INSTRUCTIONAL SYSTEM DESIGN
Dr. Gambari, A. I.
Centre for Open Distance and e-Learning (CODeL)
Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria
At the end of this presentation, you should be able
Define key concepts in instructional design
Differentiate between the different types of
instructional design models
Use basic ADDIE Model as a guide to design ODL
Definition of key concepts in ID:
Instructional System Design (ISD) Model
a set of events
intended to solve
What is design?
A systematic planning and
ideation process prior to
the development of
something or the execution
of some plan to solve a
Topic for students to learn about
A variety of activities to help them
Test on the topic
The traditional approach to education was viewed as piecemeal. ID
attempted to integrate all the components of the instructional process
into a system.
What is a System?
Akanbi (1988) defined a
system as any object,
event or a procedure that
is made up of parts which
are working both
independently and co-
operatively to fulfill a
A system is a set of interrelated and sometimes
directly interdependent things, principles or parts
that work severally and jointly within a given
setting for the attainment of a definite goal or set
of goals (Ogwo, 1996)
What is Instructional System?
instructional system may be defined as a
deliberately organized combination of people,
equipment (devices), materials, procedures, and
the curriculum which interact cooperatively to
achieve a pre determined goal. It is a set of
interacting components functioning together to
facilitate learning (Inyang, 1988)
What is Instructional Design?
Instructional Design is the systematic process of
translating general principles of learning and
instruction into plans for instructional materials
Instructional Design is a
systematic process, based
on philosophy and learning
theory, for analyzing,
implementing, and evaluating
Instructional Design is the systematic
development of instructional specifications using
learning and instructional theory to ensure the
quality of instruction.
It is the entire process of analysis of learning
needs and goals and the development of a
delivery system to meet those needs.
It includes development of instructional materials
and activities; and tryout and evaluation of all
instruction and learner activities.
Roles of Instructional Design
Systematic process of instructional design
enables you to:
Identify a performance problem
Determine the goals and objectives
Define your learners and their needs
Develop strategies to meet needs and goals
Assess learning outcomes
Evaluate if goals, objectives, and needs are
This systematic approach ensures:
There is a need for training.
The learning events are well-designed.
Quality training materials are developed.
Learning events are implemented using
appropriate strategies or approaches.
Learning events are evaluated to ensure that
learning has taken place.
Why Instructional Design?
She is working on new ways to
teach the kids next week and
next year. She is drawing
upon her knowledge of
instructional design in her
Instructional Design is a Process
1. Where are we going?
2. How do we know
when we have
3. How do will we get
ID Major Activities
1. Perform an instructional analysis to
determine “where we are going.”
2. Develop an instructional strategy to
determine “how we’ll get there.”
3. Develop and conduct an evaluation to
determine “how we’ll know when we’re
When these parts are articulated we can create a model.
What is a Model?
Models, like myths and metaphors, help us to
make sense of our world.
They are used to explain complex systems
Give us structure and meaning to a problem.
What are Instructional Design Models?
Prescriptive set of procedures for developing
A method for the organization and management
of instructional process
Orientation Product Orientation System Orientation
Typical output One or a few hours
Course or entire
Resources committed to
Very low High High
Team or Individual Individual Usually a team Team
ID skill/experience Low High High/very high
Emphasis on development
Select Develop Develop
Amount of analysis Low Low to medium Very high
Technological complexity Low Medium to high Medium to high
Amount of revision Low to medium Very high Medium to high
Amount of distribution None High Medium to high
Elements of ID Models
from Branch & Gustafson (1997)
EXAMPLES OF ID MODEL
Dick & Carey Model
Hannafin & Peck Model
Rapid Prototyping Model
Hypermedia Design Model
Multimedia Design Model
Lesson Plan Model
Kemp’s Instructional Design model
Gerlach and Ely Model, etc
Jerrold Kemp Design Model
takes a holistic approach to instructional design.
Virtually all factors in the learning environment are
taken into consideration
including subject analysis, learner characteristics,
learning objectives, teaching activities, resources
(computers, books, etc.), support services and
The process is iterative and the design is subject to
This model is a more advanced one to design by
and the most comprehensive for web-based
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Heinich, Molenda, Russell &
Note the selection of materials
instead of development
Image from http://vig-fp.prenhall.com/bigcovers/0137132395.jpg
A Analyze Learners
S State Objectives
S Select Strategies (Methods), Technology,
Media & Materials
U Utilize Technology, Media & Materials
R Require Learner Participation
E Evaluate & Revise
The waterfall model is a model which was developed
for software development; that is to create software. It
is called as such because the model develops
systematically from one phase to other in a downward
fashion, like a waterfall
•It is easier to develop various software through this
method in short span of time.
• It requires the fulfillment of one phase, before
proceeding to the next
Waterfall Model (Traditional) Waterfall Model (Modified)
Dick & Carey Model
Widespread use in
corporate & military
Mostly used for world wide web Instruction 36
Hypermedia Design Model
Morrison, Ross & Kemp (MRK) Model
It has been modified over
Images from http://www.borders.com.au/book/designing-effective-
Morrison, Ross & Kemp (MRK) Model
Rapid Prototyping Model
Originated in manufacturing
ID hijacked from software
Focused on development
Rapid prototyping models are
essential for identifying design
flaws and gaining valuable
feedback during the design
process. Functional rapid
prototyping models allow
product designers and
engineers to see how their
designs look and function in
real world situations.
Types of prototypes
effects, gross screen
Media: use of sound
effects, narration, 3D
illustrations, video, etc.
Navigation: move through
sections, access support
(glossary, calculator, etc.)
Gerlach-Ely Design Model
is a prescriptive model that is well suited to
The model includes strategies for selecting
and including media within instruction.
It also handles the allocation of resources.
LESSON PLAN MODEL
(i) Needs Assessment
(ii) Determination of Constraints.
(iii) Derivation of General Objectives
(iv) Derivation of Specific Objectives
(v) Administration of a Pre-test
(vi) Selection of Learning Experiences
(vii) Selection of Method
(viii) Selection of Media
(ix) Implementation of instruction
Ogunlanti, Ihongbe, Babatunde, Akanbi, & Egwin, (1981)
LESSON PLANNING MODEL
APPLICATION OF ISD
Guidance and Counseling
Skill Training and Materials production
Curriculum Development, Innovations, and
Educational Management and Administration
Vocational -Technical Education, etc.
APPLICATION OF ADDIE MODEL
TO ODL COURSE MATERIAL
FIVE ESSENTIAL PHASES IN ADDIE MODEL
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What happens in the Analyze Phase
Provides the framework for the rest of the ID
Uncover the problem, locate the source of the
problem, and start to hypothesize solutions to fix
Research what is needed to solve problem?
List instructional goals & the steps that need to
be taken for the goals to be accomplished.
Who is the audience and what are their characteristics?
Identification of the desired outcome or behaviour.
What types of learning constraints exist?
What are the delivery options?
What are the pedagogical considerations?
What is the timeline for course completion?
What exactly is the (performance) problem?
How do you know there is even a problem?
Why is it a problem?
What happens in the Design Phase?
Use the research findings obtained from
analysis phase to plan for the developing of the
Create detailed outlines illustrating how learners
will complete instructional goals set out in the
What Happens in the Design Phase?
Investigate your learners- Learning Analysis
What is best way to reach audience?
Consider the target population
Consider different learning perspectives
Write out Objectives, testing strategies, select
how the instruction will be administered, and
ultimately decide how instruction will be
How will the content be organized?
How will it be presented to learners?
What delivery format will be used?
What types of activities and exercises will be
How will learners' accomplishments be measured?
What Happens in the Develop Phase?
Apply all information from the analysis and
design phases to produce lesson plans and
Actual instruction is created.
Develop any media that will be employed in
the instruction (hardware and software).
Generate supplementary materials to enhance
instruction (reference guides, manuals,
What Happens in the Implement Phase?
Essentially this phase describes the method in
which the instruction will be delivered.
Materials are distributed to learners
Use findings from learning analysis to determine
best environment for the learner (face to face,
This part of the process is where learners must
obtain the content that is needed to accomplish
the instructional goals.
The books, equipment, tools, CD-ROMs and
software are in place, & the learning application
or Web site is functional.
What Happens in the Evaluate Phase?
Measure the effectiveness and the efficiency of
the overall instruction.
Formative Evaluation: evaluation that is present
in all phases of the process in order to catch
errors and enrich the instruction.
Summative Evaluation: evaluation that takes
place after the finalized instruction is presented.
Recommendations provided to determine if the
instruction will be adopted or rejected based on
its overall effectiveness and efficiency.
ADVANTAGES OF ISD
It provides one of the best methods of combining
content and resources to optimize learning.
It provides one of the best procedures for
exposing the learner to instructional tasks,
experiences, packages and so on.
The requirements for clearly stated objectives for a
system will control and guide the planning,
design, and development of a learning system.
It ensures that all relevant variables in an
instructional situation are given proper and
It encourages the adoption of self correcting
strategies in the management of instruction.
It provides opportunities for improving upon the
system and the performance of the system
It allows for a continuous wholistic perception of
the instructional programme (or system) instead of
the piecemeal view of the traditional approach.
It ensures efficiency and stability in the teaching –
learning process because it emphasizes the need
to consider all input variables at the planning
It emphasizes and allows more rational basis for
allocating financial, material, time, human and
It promotes further innovations within the system;
this can be in the form of materials, methods or
Various instructional variables which may lead, if
uncontrolled, to confused and wasteful
performance can be specified, considered and
taken care of.
It allows the participants to cope with the varying
demands of modern technological products,
processes and settings within the instructional
enterprise if their use is well programmed.
Saves time and trouble
Promotes effective learning
DISADVANTAGES OF ISD
ISD require other personnel which is not available
in most of our school system.
The variety and scope of media available in most
schools is grossly inadequate.
The bureaucratic bottlenecks, the conservatism of
some staff hinders the full implementation of ISD in
Time-consuming to implement
Poor funding may hinder media procurement and
The successful application of ISD entails much
theoretical analysis of the prevailing instructional
situation in line with scientific and educational
principles in order to arrive at any solution. Our
teachers are not so equipped for such in depth
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Get experience using the models
Computer Science, Information Technology,
Cyber Security & General Studies Departments
Use the Dick and Carey model to design an
effective instructional product for the client.
Science Education, Mathematics/Statistics &
Chemistry, and Physics Departments should:
Use the Kemp, Morrison & Ross model to design
an effective instructional product for the client.
The important thing to remember is to consider
all of the factors that need to go into designing
It doesn’t matter what model you use, but some
models are better suited to certain personalities