •  Energy goal game •  Raffle game(5)
  • 34. Open Issues  “Onboarding” •  Our primary focus so far •  Early in-lab evaluations positive  Keeping things going •  How do we keep the “masters” interested? •  Developing 2nd level of interaction  After the competition ends •  How to support top players? •  Assist for next year’s Kukui Cup(6)
  • 35. Finding Moments of Play at Work Li-Te Cheng Joan DiMicco Sadat Shami John Patterson Casey Dugan Steven Rohall Michael Muller Andrew Sempere Werner Geyer Center for Social Software IBM Research
  • 36. Summary• When are appropriate moments of play for gamification in the enterprise?• Single player gamification impacts individual employee’s work-based or spare time• Multiplayer gamification impacts team time, social norms, corporate culture• Examined five past projects at IBM
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  • 38. flickr: julianlim
  • 39. Gifford Cheung,The Information School / dub Group University of Washington, Seattle
  • 40. AssertionA clear theoretical understanding ofhow players make moves in a gamingcontext will provide a framework for understanding the impact of game elements in non-gaming contexts.
  • 41. a Knowledge-based view of action (Giddens, 1984)
  • 42. 3 kinds relationship between action and knowledgediscursive: explainable weighed chess movepractical: habitual, verbally-unexpressed turn order, checking into 4squareunconscious: inhibited rationale
  • 43. dimensions of game media 1 Presence: 2 Readiness: 3 Adversity: (explainable/focused) (habitual/practical) Where is the line between discursive and practical?discursive: explainable weighed chess movepractical: habitual, verbally-unexpressed turn order, checking into 4squareunconscious: inhibited rationale See also: Winograd & Flores, 1987
  • 44. applied: finding a desired balance between game and non-game1 Presence: 2 Readiness: 3 Adversity:(explainable/focused) (habitual/practical) Where is the line between discursive and practical? Do the game elements What habitual Taking the context direct attention rhythm together as a whole, away from is promoted by different elements of the desired activities the medium the experience alter the of non-game for the game adversity experienced elements? (e.g. 4square by the players. When (e.g. driving vs. checkins) adversity is high, is this eco-gaming feedback) and how is that aided the ideal challenge for or disrupted by the gamification? environment?
  • 45. Future directionsDiscussing the applicability of these dimensionsis an interesting challenge. Both forunderstanding game elements and designingthem.Further discussion of alternate theories ofaction, additional dimensions of games iswelcome!
  • 46. Roleplaying gamification to encouragesocial interactions at parties Sungwon P. Choe Network Computing Lab KAIST, Korea
  • 47. AWE Wine Party Yeah! In It’s a Daejeon,networking Korea… party. Yeah! In Daejeon, Korea
  • 48. What A Party Host Wants So, a friendly He wants it to atmosphere and be successful. enjoyable interactions, right?
  • 49. Party Host Concerns Making sure I don’t DJ too loud… Overdrinking, … and that fighting…. there’s enough wine Prevent and Resolve Social Prevent and Resolve Logistical Problems Problems I don’t know anybody here… Help People Socialize
  • 50. Party Behaviors They observed Some are more some social than socializing others…. behaviors
  • 51. More Social Behaviors My friend here studies in the …and are same field…We found having ana common involvedinterest… conversation … Deep Talker “Matchmaker” My friends here also like salsa dancing… Bridger
  • 52. Party Behaviors Some are less social! Yeah, and…
  • 53. Less Social Behaviors I guess I’ll walk over here… I don’t know anybody here… Wallflower Wanderer Who should I talk to next? Hit-and-runner
  • 54. Initial Game Design So they can encourage …with “more social” gamification! behaviors…
  • 55. Initial Game Design …and win a Yeah, you could complete a deep talker quest..
  • 56. Current Work Well, there are How far have 3 stages… they gotten?
  • 57. To notify the Current Work host of wallflowers and They asked us to wanderers… wear these sensor badges Stage 1: Collecting & Analyzing Data Stage 2: Party Host App Deep TalkingMatchmaking …and guests who might Stage 3: Gamification App need help!
  • 58. Gamification and Location-sharingsome emerging social conflictsPresenter: Zeynep AhmetJunior researcher @ Mobile Life Centre,Mobile eco-systems, Service distribution models,Location-sharing services, Research-in-the-large.Gameszeynep@mobilelifecentre.orgHenriette CramerPost-doc researcher @ Mobile Life Centre,@hsmcramerMobile apps, Location-based services, Bots &Autonomous ‘things’, Social Computing,
  • 59. Location-sharing & check-ins A check-in - Manual pairing with semantic ‘venues’ - Mix between private & public - Potentially very large audiences
  • 60. As in Barkhuus et al., 2008: Brown et al., 2008, Tang et al., 2010,Consolvo, 2005 & many more location-sharing studies:Utilitarian uses:easing coordination, lightweightcommunication, serendipitous meet-upsSocial- and identity-driven uses:sharing lifestyle, events and sharing interestinginformation, self-presentation.But there’s more!
  • 61. Gamification points, badges, mayorships individual & social achievements social: competition, ownership & mayorship battles
  • 62. share life events check out the locals ‘play’ express who you areinform (un)plan ‘where was I?’ meet-ups voyeurism build your identity share your opinion ‘where was that?’‘own’ a place pass the time recommend a venue get a discountGamification elements have to co-exist with other motivatorsIf conflicts are inevitable, make the most of them!
  • 63. More info?
  • 64. Score: 50,000 Level: 12DESIGN CHALLENGES IN PLAYABLE DATANicholas A. Diakopoulos, Ph.D.Rutgers University, School of Communication and Information
  • 65. GAME-Y INFOGRAPHIC CONCEPT Mechanics Answering ?s Retrieve Value Guessing Anomalies Firing Range Aiming Filter Managing Resources Sort Cluster Design Elements Correlate Goals Extremes Rules Distribution Scores / Rewards Competition Advancement
  • 67. CHALLENGE AND BALANCE FOR DYNAMIC DATA•  Does the game break if data is updated, incomplete?•  Different data can change difficulty.•  How to make game designs adaptable?
  • 68. COORDINATES Nick Diakopoulos Twitter: @ndiakopoulos Email: Web:
  • 69. CHI 2011 Workshop on GamificationKathrin Gerling, M.Sc.Entertainment Computing Group, University of Duisburg-EssenInteraction Lab, University of
  • 70. • Demographic development in western societies leads to an increased group of (frail) elderly persons [8]• Research results suggest positive effects of digital games on cognitive, emotional and physical well-being of elderly [1, 6]• Game elements and games have successfully been integrated into physical therapy and cognitive training, e.g. [1, 7]Further exploration of the augmentation of routine tasks and leisure activities through gamificationExamination of challenges arising from the characteristics of the target audience, e.g. age-related impairments
  • 71. • Augmentation of regular tasks ‐ Motivating users to remain active, participate in therapy, ... ‐ Competition with peers is an important factor• Re-creating inaccessible real- world experiences• Gamification for social interaction ‐ Fostering relationships between elderly persons ‐ Re-connecting different generations
  • 72. • Impact of age-related changes and impairments [3, 5]• Lack of gaming experience among today‘s elderly ‐ No domain knowledge, no common ground in digital gaming ‐ Often extensive board and card gaming experience Gamification approaches cannot benefit from gaming literacy• Creation of rewarding experiences ‐ Importance of meaningful play, personal development ‐ High level of usability and accessibility necessary• Workload and computer literacy of nursing staffAccess barriers have to be reduced to allow elderly persons to engage in playful activities
  • 73. Brainstorm Triggers: gamecharacteristics as input in ideationJettie Hoonhout and Bernt MeerbeekPhilips ResearchMay 7, 2011
  • 74. Concept development at Philips Research:some examples Philips Research, May 7, 2011
  • 75. Research work around games: some examplesamBX Entertaible StoryToy SplashBall Philips Research, May 7, 2011
  • 76. UX input early on in the development• Problem description: – User experience (i.e., affective aspects) increasingly important in product development – Many evaluation tools, rather few early stage tools – How to incorporate UX input early on?• Possible approach: – Games are ultimate user experience, strong affective appeal – Can game elements be used for consumer electronics? – Why not use game application rules as triggers in brainstorms… • E.g.: perceived progress, clear goals, curiosity&exploration, competition Philips Research, May 7, 2011 4
  • 77. Robot vacuum cleaner case• Example brainstorm idea used in concepts: robot vacuum cleaner shows in a fun way that it is putting extra effort in cleaning a very dirty spot (also well-liked in subsequent evaluation by consumers)• Learnings regarding brainstorm triggers: – Appears to result in different type of ideas (more playful) compared to “normal” brainstorms – Not all triggers easy to work with adapt process – Not all triggers seem suitable for consumer electronics… Philips Research, May 7, 2011 5
  • 78. “Gamification” from theperspective of service marketingCHI 2011, Gamification Workshop
Kai Huotari
Juho Hamari
Helsinki Institute of Information Technology HIIT
  • 79. Emergence of service marketingClassical marketing theory is based on the exchange of physical goodsand cannot provide a sufficient understanding on services.Vargo & Lusch (2004) launched the term service-dominant (S-D) logic formarketing and proclaimed that the service approach should replace theclassical marketing theory.Value-in-use approach helps explain the ubiquitous applicability of theservice logic and the profound difference between the traditional, goods-dominant logic and the new service-dominant logic.In traditional marketing theory, value is considered to be created during theproduction process by the company and to be embedded in the product.Service marketing literature sees the customer always participating inthe production process as the value is generated only once thecustomer uses the service or the good.
  • 80. Service, service system and service packageVargo and Lusch (2004) define service as “the application of specializedcompetences (knowledge and skills), through deeds, processes, andperformances for the benefit of another entity or the entity itself”. Thus, anyintentional act - no matter how small - that helps an entity can be considereda service.“Service system is an arrangements of resources (including people,technology, information, etc.) connected to other systems by valuepropositions”. (Spohrer et al., 2008)Service package (Grönroos, 2007) helps firms manage bundled servicesor service systems. The basic service package consists of the core service,enabling services and enhancing services. Enabling services arerequired for the offering of the core service while enhancing services supportthe offering of the core service and thus increase its value or differentiates itfrom the services of the competitors.
  • 81. Games as service systemsSalen & Zimmerman (2004): “Game is a system in which players engage inan artificial conflict, defined by rules, that result in a quantifiable outcome”.Cook (2006): “Game mechanics are rule based systems / simulations thatfacilitate and encourage a user to explore and learn the properties of theirpossibility space through the use of feedback mechanisms.”Looked through the service marketing literature described above,game mechanics can be seen as services and games as servicesystems.
  • 82. A Proposed definition for gamificationGamification is a form of service packaging where a core service isenhanced by a rules-based service system that provides feedback andinteraction mechanisms to the user with an aim to facilitate and support theusers’ overall value creation.
  • 83. Thank you!Question/comment? Contact:
  • 84. ECODRIVING Ohad Inbar Omer Tsimhoni Noam Tractinsky Thomas Seder Ben Gurion University General MotorsCHI2011 Gamification Workshop
  • 85. ECODRIVING Eco Driving Eco-driving is a win-win proposition for:   Individuals, who can benefit from reduced fuel consumption.   Society, through reduced emissions.CHI2011 Gamification Workshop
  • 86. ECODRIVING Existing Designs Chevrolet  Volt   Ford’s  EcoGuide     Kia  Soul   Honda  Insight  CHI2011 Gamification Workshop
  • 87. ECODRIVING Gamifying Driving “When we observed hybrid drivers, we found they were going for high scores, a gaming behavior that has never existed in cars before.” - Steve Bishop, IDEOCHI2011 Gamification Workshop
  • 88. ECODRIVING Proposed Framework Public   Eco-­‐driver  of   Your  name   the  day   on  a  variable   award   message  sign   Internal   External   In-­‐car   Permit  to  use   messages   carpool  lane   Private  CHI2011 Gamification Workshop
  • 89. ECODRIVING Example Public + External: Your name on a variable message sign Public   Your  name   Eco-­‐driver  of   on  a  variable   the  day   message   award   sign   Internal   External   Permit  to   In-­‐car   use  carpool   messages   lane   Private  CHI2011 Gamification Workshop
  • 90. ECODRIVING Future Research 1.  Employ ethnographic methods to study the actual interaction of drivers with existing eco-driving interfaces. 2.  Study the effects of ‘tangible’ (monetary-like) rewards on drivers’ attitudes. Public   3.  Explore the effects of social Eco-­‐driver  of   Your  name   on  a  variable   the  day   message   award   interaction and social networks sign   Internal   External   on the relationship dimension. In-­‐car   Permit  to   use  carpool   messages   lane   Private  CHI2011 Gamification Workshop
  • 91. ECODRIVING Ohad Inbar ohad@ohadinbar.comCHI2011 Gamification Workshop
  • 92. Play  Society    CHI  Gamifica+on  Workshop   8.5.2011  
  • 93. Play  Society  Project  Structure   Playfulness  Hypothesis   Model  Playfulness   Development   Proto  design   and   Synthesis   Development   Playful   Experiments   Valida+on   Events  Collec3on   Analysis   More   Experiments   2011     2012-­‐2013     Design  Recommenda+ons  
  • 94. Playfulica+on  and  Gamifica+on  •  Playfulica+on  are  aligned  topics,  but  not  the  same.     •  Strict  differen+a+on  is  not  necessarily  feasible    •  BoQoms  up  conceptualiza+on  of  playfulness   •  Iden+fy  real  playful  events  (long  list)     ⇒   Form  clusters     ⇒   Elaborate  clusters  structural  founda+ons  •  Theore+cal  founda+ons  are  based  on  the  PLEX   work  (see  for  example  Korhonen  et  al  DPPI  2009)  
  • 95. Mayor or patron?The difference between a badgeand a meaningful story.Matthias Laschke//Marc HassenzahlFolkwang University of the Arts
  • 96. Mayor or patron?The storyIt is a beautiful day. Eva plans visitingher favorite pub the “zweibar” .She strolls to the “zweibar” .
  • 97. Mayor or patron?The storyWhile Eva’s mind is already in the“zweibar” Foursquare offers Sarah a ,300 Explorer badge.
  • 98. Mayor or patron?The storyWhile Eva’s mind is already in the“zweibar” Foursquare offers Sarah a ,300 Explorer badge.She also strolls tothe “zweibar”.
  • 99. Mayor or patron?The storyEva thinks about the nice atmosphereand her preferred waitress Lisa.
  • 100. Mayor or patron?The storySarah thinks about getting the 300‘Explorer’ badge.
  • 101. Both arrive at the same time. While Eva’s mind is set on pleasant anticipation, Sarahstill thinks about her badge.
  • 102. Mayor or patron?The storyAs expected, Eva’s bar-experience isreally good. Lisa is on duty and manyother good friends are there.She feels rewarded by the situationin itself.
  • 103. Mayor or patron?The storySarah feels a bit left alone. It’ sdefinitely not her first time in a bar, butthe “zweibar” is new to her.Could Foursquare offers somethingbeyond a badge?
  • 104. Mayor or patron?The storyIt could… Explore all locations in the bar. One could be your favorite place.
  • 105. Mayor or patron?The story Explore all locations in the bar. One could be your favorite place.
  • 106. Mayor or patron?The story Explore all locations in the bar. One could be your favorite place.
  • 107. Talk to astranger andask him/herto coffee.
  • 108. Ask for thefirst name ofthe staff. Theywill be glad.
  • 109. Mayor or patron?The story Try to take a seat next to a nice person. Don’t hesitate!
  • 110. Mayor or patron?The storyFinally, Sarah gets a touch of Eva’s goodbar-experiences. She will maybe comeback. With or without a offered badge?Her visit could be now filled withmeaningful stories and experiences.
  • 111. Mayor or patron? The story Instead of simple extrinsic rewarding, Try to take a seat next to a Explore all locations in the gamification systems should offer, help nice person. Don’t hesitate! bar. One could be your favorite place. and improve likeliness of worthwhile experiences. Try to take a Talk to a Ask for the firstseat next to a stranger and name of the nice person. ask him/her staff. They willDon’t hesitate! to coffee. be glad.
  • 112. What could media art learn from recent experimental games? Hyun-Jean Lee The Graduate School of Communication and Arts Yonsei University Seoul, Republic of Korea
  • 113. My Background… Interactive Fine Art Digital Media Media Art Painting, Video, Installation Art Computer-based Theory and Practice Interactive Installation in Digital Media→ What is the meaning of “interactivity” ?→ Why and how interactive experiences can be perceived differently in interactive media art work from fine art work?
  • 114. Art as Experience: Interactive Engagement“A work of art is an individualized participating experience (…) that are imaginatively evoked, summoned, assembled, and integrated are embodied in material existence that here and now interacts with the self”” – Dewey, Art as Experience, 1984
  • 115. Physical and Perceptual Interactivityin Camera-Screen Interface The basic model of feedback loop In the camera-screen interface, the simultaneous reception and projection of an image between the camera and monitor with the human body centered in this camera-monitor encapsulation.
  • 116. Physical and Perceptual Interactivityin Camera-Screen Interface A physical feedback loop
  • 117. Physical and Perceptual Interactivityin Camera-Screen Interface A physical feedback loop
  • 118. Physical and Perceptual Interactivityin Computational Interactive Systems An electronic feedback loop
  • 119. Physical and Perceptual Interactivityin Computational Interactive Systems A code-level feedback loop
  • 120. Physical and Perceptual Interactivityin Computational Interactive Systems A psychological feedback loop
  • 121. Critical Distance for Self-ReflectionAs the camera and the monitor in the artwork encapsulate the interactors body and mindin an instant feedback loop, the interactor becomes a part of the interface mechanismand responds to the artwork system.This kind of direct mirroring experience in interactive screen-based mediaartworks hardly allows the viewer the critical distance or time needed for self-reflection.Therefore, in media art experience, the critical distance or time needed for self-reflectionin the course of interaction needs to be greatly considered.And the interactive mechanism based on computational closed feedback systemneeds to be approached more philosophically and aesthetically.
  • 122. Currently I am …Teaching Graduate Students in Media Art major ...Teaching “Game Design and Culture” for Undergraduates …
  • 123. What Could Media Art Learn fromRecent Experimental Games? Casual Persuasive News Pervasive … Game Game game GameThe diverse approaches in experimental game practice and research becomesuseful references to enrich interactive experience.
  • 124. What Could Media Art Learn fromRecent Experimental Games? The Wide and Sophisticated Critical and Creative Use of Interactivity Aesthetic Attitudes Technologies Persuasive Game Persuasive Game Pervasive Game Newsgame Newsgame Casual Game For the sophisticated and reflective interaction
  • 125. Sophisticated InteractivityThe methodical and rhetorical approach and understanding to interactivityin game research and practice helps to improve the approach of interactivity in media art.• Procedural rhetoric:Tighter symbolic coupling between user actions and procedural representationcan be produced from the video games.• Play:The possibility space refers to the myriad configurationsthat the player might construct to see the ways the processesinscribed in the system work.Thus, while interacting with the system, the player literallyfills the gap between subjectivity and the game processes andperforms a great deal of mental synthesis.• Selective modeling in abstraction: Persuasive Games: The Expressive Power of Videogames, Ian BogostThe videogame’s method of selectively modeling appropriateelements of that world in “abstraction” creates the “empathetic and dialectical engagement”and “vivid experience” of interaction.
  • 126. Critical and Aesthetic AttitudesIn “Newsgames” and “Persuasive games”The critical and aesthetic attitudes recently presented in game design practice are also usefulto enhance the media art interaction to a more critical and reflective levelfrom the cultural and societal sides. September 12th Madrid Cut throat Capitalism Newsgames, Ian Bogost Simon Ferrari and Bobby Schweizer Everyday the Same Dream McDonald game
  • 127. Critical and Aesthetic Attitudes“Pervasive games”“Pervasive games” also use the strategy to look at the community and neighborhoodwith critical insights and reconstruct them as a game environment.By using their bodily engagement in the play,in these games players explore how to creatively combine the physical with the digital,life with play, virtual with real.These processes also show critical and reflective approaches to think of their subjectivityin the context of play and design at a societal and aesthetical stance. Persuasive Games: Theory and Design, Markus Montola, Jaakko Stenros and Annika Waern
  • 128. The Wide and Creative Use of TechnologiesThe wide and rich use of media technologies in games helps to think of the inter-relationship between media and technology for creative media art practice.• The pervasive games widely use the pervasive technologies and ubiquitous computing.• The novel interface technologies such as Nintendo Wii and Microsoft Xbox Kinect, involve intuitive user interactions. Nintendo Wii A Casual Revolution, Jesper Juul MS Xbox Kinect
  • 129. ConclusionAs game design and research have culturally, technologically and theoretically widened,its new possibilities and critical interaction methodologies become to influenceon other domains of research and practice, particularly on interactive media art.The game strategies to involve the sophisticated and reflective interactionfrom the players deliver useful lessons to be referred.
  • 130. Thank You !“Aesthetic experience is imaginative. (..) Imagination is the only gateway through which these meanings can find their way into a present interaction. ” - Dewey, Art as Experience, 1984
  • 131. playing in taskvilledesigning a social game for the workplace {shawn.nikkila, silvan.linn, hari.sundaram, aisling.kelliher}
  • 132. taskville motivationIn today’s workplace, diverse and distributed teamsfrom around the world are working on complexproblems.
  • 133. taskville motivation
  • 134. taskville motivation
  • 135. taskville motivation‐us/labs/default.aspx
  • 136. taskville motivationHow can individual workers be more aware ofactivities in the larger enterprise throughgamification?
  • 137. taskville motivation
  • 138. taskville motivationHow can we give feedback to repetitive andmundane tasks in a fun way through gamification?
  • 139. introducing taskville
  • 140. user feedback• What is a task?• Intra-group vs. inter-group competition• Privacy
  • 141. future directions• How can we gamify communication between family members over long distances?• How can we gamify compliance in the medical domain?
  • 142. Applied Research CenterThe Gamification of TelevisionIs there life beyond badges? Nitya Narasimhan Motorola Mobility, Inc.Gamification WorkshopCHI 2011May 7, 2011MOTOROLA and the Stylized M Logo are trademarks or registered trademarks of Motorola Trademark Holdings, LLC.All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners. © 2011 Motorola Mobility, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 143. APPLIED RESEARCH CENTER THE GAMIFICATION OF TV – CHI 2011 GAMIFICATION WORKSHOP Page 2We need new ways to track & engage audiences•  Television viewing is now at user’s convenience –  Time (when) –  Place (where) –  Device (how) –  Source (from whom)•  Increasing Fragmentation –  Of Audience (targeting) –  Of Attention (engaging)•  Can Gamification Help? © 2011 Motorola Mobility, Inc 3/8/2011
  • 144. APPLIED RESEARCH CENTER THE GAMIFICATION OF TV – CHI 2011 GAMIFICATION WORKSHOP Page 3But ‘Engagement’ has many facets Pre- Synched- Post- Viewing Viewing Viewing Behaviors Behaviors Behaviors Will the user watch Is the user watching Is the user invested in the show? the show? the show? Degree of interest Degree of attention Degree of follow-up (live vs. DVR, (full vs. partial, (search, learn, share, alone vs. social) like vs. bored) buy, record) © 2011 Motorola Mobility, Inc 3/8/2011
  • 145. APPLIED RESEARCH CENTER THE GAMIFICATION OF TV – CHI 2011 GAMIFICATION WORKSHOP Page 4The state of Gamification NOW: a focus on loyalty Synched- Post- Viewing Viewing Behaviors Behaviors Focus on Social Focus on Entertainment Rewards for watching the show Rewards for further engagement © 2011 Motorola Mobility, Inc 3/8/2011
  • 146. APPLIED RESEARCH CENTER THE GAMIFICATION OF TV – CHI 2011 GAMIFICATION WORKSHOP Page 5 Opportunities for Gamification NEXT Make it LASTUtility Make it MEANINGFUL Make it The EFFORTLESS Sustainability The Challenge Analytics The Attention Challenge Challenge Difficulty © 2011 Motorola Mobility, Inc 3/8/2011
  • 147. APPLIED RESEARCH CENTER THE GAMIFICATION OF TV – CHI 2011 GAMIFICATION WORKSHOP Page 6#1: The Attention Challenge in Synched Viewing•  Television involves lean- back consumption (passive)•  Social TV apps create lean- forward interaction (active) –  Add to user effort (context and activity inputs) –  Take user attention away from onscreen content Can gamification make the interactions “fun” without taking viewers’ attention away from content? © 2011 Motorola Mobility, Inc 3/8/2011
  • 148. APPLIED RESEARCH CENTER THE GAMIFICATION OF TV – CHI 2011 GAMIFICATION WORKSHOP Page 7#1: Opportunity for “Attention-Preserving” IO Toolkits Digitize Fun Interactions, Sense Ambient context Can gamification make the interactions “fun” without taking viewers’ attention away from content? © 2011 Motorola Mobility, Inc 3/8/2011
  • 149. APPLIED RESEARCH CENTER THE GAMIFICATION OF TV – CHI 2011 GAMIFICATION WORKSHOP Page 8#2: The Analytics Challenge: Growth but Sparsity•  Social TV apps today focus on presence (check-in), sentiment (like) & comment•  No incentive (or support) for multiple repeat events –  Coarser granularity (like a show not a segment) –  Undifferentiated intents (early vs. late check-in)Can gamification persuade users to check-in “more” or perform more “diverse” activities (like, dislike) to differentiate intent? © 2011 Motorola Mobility, Inc 3/8/2011
  • 150. APPLIED RESEARCH CENTER THE GAMIFICATION OF TV – CHI 2011 GAMIFICATION WORKSHOP Page 9#2: Follow the verbs: Create/Reward more activities•  Also impacts rewards and incentives schemes (more earn/burn options)Can gamification persuade users to check-in “more” or perform more “diverse” activities (like, dislike) © 2011 Motorola Mobility, Inc 3/8/2011
  • 151. APPLIED RESEARCH CENTER THE GAMIFICATION OF TV – CHI 2011 GAMIFICATION WORKSHOP Page 10#3: The Sustainability Challenge: Beyond ‘novelty’•  Understand individual viewer motivations and evolve ‘game elements’ to support or surprise them•  The problem: everyone watches television. There is no clear set of ‘player types’ /gamification-101-design-the-player-journeyCan gamification platforms evolve to suit different player types? What are the player types for social television? © 2011 Motorola Mobility, Inc 3/8/2011
  • 152. APPLIED RESEARCH CENTER THE GAMIFICATION OF TV – CHI 2011 GAMIFICATION WORKSHOP Page 11#3: Games With a Purpose: An MVC Approach•  Same model. Different views for different players. –  Games for Analytics –  Games for Search –  Advergames•  Example: Want to get viewers to “tag” video? –  Drinking game (fun) media-viewing –  Advisory tags (altruism)Can gamification platforms evolve to suit different player types? What are the player types for social television? © 2011 Motorola Mobility, Inc 3/8/2011
  • 153. APPLIED RESEARCH CENTER THE GAMIFICATION OF TV – CHI 2011 GAMIFICATION WORKSHOP Page 12Summary Can gamification make the interactions “fun” without taking viewers’ attention away from content? Can gamification persuade users to check-in “more” or perform more “diverse” activities (like, dislike) to differentiate intent? Can gamification platforms evolve to suit different player types? What are the player types for social television? © 2011 Motorola Mobility, Inc 3/8/2011
  • 154. H-STAR HUMAN SCIENCES AND TECHNOLOGIES ADVANCED RESEARCH INSTITUTE Leveraging the Engagement of Games to Change Energy Behavior Byron Reeves Stanford University James J. Cummings Dante Anderson Stanford University Seriosity,
  • 155. The Opportunity  A 10% reduction in energy use will lower the quantity of fossil fuels consumed by an amount roughly equal to a 25-fold increase in wind plus solar power, or a doubling of nuclear power (Sweeney, 2007).  This opportunity involves behavior change  The engine of behavior change is information
  • 156. The problem  Billions spent gathering information   Smart sensors and infrastructure   Tons of information  But energy information is dull   Complex UI’s   Problems are distant   Feedback separated from behavior   “What I get” not obvious (even $)
  • 157. 5/6/11 4
  • 158. The idea  Use successful ingredients from games:   Self representation; feedback; community connections, ranks and levels; teams; virtual economies; compelling narrative  Make a multiplayer game that connects home smart meters with game play   Track energy use   Feedback displays in game   Links to social networks and mobile devices
  • 159. Background  New gamer generation   Dominant genre of new media  New “science of fun”   New research about why games work  Games work in other serious contexts   Health, business productivity, learning  Increasing attention to serious games   IBM, State Farm, P&G, Microsoft, military, security, education, health +
  • 160. Guiding concepts  Mix real and virtual   House and real behavior as joystick for game play  Build professional games introduced at scale   ARPAe   Seriosity, Inc.  Fit current game trends   Farmville   Facebook  Stay true to game sensibilities!   Even though the game goals are serious   Fun, multi-period, rewards, teams, feedback…
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  • 170. The  Problem   Site/App   Traffic   User   Op)miza)on   Op)miza)on   “A1ract”   Content   “Influence”   Op)miza)on   “Sa)sfy”  12  
  • 171. Bunchball  gives  business  owners   real-­‐9me  influence   over  consumer  behavior   through  Gamifica8on.  13  
  • 172. Gamifica8on  Sa8sfies  Human  Needs   Self   Reward   Status   Achievement   Expression   Compe88on   Altruism   Points   Levels   Challenges  Virtual  Goods  Leaderboards   GiFing  &   Charity   14  
  • 173. 2  Kinds  of  “Gamifica8on”   Content   Content   Game   Game  15  
  • 174.