Concept of audiovisual technology by dr. gambari, a. i.


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Concept of audiovisual technology by dr. gambari, a. i.

  1. 1. Dr. Gambari, A. Isiaka E-mail: Website: Blogsite: AUDIOVISUAL TECHNOLOGY (EDT 301) A Lecture Presented at University of Ilorin for Undergraduate Students of Educational Technology Department. 19th November, 2013
  2. 2. COURSE OUTLINE WEEKS CONTENTS 1&2 Concepts of audiovisual technology 2 Classification of audiovisual technology OBJECTIVES (i) Define audio-visual technology (ii) meaning of audiovisual technology (iii) significant of audiovisual technology (iv) advantages of audiovisual technology (v) characteristics of audiovisual technology (vi) principles in the use of audiovisual technology (vii) problems in the use of audiovisual technology (i) Classify audio-visual technology into (a) projected and non-projected (b) audio, visual and audio-visual materials (c) hardware and software (d)big media and little media (e) three dimensional media 2
  3. 3. Cont… 3 4&5 6 7 Principles and patterns of learning (i) State the principles of learning (ii) Describe the different types of patterns of learning Definition and nature of (i) Define and explain systems approach Systems Approach (ii) Explain the components of systems approach (iii) Draw and explain the ADDIE model of instructional design Technologies of (i) Explain the concept of technologies of instruction instruction. (ii) List and explain the various types of technologies of instruction Selecting instructional (i) Explain the factors to consider when methods /strategies selecting instructional methods or strategies (ii) Apply these factors to select instructional methods later during the practical session. 3
  4. 4. Cont… 8 - 14 Practical Demonstration, Production and Presentation of Audio-Visual Technology Instructional Package 15. Revision (i) Design various instructional packages using audio, visual, and audiovisual technology (ii) Produce various instructional packages using audio, visual, and audiovisual technology(e.g, audacity software, CamStudio, PowerPoint, Macromedia Flash, VCD, etc (iii) Present the package in the class for peer and self-evaluation of the skill demonstrated 4
  5. 5. Objectives  At the end of this presentation, you should be able to: (i) Define audio-visual technology (ii) meaning of audiovisual technology (iii) significant of audiovisual technology (iv) advantages of audiovisual technology (v) characteristics of audiovisual technology (vi) principles in the use of audiovisual technology (vii) problems in the use of audiovisual technology 5
  6. 6. (i) Define audio-visual technology Gambari 2012
  7. 7. What is audio-visual technology  Barton: Audiovisual technologies those sensory objects or images which initiate or stimulate and reinforce learning.  Curter, V. Good: Audiovisual technologies are those which help in completing the triangular process of learning, i. e. motivation, classification and stimulation.  Edgar Dale: Audiovisual are those devices by the use of which communication of ideas between persons and groups in various teaching and training situations is helped. These are also termed as multi-sensory materials.
  8. 8. Cont…  Good’s Dictionary of Education: Audiovisual aids are anything by means of which learning process may be encouraged or carried on through the sense of hearing or sense of sight.  Kinder, S. James: Audiovisual technologies are any device which can be used to make the learning experience more concrete, more realistic and more dynamic.  Mckown and Roberts: Audiovisual technologies are supplementary devices by which the teacher, through the utilization of more than one sensory channels is able to clarify, establish and correlate concepts, interpretations and appreciations. 8
  10. 10. Meaning of Audiovisual Technology  Audiovisual technology is the planning, preparation, and use of devices and materials that involve sight, sound, or both for educational purposes. Among the devices are television, computer, videodiscs, among others.  Audiovisual devices or technological media or learning devices are added devices that help the teacher to clarify, establish, correlate and co-ordinate accurate concepts, interpretations and appreciations and enable him to make learning more concrete, effective, interesting, inspirational, meaningful and vivid.  They help in completing triangular process of learning viz, motivation-clarification-stimulation. The aim of teaching with technological media is ‘clearing the channel between the learner and the things that are worth learning’. 10
  12. 12. 3. SIGNIFICANT OF AUDIOVISUAL TECHNOLOGY  Audiovisual technology provides significant gains in informational learning, retention and recall, thinking and reasoning, activity, interest, imagination, better assimilation and personal growth and development.  Audiovisual technology are the stimuli for learning ‘why’, ‘how’, ‘when’ and ‘where’. The difficult concepts or hard to understand principles are usually made clear by the intelligent use of audiovisual technology. 12
  14. 14. 4. ADVANTAGES OF AUDIOVISUAL TECHNOLOGIES i. Best Motivator: They are the best motivators. The students work with more interest and zeal. They are more attractive. ii. Antidote to the disease of verbal instruction: They help to reduce verbatim. They help in giving clear concepts and thus help to bring accuracy in learning. iii. Clear images: clear images are formed when we see, hear, touch, taste and smell as our experiences are direct, concrete and more or less permanent. Learning through the senses becomes the most natural and consequently the easiest. iv. Vicarious experience: There is no doubt that the first hand experience is the best type of educative experience. But it is neither practicable nor desirable to provide such experience to pupils. 14
  15. 15. Cont… v. Variety: ‘mere talk and chalk’ do not help. Audiovisual technology gives variety and provides different tools in the hands of the teacher. vi. Freedom: When Audiovisual technology devices are employed, there is great scope for children to move about, talk, laugh and comment upon. Under such an atmosphere the students work because they want to work and not because the teacher wants them to work. vii. Opportunities to handle and manipulate: many audiovisual technologies offer opportunities to students to handle and manipulate things. viii. Retentivity: Audiovisual technologycontribute to increased retentitivity as they stimulate response of the whole organism to the situation in which learning takes place. 15
  16. 16. Cont… ix. Based on maxims of teaching: the use of Audiovisual technology enables the teachers to follow the maxims of teaching like ‘concrete to abstract, known to unknown and learning by doing. x. Helpful in attracting attention: Attention is the true factor in any process of teaching and learning. Audiovisual technology helps the teacher in providing proper environment for capturing as well as sustaining the attention and interest of the students in the classroom work. xi. Helpful in fixing up new learning: What is gained in terms of learning needs to be fixed up in the minds of students. Audiovisual technology helps in achieving this objective by providing several activities, experiences and stimuli to the learners. 16
  17. 17. Cont… xii. Saving of energy and time: A good deal of energy and time of both the teachers and students can be saved on account of the use of audiovisual technologies as most of the concepts ands phenomenon may be easily clarified, understood and assimilated through their use. xiii. Realism: the use of audiovisual technologies provides a touch of reality to the learning situation. By seeing a movie show exhibiting the life of the people of the South Africa, students learn it more effectively in about 1 hour than by spending weeks by reading. xiv. Vividness: Audiovisual technology gives vividness to the the learning situation. An historic film provides a vivid picture of the story. 17
  18. 18. Cont… xv. Meeting individual differences: There are wide individual differences among learners. Some are ear-oriented, some can be helped through visual demonstrations, while others learn better by doing. The use of variety of Audiovisual technology helps in meeting the needs of different types of students. xvi. Encouragement to healthy classroom interaction: Audiovisual technology through their wide variety of stimuli, provision of active participation of the students, and vicarious experiences encourages healthy classroom interaction for the effective realization of teaching –learning objectives. xvii. Spread of education on a mass scale: Audiovisual technology like radio, television and internet help in providing opportunities for education to people living in remote areas. They also help in promoting adult education. 18
  19. 19. Cont… xviii. Promotion of scientific temper: In place of listening to facts, students observe demonstrations and phenomena and thus cultivate scientific temper. xix. Development of higher faculties: verbatim promotes imagination. Use of audiovisual technology helps stirs the imagination thinking process reasoning power of the students, and calls for creativity, and inventiveness and other higher mental activities on the parts of students and thus helps the development of higher faculties among the students. xx. Reinforcement to Learners: Audiovisual technology prove effective reinforcers by increasing the probability of reoccurrence of the responses associated with them and thus render valuable help in the teaching-learning process. 19
  20. 20. Cont… xxi. Positive transfer of learning and training: Use of audiovisual technology helps in the learning of other concepts, principles and solving real problems of life by making possible the appropriate positive transfer of learning and training received in the classroom. xxii. Positive environment for creative discipline: A balanced rational and scientific use of Audiovisual technology develop motivation, attracts the attention and interests of the students and provides a variety of creative outlets for the utilization of their tremendous energy and thus keeps them busy in the classroom work. In this way, the overall classroom environment becomes conducive to creative discipline. 20
  22. 22. 5. (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) (viii) (ix) (x) CHARACTERISTICS OF GOOD AUDIOVISUAL TECHNOLOGY They should be meaningful and purposeful They should be accurate in every respect They should be simple They should be cheap They should be improvised as far as possible They should be large enough to be properly seen by the students for whom they are meant They should be up to date They should be easily portable They should be according to the mental level of the students They should motivate the learners 22
  24. 24. 6. PRINCIPLES IN THE USE OF AUDIOVISUAL TECHNOLOGY  (i) Principle of selection: Audiovisual technology prove effective only when they suit the teaching objectives and unique characteristics of the special group of learners. Following points may be kept in view in this regard: (a) They should suit the age-level, grade-level and other characteristics of the learners. (b) They should have specific educational value besides being interesting and motivating (c) They should be the true representatives of the real things (d) They should help in the realization of desired learning objectives 24
  25. 25. Cont…  (ii) Principle of preparation: This principle requires that following points should be attended to: (a) As far as possible locally available material should be used in the preparation of audiovisual technology (b) The teachers should receive some training in the preparation of audiovisual technology (c) The teachers themselves should prepare some of the audiovisual technology devices (d) Students may be associated in the preparation of audiovisual technology devices 25
  26. 26. Cont…  (iii) Principle of physical control: This principle relating to the arrangement of keeping audiovisual technology devices safely and also to facilitate their lending to the teachers for use 26
  27. 27. Cont…  (iv) Principle of proper presentation: This principle implies the following points: (a) Teachers should carefully visualize the use of audiovisual technology before their actual presentation (b) They should fully acquaint themselves with the use and manipulation of the audiovisual technology devices to be shown in the classroom (c) Adequate care should be taken to handle an audiovisual technology devices in such a way as no damage is done to it. (d) The audiovisual technology should be displayed properly so that all the students are able to see it, observe it and derive maximum benefit out of it. (e) As far as possible, distraction of all kinds should be eliminated so that full attention may be paid to the AVT. 27
  28. 28. Cont… (v) Principle of response: This principle demands that the teachers guide the students to respond actively to the audiovisual stimuli so that they derive the maximum benefit in learning (vi) Principle of evaluation: This principle stipulate that there should be continuous evaluation of both the audiovisual material and accompanying technique in the light of the realization of the desired objectives. 28
  30. 30. 7. PROBLEMS/CHALLENGES IN THE USE OF AUDIOVISUAL TECHNOLOGY (i) Apathy of the teachers: Teachers in general are yet to be convinced that teaching with words alone is very tedious, wasteful and ineffective. (ii) indifference of students: The judicious use of Audiovisual technology arouses interest but when use without a definite purpose they lose ther significance and importance. (iii) Ineffectiveness of the technology: Due to the absence of proper planning and the lethargy of the teacher and without proper preparation, correct presentation, appropriate application and discussion and the essential follow-up work, the Audiovisual technology do not prove their full usefulness. A film like a good lesson has various steps- Preparation, Presentation, Application and Discussion. 30
  31. 31. Cont… (iv) Financial hurdles: financial difficulty from government can affects the use of audiovisual technology. (v) Absence of electricity: Most of the projectors, Radio and TV cannot work without the electric current which is not available in large number of schools. (vi) Lack of facilities for training: training colleges or specialized agencies should make special provision to train teachers and workers in the use of audiovisual technologies. (vii) Coordination between centre and states: Good film, libraries, museums of Audiovisual technology education, fixed and mobile exhibitions and educational training should be organized both by governments and supporting agencies. 31
  32. 32. Cont… (viii) Language difficulty: Most educational films are in English language. (ix) Not catering to local needs: Little attention is paid in the production of Audiovisual technology to local sociological, psychological and pedagogical factors. (x) Improper selection of films: Films are not selected according to the classroom needs. 32