Transcript of "Effective teaching, learning and research for university lecturers"
TEACHING AND LEARNING IN
LARGE AND SMALL GROUPS
Dr. Gambari, Amosa Isiaka
A Paper Presented at a 3-Day Workshop on Effective Teaching,
Learning and Research in FUT, Minna.
3rd September – 3rd October, 2012
At the end of this presentation, you should be able
Identify some challenges of teaching large group;
Describe some strategies for engaging students,
teaching students of varied disciplines and
managing some disruptive behaviours in large
Explain some techniques for effective use of
PowerPoint presentation for large groups;
Identify some challenges and coping strategies
for teaching large classes;
Explain the basic concepts in teaching small
Identify different types of small group learning;
Demonstrate some steps for facilitating a small
group learning; and
Handle some problems of small group learning.
Teaching is an
a teacher and a
student in order to
bring about the
expected change in
Learning is a
causes a change
in the behaviour
of an individual
AIMS OF TEACHING
A teacher requires not only knowledge of subject
matter but also knowledge of how students learn
and how to transform them into active learners.
The aim of teaching is not only to transmit
information but also to transform students from
passive recipients of other people‟s knowledge
into active constructors of their own and other‟s
TEACHING AND LEARNING IN
These classes are usually taught in the lecture
Students are rarely asked to process their learning,
and discussions are limited.
Research has found that students are not very
happy with large, lecture-style classes.
EMPIRICAL STUDY ON LARGE GROUP
One study reports that students are bothered by:
Lack of interaction with professors (both in and out
Lack of structure in lectures
Lack of or poor discussion
Inadequate contact with teaching assistants
Inadequacy of classroom facilities and
Lack of frequent testing or graded assignments
The lecture method is a process of
teaching whereby the teacher verbally
delivers the knowledge to his students.
sometimes, entertains questions either to
emphasize some points or to make some
The teachers do the talking while the
students do the listening and jot down
the points when necessary.
These days, teachers can lecture a
crowd of students or unseen students
through the use of radio, television, and
ATTRIBUTES OF A GOOD LECTURE
It is delivered in a way that is
informative, interesting and
The content is well organized
and easy to follow;
Students feel involved
Students are left wondering
where time has gone;
Students leave knowing that
they have learned
something(s), and are often
inspired to go off and find out
ENHANCING LECTURE CLASSES
Setting Up Routines
HOW DO I GENERATE AND
MAINTAIN LEARNERS‟ INTEREST
At the beginning of the lecture
The lecturer should:
and interested in the
Be organized, and
take control of the
lecture room on your
Know how to use the
During the first few minutes of the lecture
The lecturer could:
Go through the learning
Describe a problem or
scenario that is of relevance
to the topic
Share his/her passion and
enthusiasm for the topic.
Link the lecture to some
current news or activity.
During the remaining period of the lecture
The lecturer could:
Use relevant and current examples to
illustrate the point;
Draw on the students' experiences (where
Use rhetorical questions to encourage
students to keep on track;
Vary between note taking, listening, and
Use visual materials
Use live links to the web to demonstrate
the currency of the material being
ORGANIZATION AND STRUCTURE
Brown (1987) identified three types of
signal and clues:
(i) Signposts: indicate the structure and
direction of the lecture: E.g:
Last week we covered … and this week
I will be developing those ideas further.
Today I want to consider…
First, we are going to look at …
Second, I‟ll spend some time
There are also statements which
indicate ends of the topics within the
* So, that summarizes the key features of
(2) Links: are phrases or statements that
link part of a lecture together: E.g:
Having just come to the end of a
topic, you could say, for example:
So what does that mean in practice?
Well, let's go on to have a look at . . .
So we can conclude then that.. .But
what does that really tell us about. ... ?
Well, if we go back to the first item we
considered today. . . .
So, you can see that this is the final
step in the process. So what now? If
we know that this happens in this
way, what are the long term
consequences? Well, we‟ll now go on
to consider those . . .firstname.lastname@example.org 20
(3) Foci: are statements that give emphasis and
which highlight key points, e.g.:
This is the most crucial step of the process . . .
There are three absolutely essential points that
need to be made . . .
A Case Study of Matt Davies (Aston
Uses the „INTRO‟ mnemonic is
particularly helpful in
introducing a lecture.
I stands for Interest;
N stands for Need;
T stand for Timing;
R stand for Range; and,
O stand for Outcome.
HOW DO I ENGAGE MY STUDENTS?
There are different types and levels of student
(i) First, Build a rapport, accessible, approachable
(ii) Breaking the flow or changing activity
(iii) Encourage active participation in the lecture by
(a)Pose questions for students to discuss in small
(b) Get the students to tackle problems
individually, and then compare their answers
with one or two others sitting next to them.
(c) Ask the students to vote on a multiple choice
question (MCQ)email@example.com 23
Show a DVD clip, but do ask the students to look
for something specific that you can ask them
Use demonstrations that can involve the students
Ask students to do mini-test, for example, to
check students‟ progress. This will need to be
marked and could be based on an MCQ format.
LECTURING TO A VARIED STUDENT GROUP
To make the lecture a good learning experience
for all students, the following suggestions may
Find out about the student cohorts who will be
attending the lecture.
Acknowledge to the students at the beginning,
that you know they are a varied group and that
the content, organisation and supporting materials
for the lecture will reflect this.
Use examples, or case studies, that are varied and
reflect the subject disciplines of the group;
When undertaking class tasks, suggest to the
students that they work in their disciplinary
When appropriate, ask the students to work on
different problems or consider different questions
that are relevant to their knowledge base or
subject discipline; and
Make explicit reference to specific additional
resources each cohort can access for support
after the lecture.
MANAGING DISRUPTIVE BEHAVIOUR
Types of noise:
physical noise; etc
Use of mobile
EFFECTIVE USE OF POWERPOINT
can be a very effective tool
for enliven the lecture.
It is easy presentation to
graphics, photographs, ch
arts, graphs, audio and
video clips, and to insert
live web links.
If used well, it can generate
interest and provide rich
and varied information.
How Can I Use PowerPoint Effectively?
How can I use PowerPoint Effectively?
(i) Avoid using complex
background images which
(ii) Do not use over-complex
(iii) Use a San-serif font such as
Arial or Verdana because it‟s
easier to read from a
(iv) Try to avoid lectures which
use only slides with bullet
(v) Use not more than 5–7 bullets/points per
slide for text information.
(vi) Use short sentences. Think in terms of point
form, and not narrative sentences and
(vii) Use a large font, 18–24 point.
(viii) Add an empty slide or a simple slide with
a “Thank you” message to the end of your
presentation so that the viewer is not left
looking at your desktop!
(ix) Make your PowerPoint
to be interactive
(x) Import and use digitized
images, sound or video
materials within the
(xi) Use the hyperlink
function to allow non-
linear progression through
CHALLENGES OF TEACHING LARGE CLASSES
The following are some of the challenges:
(i) Lack of intimacy
(iii) Meeting the student needs
(iv) Marking of the scripts
(vii) Noise level
(ix) Limited Space for CL activities
(x) Textbooks and resources
STRATEGIES FOR COPING WITH LARGE
Use a teacher's
Create a participation
Relax: Find ways to
relax before d class
Establish trust by
knowing your students
by their name
Manage the noise
Reduce marking and
Enforce a lateness
Share your mobile
mail, Skype, blog site
What is a „small group‟?
In higher education
comprise of as many
as 25 or 30 students.
It can also operate
within a much larger
setting, such as a
lecture, workshop or
Benefits of Small Group Learning (SGL)
(i) Tolerance and positive interactions among
students from different cultural
(ii) The exchange and processing
(iii) Academic achievement;
(iv) Ownership of new knowledge and skills;
(v) Opportunities to solve real-world
(vi) Positive attitudes toward the content;
(vii) Openness to new perspectives;
(ix) Motivation to learn;
(x) Confidence in one‟s social skills;
(xi) Psychological health (e.g., social
development, self-esteem); and
Different Structures of Small Groups
(i) Informal small groups
(ii) Formal small groups
STEPS FOR SUCCESSFUL SMALL GROUP WORK
The following are basic steps and preparation for
1. Teaching students the basic principles of SGL
2. Planning and preparation
3. Teachers and students roles in structuring SGL
4. Deciding on group size
5. Ways of forming the group/Group composition
6. Practical/Seating Arrangement
7. Group Dynamics – Group Process
8. Starting the Session
9. Types of small group learning
10. Handling problems or difficult situations in SGL
1. Teaching Students Basic Principles of SGL
(i) Positive interdependence,
(a) Goal interdependence
(b) Resource interdependence
(c) Role interdependence
(ii) Individual accountability,
(a)Eliminates free riders
(c) Keep students on-task
(iii) Group interaction: E.g,
(a) discussing concepts,
(b) sharing personal experiences,
(c) solving problems, and
(d) encouraging each other, group
members help each other learn the
(iv) Social skills:
(b) communication & active listening,
(d) conflict management, and
(e) decision making.
2. PLANNING AND PREPARATION
There are four fundamental questions a teacher should
ask themselves when planning a teaching
session, they are:
(i) Who am I teaching? The number of learners and their
study level or stage in training;
(ii) What am I teaching? The topic or subject, the type of
expected learning (knowledge, skills, behaviours);
(iii) How will I teach it? Teaching and learning
methods, length of time available, location of
teaching session, internet resources, SGL skills
models, etc; and
(iv) How will I know if the students understand? Informal
and formal assessments, questioning
techniques, feedback from firstname.lastname@example.org 44
3. TEACHERS‟ AND STUDENTS‟ ROLES IN
(a) Teacher Roles
(i) Start and finish group work
- keeping to time,
- ensuring outcomes are achieved
- tasks are explained
(ii) Maintain the flow of content
(iii) Manage group dynamics.
(iv) Facilitate goal achievement
(v) Manage group environment
(b) Student Roles
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Starts the activity and keeps
the group on task
Reiterates roles for others, as
2. Recorder: Takes notes as
3. Reporter: Presents to the
4. Time Keeper: Helps keep
team on task within time
5. Quiet Captain: The quiet
captain sees to it that the
group does not disturb
6. Checker: The checker
makes sure that each one
in the group finishes the
worksheet or assigned
task in class.
4. PRACTICAL AND SEATING ARRANGEMENTS
(a) Practical Arrangement
(i) the use of computer equipment
(ii) Know how to load presentations,
(iii)access the internet,
(iv) set up the data projector
(v) set up & use interactive whiteboards or other
(b) Seating Arrangement
It has the following advantages:
(i) Encourages nervous students to participate
(ii) A dominating student can be checked
(iii) Determines the level of students‟ participation
Deciding on Group Size
The choice of group size will
often depend on the:
size of the whole class;
as well as on the size &
Shapes of the room; and
facilities available in the
rooms in which the small-
group work is to be carried
The followings are types of group sizes based on
their advantages and disadvantages:
ease to arrange meeting or
are good for small-scale tasks
Problems can occur when pairs fall
or a student is absent,
lazy or domineering.
It is normally unwise to use the same
pairs for long-term tasks, but it is
advisable to change pairs over
different email@example.com 58
communication is still easy;
work can be shared out in
It is easier to arrange
meetings/schedules than for
there is possibility of a 'casting
opportunity when making
two can gang up on
It is vulnerable if one
member is often absent
or when present doesn't
take an equal
(i) it can be spited into
pairs for some
(ii) can be a good for
sharing out large
(iii) Students with
play to their own
(i) are a favoured for many
(ii) opportunity for 'casting vote'
(iii) opportunity when making
(iv) There are sufficient people
to provide a range of
(i) possibility for slacker to hide
The group can
subdivide into threes
or twos, in many
It is difficult to ensure
the equivalence of
tasks for group
(vii) Seven to ten
(i) Can be splitting into smaller groups for
(ii) It only viable if a substantial task is to be
undertaken and if considerable support and
advice is given on project and team
(i) greater possibility of idlers loafing
Strategies for Forming Groups
Avoid allowing students to form their own groups. When
groups are self-selected, students are more likely to stray
from the objective and form cliques (Cooper, n.d.).
Members should be chosen based upon differing
achievement levels, learning styles, race or
ethnicity, gender, academic majors or career
objectives, ages, personalities, or past experiences.
Group can be constituted based on: Group with some
historical or social basis; Random groups; and performance-
(i) Groups with some historical or social
(a) Friendship groups
(i) Feel sense of ownership
(i) Students of similar ability clump together
(b) Geographical groups
(i) is one of the easiest and quickest ways of dividing
a class into groups.
(ii) minimizes the embarrassment of some students
who might not have been selected in a friendship
(i) students nearest the tutor has higher in motivation
compared to those in the most remote corner of
Alphabetical (family name) group
(i) It is easy to achieve if you already have an
alphabetical class list.
(i) it is possible for students to find themselves in the
same group, if several tutors use the same process
of group selection.
(ii) It is possible when working with multicultural
large classes, several students from the same
culture may have the same family name, and
some groups may end up as dominated by one
(ii) Random groups
(a) Number group
When students are given a number (for example
on a class list), you can easily arrange for different
combinations of groups for successive task
(b) Class list rotating syndicates
Where a succession of small-group tasks is to be
used, say with group size being four, it can be
worth making a printed list of the whole class, and
starting off by forming groups by writing
AAAA, BBBB, CCCC, DDDD, etc. down the list. Next
time round, write ABCD, ABCD, ABCD etc
Astrological groups: selection on the basis of
calendar month of birth date.
Similarly, 'star signs' could be used but not all
students know their stars. It can be used to groups
members into different sizes
(i) participants from some religions may also find it
(iv) Further ways of forming groups
(a) Performance-related groups:
Sometimes you may wish to set out to balance the
ability range in each group, for example by
including one high-flier and one low-flier in each
(b) Skilled based groups: For some group task, it can
be worthwhile to try to arrange that each group
has at least one member with identified skills and
(c) Hybrid groups: This is a compromise solution.
Gambari, 2012 76
1. Exploratory stage
stage, characterized by
3. Teachers can help by
introduction, using ice
breaking tasks, explaining
the tasks and purpose of the
1. Determine requirements
2. trying to carrying out the a
task & become functional
3. This stage is characterized
4. The teacher can help by
clarifying & reflecting ideas
& moderating conflicts.
firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com 78
1. The group begins to share
ideas, thoughts and beliefs
& establish ground rules
2. Teacher can help
clarifying ideas & ground
rules, & encourage reticent
member to participate
firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com 79
1. Group focuses on activity &
start to work as a team.
2. Teacher‟s is to keep the
group focused and
facilitate as necessary.
3. Monitor performance
Starting the Session
The main task for the teacher at the start of the
session is to facilitate forming and norming. To do
this we need to:
(i) Create a positive learning environment;
(ii) Outline our expectations and explore those of the
(iii) Negotiate and set ground rules;
(iv) Identify, agree and assign roles and
(v) Facilitate participation and enable
communication between group members through
setting appropriate tasks.
Setting Ground Rules
Typical ground rules
(i) Starting and finishing
(ii) Coming prepared;
(iii) Listening to others
(v) Saying when you
(vi) Addressing the whole
group and not just the
teacher when speaking;
(vii) Switching off mobile
(viii) Treating others‟
contributions with respect;
(ix) Keeping personal issues
out of the session; and
confidentiality within the
A. The Ten Commitments
1. I promise to do my share of work
with pleasure and delight.
2. I will be brave to express myself in
my group. My opinions do count.
3. I will be sensitive to my learning. If I
find any problem or difficulty, I will
turn to my teammates for help
4. When my classmates are doing
their presentation, I will encourage
them with my big smile and
5. I am willing to help my classmates
and teammates when they need
6. I will write “thank-you” notes to one
of my classmates and teammates
after each class.
7. I will learn how to show my
appreciation in words and in deeds
to anyone who helps me during
8. I will learn how to catch my
classmates while they are doing
9. I will respect the differences
between my classmates and me.
10. I promise to enjoy every minute of
our physics class by smiling happily
all the time.
B. The Ten Commandments
1. Do not turn in your homework late;
2. You must not laugh at your
teammates when they make
3. You must not sleep in class;
4. You must not chat with teammates
during group discussion;
5. You must not shout at your
teammates when talking to them;
6. You must not take things from
another teammate‟s desk without
7. You must not kick the feet of another teammate
under the table;
8. You must not eat or chew gum or garlic during
9. You must not stay up late the night before small
group learning class; and
10. You must not swing your chair while seated.
(adopted from Gambari, 2010)
Questioning and facilitation techniques
(i)Evidence - How do you know that? What
evidence is there to support that position?
(ii) Clarification - Can you put that another way?
Can you give me an example? Can you
explain that term?
(iii) Explanation – Why might that be the case?
How would we know that? Who might be
(iv) Linking and extending - Is there any
connection between what you have just said
and what Y said earlier? How does this idea
support/challenge what we explored earlier in
the firstname.lastname@example.org 88
(v) Hypothetical – What might happen
if…? What would be the potential
benefits of X?
(vi) Cause and effect – How is this
response related to management? Why
is/isn‟t drug X suitable in this condition?
What would happen if we
(v) Summary and synthesis – What
remains unsolved/uncertain? What else
do we need to know or do to
understand this better/be better
prepared? (adapted from Brookfield
Group Functioning Strategies
The following questions are necessary in
determining how groups are functioning:
(i)How well do you think you did that as a group?
(ii) Did someone take the lead, and if so, how did
this come about?
(iii) Who said most?
(iv) Whose ideas are most strongly present in the
solution to the task?
(v) Did you always agree with the ideas - being
adopted by the group?
(vi) Was there anything you thought but didn't
Types of Small Groups
1. Student Team Achievement Division
(STAD) - How to do it
(i) Assign students to 4 – 5
(ii) The teacher presents
materials usually in a
(iii) Group members work
worksheets or answer
sheets or both;
(iv) Each student individually
takes a quiz and group
(v) Each student‟s individual
quiz score and team quiz
score are counted equally
towards the student‟s final
(vi) High scoring teams is
recognized in the class.
May 22, 2006
2. Jigsaw – how to do it
(i) Create heterogeneous groups called “home”
(ii) Give students a part of a text to read (equally
(iii) Have “expert groups” get together to share
(iv) Bring “home” groups back together to
(v) Students take individual or group quiz
(vi)Best group is rewarded
4 home groups,
with 4 members
4 expert groups, with one
member from each home
3. Team Assisted Individualization – how to
(i) Students are split into teams
of three or four or five with a
mix of ability;
(ii) After a teacher has taught
(iii) Each teammate complete
(iv) Teammates help each
other complete tasks;
(v) Students are then tested
individually or by group;
(vi) Teams earn recognition.
4. Learning Cell – how to do it
(i) Students read an
generating a list of
questions dealing with
(ii) During class
time, students are
randomly paired up, and
partner A begins by
(iii) After the question is
answered (and possibly
corrected), the second
student, B, poses a
question to student A. &
each write down their
(iv) During this process the
lecturer goes round
progress and providing
clarification as needed.
5. Think, Pair, Share - How to do it?
(i) Announce a discussion topic or
problem to solve;
(ii) Give students at least 10 seconds of
think time to THINK of their own
(iii) Ask students to PAIR with the person
sitting next to them to discuss the
topic or Solution;
(iv) Finally, randomly call on a few
students to SHARE their ideas with the
NB: Give students time cues for each
step will keep them on task.
6. Syndicate – how to do it
(i) Assign students to 4-8 group
(ii) Assign each group a topic to
research, or you can give the
class a list and allow each group
to choose a topic;
(iii) Let groups know time limit for
the project execution &
(iv) A marking scheme that
includes a weighted peer-
evaluation along with lecturer
evaluation can be devised.
7. Brainstorming – How to do it
(i) In a small or large group select a
moderator and a recorder (they may
be the same person).
(ii) Define the problem or idea to be
brainstormed (make sure everyone is
clear on the topic being explored).
(iii) Set up the rules for the session. They
(a) Allowing everyone to contribute;
(b) Recording each answer unless it
is a repeat; and
(c) Setting a time limit and stopping
when that time is up.
(iv) Start the brainstorming. The recorder should write down all
responses, if possible so everyone can see them. Make
sure not to evaluate or criticize any answers until
brainstorming is done.
(v) Once you have finished brainstorming, go through the
results and begin evaluating the responses. Some initial
qualities to look for when examining the responses include:
(a) Looking for any answers that are repeated or similar;
(b) Grouping like concepts together;
(c) Eliminating responses that definitely do not fit;
(vi) Now that you have narrowed your lists down, discuss
the remaining responses as a group; and
(vi) Give the class time cues for each step to keep them on
task and efficient.
8. Buzz Groups – How to do it
(a) Open-Ended Buzz Group Discussion:
(i) Open-ended discussions begin with a sincere
question (to which there is no one
correct, concise or simple answer) posed by
the teacher or a student.
(ii) Incorporate pauses after students' responses
to encourage extended or different responses.
(iii) Clarify students' responses when necessary.
(iv) Establish student-student dialogues during the
discussion whenever possible.
(v) Respect students' questions and their
(vi) Model the role of
listener, collaborator, mediator, prompter, lear
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(b) Guided Buzz Group Discussion
(i) Guided discussions begin with
teacher-posed questions that
promote the exploration of a
particular theme, topic or issue.
(ii) Through discussion, students
should achieve a deeper
understanding of the topic.
(iii) After some time is spent on
questioning, students should be
encouraged to facilitate
discussions by continuing to
formulate and pose questions
appropriate to the topic of study.
HANDLING PROBLEMS OR
DIFFICULT SITUATIONS IN SGL
1. Group member behaviours which
damage group work
S/No Behaviours Suggested Solution
(i) Lead the group towards including an appropriate ground rule
(ii) Point out that punctuality is related to courtesy
(iii) Lead by example, don’t be late yourself!
(iv) Make the beginning of group sessions well worth being
(v) Give out something useful at the beginning of the session
(vi) Avoid queuing
up at all
(i) Ensure that it really is worth turning
(ii) Keep records of attendance
(iii) Assess attendance
(iv) Issue something during each session
(v) Cover some syllabus elements only in small-group sessions
(vi) Don't cancel small-group sessions
S/No Behaviours Suggested Solution
(i) Help students to structure their preparation
(ii) Don't fail to build on their preparations
(iii) Try starting each session with a quick quiz
(iv) Consider asking them to hand in their preparations
(v) Get them to peer-assess their preparations
(i) Have clear task briefings in the first place
(ii) Make the first part of a group task relatively short
and straight forward
(iii) Specify the learning outcomes clearly
(iv) Set structured tasks, with staged deadlines
S/No Behaviours Suggested Solution
(i) Cheek that it really is disruption
(ii) Find out why a person is being disruptive
(iii) Watch for the same group member being
6. A group
(i) Get the group to reflect on how it is
(ii) Lead a discussion on the benefits and
drawbacks of assertiveness
(iii) Confront the dominator privately
(iv) Intervene in the work or the group
2. Group Facilitator Behaviour which
can Damage Group Work
S/No Behaviours Suggested Solution
(i) Remind the whole group of the benefits of equal participation
(ii) Clarify the group learning briefing
(iii) Consider making the assessment of contribution to the work of
the group more explicit
(iv) Confront a non-participant directly
(v) Try to find out if there is a good reason for non-participation
(vi) Explore whether non-participation could be a cry for help
(vii) Check, with care, whether the problem is with the work rather
than the group
(viii) Cheek whether non-participation could be a reaction against
(i) Have a quiet word with the domineer
(ii) Get the whale group to do a process review
(iii) Watch out for why people dominate
S/No Behaviours Suggested Solution
(i) Make it obvious that you have prepared
specially for the group session
(ii) Keep records of group sessions, and have them
(i) Don’t try to hurry group learning too much. It
(ii) Hide your knowledge and wisdom sometimes
(iii) Allow group students to learn from mistakes
(iv) Plan processes rather than outcomes
(v) Ask your students
(vi) Learn from selected colleagues
S/No Behaviours Suggested Solution
(i) Read about It
(ii) Watch other group-learning facilitators, with
this agenda in mind
(iii) Don't make assumptions
(iv) Talk to group members individually
(v) Ask directly sometimes
(i) Go clone detecting
(ii) Don't over-compensate
S/No Behaviours Suggested Solution
(i) Remind yourself that most learning is done by doing, rather
(ii) Don’t allow yourself to be tempted into filling every silence.
(iii) Only say some of the things you think. Don’t fall into trap
of feeling you have to defend your expertise, or that you need to
justify your position.
(iv) Don’t let them let you talk too much!
(v) Present some of your thoughts (particularly longer ones) in
(i) Work out exactly what you intend each group learning
session to achieve.
(ii) Publish the learning outcomes or objectives in advance.
(iii) Maintain some flexibility
(iv) Don't just write the objectives or outcomes - use them!
(v) Assist students in creating their own objectives.
Teaching large group of students is a challenging
experience and it is not sufficient to simply know the
material but how to make the lecture interesting and
engaging, well organised and structured, with clear
guidance through the material, using relevant and
topical examples and case studies.
Small groups can be an effective learning situation in
which students learn both through instructions from their
teachers and from interaction with each other. The
group also provides opportunities for individuals to
speak in front of others and to receive feedback from
teachers and peers.
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