Creencias Religiosas en Mérida (versión en inglés)
Arce Program“Knowing and sharing the Roman Hispania” RELIGIOUS BELIEFS IN EMERITA AUGUSTA. Roman and Oriental Cults in the capital of Lusitania. DIDACTIC UNIT: 4º ESO. SUBJECT: LATÍN.
UNIT CONTENTS.• Introduction of a Roman city.• Survival of the pantheon of Roman gods in Emerita Augusta.• Oriental Cults in the same city.• Analysis and interpretation of sculptures and mosaics on religious themes.• Seek from a variety of sources and media for data collection.
Objectives.• Identify elements of Romanization in the colony of Augusta Emerita according to religion. Roman gods. Oriental deities.
Materials.• Use of the evidence preserved in the Roman Museum of Merida through its website. http://museoarteromano.mcu.es/
Brief history of the colony.• The Roman city was founded in the year 25 B.C. It was named Augusta Emerita because it would serve as withdrawal for Emeriti soldiers, veterans.• It soon became the capital of the Roman province of Lusitania.
ROAN CULTS IN MÉRIDAIt is proved that the gods of the Roman pantheon were worshiped in the old Merida.Proof of this is the testimony offered bythe Roman museum in Merida.
THE GODDESS VENUS.The classical representation of thegoddess of love, mother of the TrojanAeneas, hero of the epic Roman, hasdifferent manifestations, so collected inthe museum.
THE GODDESS VENUS.• The goddess and y her tracks of sculptural representation. Figura 1 Figura 2
Iconography of the Goddess in Merida.• Figure 2 refers to the famous Aphrodite of Knidos. The goddess drops the cloths in her hands after having held a ritual bath. Clothes that the venus of Merida wears too.
The goddess of agriculture: Ceres. Ceres is the mother of Proserpina, who according to mythology was abducted by the god Pluto. This Myth served to explain the cycle of vegetation. The Roman Ceres, Demeter to the Greeks, was worshiped in different parts of the empire.
Ceres in the museum of Mérida. The goddess Ceres is represented as a Roman matron, as a mature woman. In her hands she usually carries a bunch of ears of wheat and a torch. The museum displays a figure of a seated Ceres with no arms.
Representation of the goddessCeres in the Parthenon, byPhidias.(British Museum) • Demeter and Persephone, mother and daughter were represented on the east pediment of the Parthenon.The goddess is also sitting as the emeritense sculpture.
MERCURIO HERMES• In classical representations of the god his distinctive elements appear: Petaso (hat) on his head, clámide (cloak) attached to his left shoulder, bag, caduceus, tortoiseshell lyre and wings on his ankles• Mercury, the Greek Hermes is the messenger of god. In the western provinces of the Roman Empire he will become the God who will guard the roads, related to trade and in some areas it has got a quite salutary character related to thermal water sources.
MERCURYIN THE ROMAN MUSEUM OF MERIDA This sculpture was found in the house of Mitreo in Merida. This dates from the II c. A. C. and Mercury is represented with its own iconography, the lyre, a stringed musical instrument very important for poets. (Recall the origin of the word lyric) According to mythology, Mercury was the inventor of the instrument.
BACCHUS AND ARIADNE.Bacchus, the GreekDionysus, is the god ofwine and theater.In classical performances,the god is crowned withvine leaves and bare-chested.Mythology tells us theunion of the God with theprincess Ariadne,daughter of Minos.
MOSAIC BACO Y ARIADNA.The mosaic of the city of Merida tells thestory of Bacchus with Ariadne (who hadbeen abandoned by Theseus on theisland of Naxos).The Romans built the mosaics with smallpieces called tiles, hence they referred tothem also as tessellatum opus.It is signed by the workshop where it wasmade: EX OFFICINA ANNIBONI. Late Vcentury a.C.In the representation there are lovers andslaves so as the animals that drew thechariot of God, the tigers. According to the OVIDIO:”Ya el dios, encima de sumyth, the god returned from India, when carro que aparecía repleto de uvas, aflojaba las riendas doradas a loshe met Ariadne tigres que lo llevaban.”
the Maenads .The Maenads are female followers ofBacchus.They were attributed a wild life and anirrational behavior.In the mythical story of the death ofOrpheus, the Maenads tear him topieces because he rejects the cult ofDionysus in favor of the cult of Apollo,identified with the sun
MAENADS In Merida Roman museum preserves a sculptural representation of a Maenad (pic.2) It has common characteristics with the Prado Maenad (pic1) The treatment of the folds of her dress, her profile representation, the thyrsus in her right hand and her dance attitude.Maenad in the Prado Maenad in the RomanMuseum museum of Merida Fig.1 Fig.2
AESCULAPIUS.• Asclepius is the Greek Asclepius, god of medicine and healing. In Greece HE enjoyed a major shrine, the sanctuary of Asclepius in Epidaurus, a place of pilgrimage throughout antiquity. The Romans adopted the cult of this god and built a shrine in his honor on the Tiber Island and he was taken to different provinces. Traces of the cult in Spain are in Ampurias (brought by the Greeks), in Cartagena and in Merida.
Iconography of Asclepius. The two figures presented the god with with a bare chest and a mantle (Greek himation), that in the representation of Ampurias has taken the form of the Roman toga.Asclepius. Ampurias. Asclepius. Mérida.
THE GODDESS DIANA. Diana was the virgin goddess of the hunt and protector of nature. Its equivalent is Greek goddess Artemis, the twin sister of Apollo. This goddess has a temple in Mérida that bears his name: Temple of Diana in Merida. This title was applied by the resemblance that the building shows with the temple of Artemis at Éfeso. It is located in the center of town, which fully corresponds with the Emerita Augusta Decumanus Maximus(the thistle and decumanus are the two main streets of the Roman city).
THE TEMPLE OF DIANAReconstruction of the temple ofArtemis at Ephesus. Temple of Diana in Merida.
THE PROTECTIVE GENIE OF THE FAMILY. MANES, PENATES Y LARES.The geniuses Manes are old family genie, which protect the souls of the ancestors, protecting the house, along with the Lares and Penates. They covered the primitive domestic cult. The gods Penates are also geniuses protective of home and family and more specifically, of the larder (penus in Latin). The gods Lares are protective genius of the hearth fire.
REPRESENTATIONS OF THE PROTECTIVE GENIE Pompeian house genius. Merida Museum Genius.The genius is represented in the form of a snake or a youngman frequently with a cornucopia.
DEIFICATIÓN OF EMPERORS.The deification of the emperors after death was somethingusual, from the first of them, Augusto, from whom afamous museum effigy in Meridades is preserved.
ORIENTAL CULTS The Roman Empire was always open to the cults of conquered provinces,it madethat in places like the Lusitania testimonies of Eastern religious cults appeared.During the Roman period, contacts with religious ideas developed in the easternMediterranean and the lands of the ancient Near East are intensified. The sculptures kept in the museum of Mérida are standing proof, so as theemergence of an important shrine dedicated to oriental divinities in the area near thearchaeological site known as the "House of MyTreo“
GODDESS ISIS.Isis (Ίσις ancient Greek) is the Greek name of a goddess ofEgyptian mythology. Its Egyptian name was Ast, meaningthrone. It was called "Grand Magus", "Great MotherGoddess", "Queen of the Gods", "fertilizing force of nature","Goddess of motherhood and birth." The Romans assimilated the worship of the goddess Isis,bringing it closer to local deities. It was specifically theemperor Caligula who officially introduced the worship of thisgoddess in Rome. Anthropomorphic representations of this divinity present it asa woman in tight dress crowned with the throne. ISIS MÉRIDA
GOD MITHRAS. Mithras was a god known in antiquity, mainly inPersia and India. Mithra was the god of the sun, ofPersian origin that became part of the Roman Empire.Various sculptures are preserved, for the most part ofthe third century. He is depicted as a young man with aPhrygian cap, killing a bull with his hands. The cult of Mithras was developed as a mysteryreligion, and was organized in secret societies,exclusively male, esoteric in nature. He enjoyedparticular popularity in military enviroments. CRONOS O MITRA.
HOUSE OF MITREO. It is known as the "House of Mitreo" a domus ormanor house located in a place near the site whereremains have been found associated with the cult ofMithras, a cosmological mosaic and underground rooms.The house, located outside the walls of the Roman town,was built in the late l century or early second A. C. The cosmological mosaic represents the conceptionof the world and the forces of nature that govern it, alongwith some human activity.