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How does the CIO contribute to other Chief Officers: CFO, CMO, HR, and others

How does the CIO contribute to other Chief Officers: CFO, CMO, HR, and others

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How does the CIO contribute to other CxOs Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Galit Fein and Einat Shimoni’s work/ Copyright@2014 Do not remove source or attribution from any slide, graph or portion of graph / How does the CIO contribute to other CxOs? Galit Fein & Einat Shimoni EVP and senior analysts STKI “IT Knowledge Integrators” galit@stki.info einat@stki.info
  • 2. Galit Fein and Einat Shimoni’s work/ Copyright@2014 Do not remove source or attribution from any slide, graph or portion of graph Remember our new CIO? 2
  • 3. Galit Fein and Einat Shimoni’s work/ Copyright@2014 Do not remove source or attribution from any slide, graph or portion of graph Board meeting: What do LoBs need from IT today? CIO CEO COO CCO Employees CustomersTalent mng 3 InfrastructureDC Today’s IT solutions & methodologies are simply not enough IT needs to reorganize itself in the New World
  • 4. Galit Fein and Einat Shimoni’s work/ Copyright@2014 Do not remove source or attribution from any slide, graph or portion of graph IT’s clients are now “everyone” Everyone's IT From IT Monarchy to Every business is tech based business every company is SW company. Demands are coming from every corner of the organization 4
  • 5. Galit Fein and Einat Shimoni’s work/ Copyright@2014 Do not remove source or attribution from any slide, graph or portion of graph <60% of IT budgets going to ongoing support, the CIO is forced to defer new initiatives IT + LOB 18% Only LOB 7% Only IT 75% Capex 38% Opex 62% Even IT budgets are Moving into the LOBs • By 2017 the CMO will spend more on IT than the CIO • 30% of marketing technology & services is already bought by CMO (Gartner) STKI 2014 5 Israeli IT budget distribution Who is responsible for IT budget?
  • 6. Galit Fein and Einat Shimoni’s work/ Copyright@2014 Do not remove source or attribution from any slide, graph or portion of graph STKI 2014 And procurement is shifting to a centralized unit Pros Cons Increased concentration of procurement expertise Central purchasing staff may not be expert in buying various types of items Transparency & measurability of procurement procedures Loss of IT control Cost reduction through economies of scale Delay in receiving the materials Avoidance of duplication costs Problem when specific requirement needed ‫מה‬ ‫חלק‬-IT 59% ‫מרכש‬ ‫חלק‬ ‫מרכזי‬ ‫בארגון‬ 41% IT procurement in Israel 2014 It’s all about transparency 6
  • 7. Galit Fein and Einat Shimoni’s work/ Copyright@2014 Do not remove source or attribution from any slide, graph or portion of graph Organizational expenditure on technology increasing! 21% 13% 28% 19% 19% ‫בין‬ ‫לרדת‬5%‫ל‬15% ‫עד‬ ‫לרדת‬5% ‫שינוי‬ ‫ללא‬ ‫להישאר‬ ‫עד‬ ‫לעלות‬5% ‫בין‬ ‫לעלות‬5%‫ל‬15% ‫תקציב‬IT‫לשנת‬2014‫צפוי‬ ‫בארגונך‬: 20% 66% technology IT Source: STKI 2014 7
  • 8. Galit Fein and Einat Shimoni’s work/ Copyright@2014 Do not remove source or attribution from any slide, graph or portion of graph Even if money is not in short supply, resources are New technologyMore LOBs buy cloud-based services Cost rather than new revenue 8 IT Obstacles in a New World When CIO is focused on old tasks, CXOs begin to develop their own systems and IT capabilities
  • 9. Galit Fein and Einat Shimoni’s work/ Copyright@2014 Do not remove source or attribution from any slide, graph or portion of graph CIO role under growing tension between two implacable forces 1) maintaining infrastructure and keeping existing IT systems running smoothly 2) digitizing and applying the latest technology innovations to the organization 9 Israela Israeli VP Tech
  • 10. Galit Fein and Einat Shimoni’s work/ Copyright@2014 Do not remove source or attribution from any slide, graph or portion of graph Two different words – two different approaches Invest in new systems Reduce Operating Expenses Long development and deployment cycles Touch people In-moment decisions Personalized & in-context Social and analytics driven Short & rapid releases 10 IT has to adapt to rapid changes of new technologies, otherwise SoE are the first ones to be outsourced!
  • 11. Galit Fein and Einat Shimoni’s work/ Copyright@2014 Do not remove source or attribution from any slide, graph or portion of graph Don’t let LoBs bypass IT! Most ITOs are still learning how to operate like a service provider: • IT staff built around technical capabilities, and not deeply involved in clients’ business • IT’s standards and regulatory compliance don’t let them move fast (IT commando) • If IT sees LOBs as real customers, they should have a choice regarding how they obtain IT services 11 Who is in charge of internal customer experience? HD experience, SLA, system access, UX, rather than system availability
  • 12. Galit Fein and Einat Shimoni’s work/ Copyright@2014 Do not remove source or attribution from any slide, graph or portion of graph One tactic is “BRM” - Internal Customers Experience Mngt • Because LoBs does not understand what can and cannot be done with IT, CIOs create BRM role • BRM brings a new skill set to the rest of the IT function:  Two-way communication  Marketing and IT technology sales representation  Innovation 12 Business Relationship Officer : • someone who communicate well • respected by business and technology executives • report to IT but have a dotted line to LOBs
  • 13. Galit Fein and Einat Shimoni’s work/ Copyright@2014 Do not remove source or attribution from any slide, graph or portion of graph Business-IT relationship has to be managed differently CIO CEO COO CCO BRM BRM is a voice of internal customers 13 BRM has 2roles: represent the IT (OCIO) and ALSO represent internal customers needs. Is this model here to stay???
  • 14. Galit Fein and Einat Shimoni’s work/ Copyright@2014 Do not remove source or attribution from any slide, graph or portion of graph “Use new technologies” “Make it all contextal” “Amazonification” “Agile, dynamic applications” “Faster TTM” 14
  • 15. Galit Fein and Einat Shimoni’s work/ Copyright@2014 Do not remove source or attribution from any slide, graph or portion of graph CMO and CCO are becoming very important customers of IT What do they need? CIO CEO COO CCO BRM Omni-Channel Real time campaigns New advanced analytics Customer Experience management Amazonification Social Mobile Customers Ecommerce 15
  • 16. Galit Fein and Einat Shimoni’s work/ Copyright@2014 Do not remove source or attribution from any slide, graph or portion of graph They are mainly asking the CIO to CHANGE 16 Our CIO is not afraid of change but HOW should she change?
  • 17. Galit Fein and Einat Shimoni’s work/ Copyright@2014 Do not remove source or attribution from any slide, graph or portion of graph What are the changes in the market? How do they affect IT organization? 17
  • 18. Galit Fein and Einat Shimoni’s work/ Copyright@2014 Do not remove source or attribution from any slide, graph or portion of graph What do customers want today? Today’s customers expect to:  Browse  Research  Solicit feedback  Evaluate  Push the “buy” button at their own pace at the time and place (via the platform) of their choosing Affect product design Affect price Simple, isn’t it? 18
  • 19. Galit Fein and Einat Shimoni’s work/ Copyright@2014 Do not remove source or attribution from any slide, graph or portion of graph Era of Experience and Engagement 19 Galit Fein & Einat Shimoni’s work/ Copyright@2014 Do not remove source or attribution from any slide, graph or portion of graph
  • 20. Galit Fein and Einat Shimoni’s work/ Copyright@2014 Do not remove source or attribution from any slide, graph or portion of graph Customer Delight • Exceeding customer expectations • In a world of multiple choices - customer loyalty is almost a mirage • BUT, delighted loyal customers: buy more become a volunteer marketing force for your brand http://gyselagervais.wordpress.com/2013/06/19/falling-into-the-love-glow/ of consumers would pay more for a better CX 86% 89% of consumers began doing business with a competitor following a poor CX Better CX leads to better performance & profitability of organizationsSource: RightNow 2014 20
  • 21. Galit Fein and Einat Shimoni’s work/ Copyright@2014 Do not remove source or attribution from any slide, graph or portion of graph CX is a top strategic priority  95% of senior business leaders say that the CX is the next competitive battle ground  88% of CEO’s say that top focus area in next 5 years is getting closer to customer  90% of CEO’s want to include customers in new product and services definition and testing Source: IBM 21
  • 22. Galit Fein and Einat Shimoni’s work/ Copyright@2014 Do not remove source or attribution from any slide, graph or portion of graph What do customers want? Image via RenegadeChicks.com Compare Products In context notifications Valuable Analytics Real time Recommendation Social media Wish Lists Likes Much more Amazon like Relevancy Recognition Prices Compared to Suggested RetailRecommended Items Based on Prior Activity
  • 23. Galit Fein and Einat Shimoni’s work/ Copyright@2014 Do not remove source or attribution from any slide, graph or portion of graph Meet the VP of Customer Experience 23 Chief Customer Officer: The voice of the customer in the organization Responsible for customers’ engagement journey
  • 24. Galit Fein and Einat Shimoni’s work/ Copyright@2014 Do not remove source or attribution from any slide, graph or portion of graph The engagement journey never really ends – ADD FUNNEL!!! The engagement journey never ends Source :McKinsey http://www.slideshare.net/McK_CMSOForum/big-data-and-big-profits 24
  • 25. Galit Fein and Einat Shimoni’s work/ Copyright@2014 Do not remove source or attribution from any slide, graph or portion of graph … and it generates a lot of data! 25
  • 26. Galit Fein and Einat Shimoni’s work/ Copyright@2014 Do not remove source or attribution from any slide, graph or portion of graph 26 Now it is all about Journeys First important step is to define the journeys that really matter Source: McKinsey
  • 27. Galit Fein and Einat Shimoni’s work/ Copyright@2014 Do not remove source or attribution from any slide, graph or portion of graph Why is multi-channel not good enough? • We used to assume customers are staying on the same channel • Wrong! They are continually switching between channels (to perform a single process) 27
  • 28. Galit Fein and Einat Shimoni’s work/ Copyright@2014 Do not remove source or attribution from any slide, graph or portion of graph Evolution of channel strategy Single Channel Multi Channel Cross Channel Omni Channel Several channels, with a possibility to switch between them (But the company needs to work very hard to enable this type of switching). The customer experiences and interacts with a brand (not channels). Company operations defined in terms of “services” not in terms of “channels”. Several channels, customer experiences each channel as independent. Silos of data (sometimes combined via DW). The company’s business operations for each channel are separate. One main channel for interactions 28
  • 29. Galit Fein and Einat Shimoni’s work/ Copyright@2014 Do not remove source or attribution from any slide, graph or portion of graph Source: STKI 2013 Channels – new ones on top (not instead!) of old ones Customers continue to use same old channels But are also staring to use (additional) new ones Source: Forrester 29
  • 30. Galit Fein and Einat Shimoni’s work/ Copyright@2014 Do not remove source or attribution from any slide, graph or portion of graph Your future channels might be wearable: 30
  • 31. Galit Fein and Einat Shimoni’s work/ Copyright@2014 Do not remove source or attribution from any slide, graph or portion of graph What does all this mean? Do we need a NEW IT architecture to support this “new world”? 31
  • 32. Galit Fein and Einat Shimoni’s work/ Copyright@2014 Do not remove source or attribution from any slide, graph or portion of graph Introducing – the Systems of Engagement Ecosystem Web Mobility Social Face-to- Face Contact Center Doc. Output (coupons etc.) Channels UX & the customer journey Alerts & Events Persona lization Analytic filters, NBA Digital Analytics Cross & Up-sell Aggregation frameworks Enablingtechnologies: NLP;Semantics;Predictiveanalytics;APIs(Rest);Eventengines /CEP,Personalizationengines,contentmng.,Bigdata technologies,Recommendationenginesetc. Marketing suites Campaigns analytics, execution, optimization Ecommerce Suites Payment, Order, Fulfillment, Catalogue, Pricing, PIM Social Listening Platforms Sentiment Analysis Multi-channel apps Applications Back-end processes APIs & Filters Customer experience analytics 32
  • 33. Galit Fein and Einat Shimoni’s work/ Copyright@2014 Do not remove source or attribution from any slide, graph or portion of graph Mobility In 2013 were sold 1.6 billion iOS and Android devices Compared to 0.7 billion in 2012 Bill Gross We are right in the middle of Mobile First trend– the first device people tend to pick up when they need access to information will be smartphone or tablet 5.1billion people own a mobile phone Only 4.2own a toothbrush! 33 @ SalesForce
  • 34. Galit Fein and Einat Shimoni’s work/ Copyright@2014 Do not remove source or attribution from any slide, graph or portion of graph Except the desktop itself – Mobile First Source: Forrester 34
  • 35. Galit Fein and Einat Shimoni’s work/ Copyright@2014 Do not remove source or attribution from any slide, graph or portion of graph Being Mobile all the Time 35
  • 36. Galit Fein and Einat Shimoni’s work/ Copyright@2014 Do not remove source or attribution from any slide, graph or portion of graph Mobile experience is better than PC or Web 36
  • 37. Galit Fein and Einat Shimoni’s work/ Copyright@2014 Do not remove source or attribution from any slide, graph or portion of graph Even Web Doesn't Look Like Web Anymore Chrome Web Store For Your Desktop Awesome apps that run offline and outside the browser 37
  • 38. Galit Fein and Einat Shimoni’s work/ Copyright@2014 Do not remove source or attribution from any slide, graph or portion of graph Build Better Engagements VS Web = AM radio Mobile = Streamed music Maybe we shouldn’t even call it a browser anymore. Browser is really an antiquated word. People don’t really browse all that much anymore. Instead, we now mostly use our browsers to access sophisticated web apps, web-based productivity tools and social networks Source: Mozilla 38
  • 39. Galit Fein and Einat Shimoni’s work/ Copyright@2014 Do not remove source or attribution from any slide, graph or portion of graph What do mobile customers want? High expectation for any info on anydevice, in context at any moment of need Are you in your customers’ pocket? Image Credit: Spectrum Blog 39
  • 40. Galit Fein and Einat Shimoni’s work/ Copyright@2014 Do not remove source or attribution from any slide, graph or portion of graph Amazon-ification and Apple-fication Organizations are feeling pressure, not from other org., but from customers to improve their mobile apps and they are turning to the likes of Amazon & Apple for inspiration: • Amazon's recommendations engine Amazon Mayday myControl banking, help customers predict what their daily bank balances will look like until their next paycheck money mngt app on-demand video customer service representative to troubleshoot any what-am-I-doing moments Deutsche Bank Expands Its App Store 40
  • 41. Galit Fein and Einat Shimoni’s work/ Copyright@2014 Do not remove source or attribution from any slide, graph or portion of graph WANTED: Mobile Payment 41 “Don't think of us as a bank, think of us as commerce. We are experts in payments and enable commerce.“ Chief Innovation Officer for payments at U.S. Bank
  • 42. Galit Fein and Einat Shimoni’s work/ Copyright@2014 Do not remove source or attribution from any slide, graph or portion of graph M-Commerce - relevance, convenience and value More and more non banking offering products “My Offers” sync programs with Facebook, Twitter & Foursquare connecting merchants & Card members 42 AMEX upgraded its digital wallet to make it more “bank like” prepaid card: Bill pay/ Direct deposit/ Check capture Cash load/ Rewards card/ Check your balance in kiosks Leumi Card mobile wallet
  • 43. Galit Fein and Einat Shimoni’s work/ Copyright@2014 Do not remove source or attribution from any slide, graph or portion of graph Pressure is also Coming from Digital Startups Moven: From Mobile Banking to Mobile Money Mint.com Personal Finance Check Your Credit Score For Free Venmo “Paying friends is fun!” It's not just branding and colors anymore. It's the experience Customers don't want giant spreadsheets of what they have done, but only translation of the valuable data 43 Ynet.co.il
  • 44. Galit Fein and Einat Shimoni’s work/ Copyright@2014 Do not remove source or attribution from any slide, graph or portion of graph Digital Strategic VS Tactic Approach 44
  • 45. Galit Fein and Einat Shimoni’s work/ Copyright@2014 Do not remove source or attribution from any slide, graph or portion of graph Strategic Approach – Customer Journey Customer Journey 45
  • 46. Galit Fein and Einat Shimoni’s work/ Copyright@2014 Do not remove source or attribution from any slide, graph or portion of graph Mobile First is not Mobile Only Source: Google/Ipsos/Sterling
  • 47. Galit Fein and Einat Shimoni’s work/ Copyright@2014 Do not remove source or attribution from any slide, graph or portion of graph Galit Fein’s work/ Copyright@2014 Do not remove source or attribution from any slide, graph or portion of graph Tactic Approach – How to do it? 1. B2C 2. B2E 3. Senior Management 4. Mobile force Target audience: Operation System 1. All 2. iOS 3. Android 4. Microsoft 1. Outsourcing or inhouse 2. Development or Mobile Platform 3. Proprietary SW or Open Source Project and ongoing support 1. Responsive Website. 2. Native Application. 3. Web Application. 4. Hybrid Application. Development Method Our mobile presence should provide: 1. Information 2. Competitive advantage 3. Better productivity Should also consider: 1. Data integration 2. Security 3. Lifecycle mngt and versioning 4. Offline access 5. Push notification In an utopian world with unlimited resources: responsive Web + native App for all OS 47
  • 48. Galit Fein and Einat Shimoni’s work/ Copyright@2014 Do not remove source or attribution from any slide, graph or portion of graph Achilles Heel of Mobile Projects 48 • Big effort to support the diversity of devices and OS, write 3 different native data code and maintain different mobile silos • Early approaches run out of gas 48
  • 49. Galit Fein and Einat Shimoni’s work/ Copyright@2014 Do not remove source or attribution from any slide, graph or portion of graph A Few Options Have Been Tried Use of existing skills & backend systems Customer experience RWD Hybrid Native 49 Native Hybrid Web Consumer 40% 40% 20% Enterprise 10% 60% 30% Mobile Development Split in Future JUST DO IT make a decision – any decision. In 2 -3 years you’re going to change it anyway
  • 50. Galit Fein and Einat Shimoni’s work/ Copyright@2014 Do not remove source or attribution from any slide, graph or portion of graph Mobile Project in your Organization Source: STKI 2014 No Planned for 2014 Completed or in middle of execution 19% 68% 43% 23% 62% 47% B2E B2C 50
  • 51. Galit Fein and Einat Shimoni’s work/ Copyright@2014 Do not remove source or attribution from any slide, graph or portion of graph What is the best way for apps development? 8% 17% 15% 38% 12% 19% 28% 45% Open Source Mobile Development Platform TouchPoint, WorkLight, etc. Mobile Web Native or Hybrid App B2C B2E Source: STKI 2014 Enterprise IT developers are relatively slow in adopting development tools, with 45% not using any tool - clearly an opportunity for the 100s of tool vendors targeting corporate budgets 51
  • 52. Galit Fein and Einat Shimoni’s work/ Copyright@2014 Do not remove source or attribution from any slide, graph or portion of graph Native Hybrid Mobile Web (RWD) - Little reuse of existing IT skills and assets - App is wrapped in a native container + HTML5 - High degree of code reuse with native app access - Tasks oriented + a lot of info changes - There is a compromise in the UX - Entire website (performance issues) will display the same content most suited to the device - High degree of existing IT skill and assets reuse - Access via browser, reach people 5 times more than app - Available online only - Information oriented - UX is necessarily compromised- not leveraging mobile device features - Best CX - Best advantage of mobile device features – in- context actions: personalization, NBA, push notification - Available offline - Tasks oriented UX i Touch Rule
  • 53. Galit Fein and Einat Shimoni’s work/ Copyright@2014 Do not remove source or attribution from any slide, graph or portion of graph Native Hybrid Mobile Web (RWD) - Little reuse of existing IT skills and assets - App is wrapped in a native container + HTML5 - High degree of code reuse with native app access - Tasks oriented + a lot of info changes - There is a compromise in the UX - Entire website (performance issues) will display the same content most suited to the device - High degree of existing IT skill and assets reuse - Access via browser, reach people 5 times more than app - Available online only - Information oriented - UX is necessarily compromise - not leveraging mobile device features - Best customer experience - Best advantage of mobile device features – in-context actions: personalization, NBA, push notification - Available offline - Tasks oriented UX i Touch Rule Apps
  • 54. Galit Fein and Einat Shimoni’s work/ Copyright@2014 Do not remove source or attribution from any slide, graph or portion of graph Pull VS Push Service 54 You are trying to connect Would you like to use our service? VS
  • 55. Galit Fein and Einat Shimoni’s work/ Copyright@2014 Do not remove source or attribution from any slide, graph or portion of graph Apps Win the Web in Mobile Consumption app 55
  • 56. Galit Fein and Einat Shimoni’s work/ Copyright@2014 Do not remove source or attribution from any slide, graph or portion of graph Over 70% of Cost & Effort on Mobile Projects spent on Supporting Back-End Processing Source: Forrester 2013 56
  • 57. Galit Fein and Einat Shimoni’s work/ Copyright@2014 Do not remove source or attribution from any slide, graph or portion of graph MBaaS - Mobile Backend as a Service ● Deliver app content ● Store data ● Perform social interactions ● Geo and search services ● Push notifications ● User statistics and errors ● Perform ● Systems integration 57 Mobile app lifecycle : build, deploy & manage The way to connect mobile app to backend cloud storage and processing while providing common features such as user mngt, push notifications, social networking integration & other features
  • 58. Galit Fein and Einat Shimoni’s work/ Copyright@2014 Do not remove source or attribution from any slide, graph or portion of graph Mobile Development Platform Run everywhere. Mobile Tablets Desktops and Kiosks Build everywhere. Broad Native Support Web (mobile + desktop) Single Page Architecture Standard Mixed Mode Hybrid Individual, device-optimized sites MBaaS Messaging Sync Integration Write once. A single code base. • Centralized management: • Deploy, configure, report, update • Authorization, statistics • Enterprise App Store • Push notification messages distribution • Application portfolio Source: Kony 58
  • 59. Galit Fein and Einat Shimoni’s work/ Copyright@2014 Do not remove source or attribution from any slide, graph or portion of graph APIs are the lifeblood of mobility 59 API definition - an Application programming interface is a way for 2 computer applications to talk to each other over a network (internet) using common language that both understand
  • 60. Galit Fein and Einat Shimoni’s work/ Copyright@2014 Do not remove source or attribution from any slide, graph or portion of graph The World of Open APIs Customers APIs Open APIs Open APIs Exactly what customer needs at the right moment Open APIs 60
  • 61. Galit Fein and Einat Shimoni’s work/ Copyright@2014 Do not remove source or attribution from any slide, graph or portion of graph Data is Value Crowdsourcing BUT Context is King! 61
  • 62. Galit Fein and Einat Shimoni’s work/ Copyright@2014 Do not remove source or attribution from any slide, graph or portion of graph Personalized Filters A moment before consumers will be bombarded with daily deals they need a personalized filters curating meaningful offers for them Users can download the dashboard app that shows offers added to their card, expiration dates, and delivered savings Analytics eliminate the guesswork in mobile success Social platforms - Syncing your card with Tweeter and saving money. On Facebook, "Link Like Love" is about deals, and experiences based on your "likes" and interests Information overload is not a problem. It’s filter failure.” Clay Shirky 62 Analytics Filtered data
  • 63. Galit Fein and Einat Shimoni’s work/ Copyright@2014 Do not remove source or attribution from any slide, graph or portion of graph Analytics – as always – a HOT topic 80 76 7168 62 5353535350 44 3229 21 12111 ‫הפרויקטים‬ ‫תחומי‬,‫ב‬ ‫בארגונך‬ ‫החלו‬ ‫אשר‬-2013/‫ל‬ ‫מתוכננים‬-2014 Source: STKI inquiry barometer, 2014
  • 64. Galit Fein and Einat Shimoni’s work/ Copyright@2014 Do not remove source or attribution from any slide, graph or portion of graph Evolution of analytics Passive Classic DW Proactive Classic DW Self Service and Discoveries Analytics & Insights Cognitive Insights Deep use of semantics, text analytics, NLP and machine-learning to provide new wisdom. Real time analysis Business users gaining control over BI (use of Self service tools). DW updated more frequently but is still in the classical model. Advanced Visualization More use of predictive and analysis tools by business users. Some analysis of unstructured data in an external “big-data style” data mart BI insights linked to operational processes (i.e, marketing lists to call service agents; risk analysis leads to operational process). Classic DW, structured data only. IT doing most BI work Pull-only model (need to extract reports from it). IT is doing most of BI work. Classic DW model (single version of the truth), updated ~once a day. Structured data only IT focus Business focus Structured data only Unstructured data Reports Insights 64
  • 65. Galit Fein and Einat Shimoni’s work/ Copyright@2014 Do not remove source or attribution from any slide, graph or portion of graph The data sandbox A data sandbox, in the context of big data, is a standalone datamart, scalable and developmental platform used to explore an organization's rich information sets through interaction and collaboration. A data sandbox is primarily explored by data science teams. Data sandbox platforms provide the computing required for data scientists to tackle typically complex analytical workloads. 65 What are we looking for? I don’t know, but it’s going to be amazing!
  • 66. Galit Fein and Einat Shimoni’s work/ Copyright@2014 Do not remove source or attribution from any slide, graph or portion of graph Pattern spotting Events detection Proactive Data Warehouse architecture Phase 1: Co-existence Analytic platform for external, unstructured data Text analysis Internaltransactionaldata Externaldata Insights from external data Data Science INFORMATION REPOSITORY “Bureaus” that analyze and track social media as an external service: 66
  • 67. Galit Fein and Einat Shimoni’s work/ Copyright@2014 Do not remove source or attribution from any slide, graph or portion of graph Pattern spotting Events detection Proactive Data Warehouse architecture Phase 1: Co-existence Analytic platform for external, unstructured data Text analysis Internaltransactionaldata Externaldata Insights from external data Data Science INFORMATION REPOSITORY 67
  • 68. Galit Fein and Einat Shimoni’s work/ Copyright@2014 Do not remove source or attribution from any slide, graph or portion of graph Data Warehouse architecture Phase 2: Virtual DW/Hybrid BI Analytic platform for external, unstructured data Text analysis Externaldata Insights from external data Data Science The virtual Data Warehouse INFORMATION REPOSITORY Metadata Permissions Caching Part of the data can be kept here 68
  • 69. Galit Fein and Einat Shimoni’s work/ Copyright@2014 Do not remove source or attribution from any slide, graph or portion of graph Data Warehouse architecture Phase 3: OLTP + OLAP Analytic platform for external, unstructured data Text analysis Externaldata Insights from external data Data Science The virtual Data Warehouse INFORMATION REPOSITORY Metadata – semantic layer Same database for both analytical and transactional data 69
  • 70. Galit Fein and Einat Shimoni’s work/ Copyright@2014 Do not remove source or attribution from any slide, graph or portion of graph The 4 V’s Source: IBM 70
  • 71. Galit Fein and Einat Shimoni’s work/ Copyright@2014 Do not remove source or attribution from any slide, graph or portion of graph Veracity Big Data Veracity refers to the biases, noise and abnormality in data. Is the data that is being stored, and mined meaningful to the problem being analyzed. Inderpal feel veracity in data analysis is the biggest challenge when compares to things like volume and velocity Source: http://inside-bigdata.com/2013/09/12/beyond-volume-variety-velocity-issue-big-data-veracity/ 71 71 You don’t know the value of your data until you actually reach a discovery or new insight by using it
  • 72. Galit Fein and Einat Shimoni’s work/ Copyright@2014 Do not remove source or attribution from any slide, graph or portion of graph Wisdom is the application of Knowledge Data Information Knowledge Wisdom “To attain knowledge, add things everyday. To attain wisdom, remove things every day.” ― Laozi Discrete elements like words, numbers, names Linked elements with concepts Applied Knowledge Organized Information 72
  • 73. Galit Fein and Einat Shimoni’s work/ Copyright@2014 Do not remove source or attribution from any slide, graph or portion of graph “What’s the difference between information and knowledge? It’s like the difference between knowing Julia Roberts’ phone number and Knowing Julia Roberts” - Woody Allen 73 Galit Fein & Einat Shimoni’s work/ Copyright@2014 Do not remove source or attribution from any slide, graph or portion of graph
  • 74. Galit Fein and Einat Shimoni’s work/ Copyright@2014 Do not remove source or attribution from any slide, graph or portion of graph Pattern spotting Events detection Proactive New analytics category 74
  • 75. Galit Fein and Einat Shimoni’s work/ Copyright@2014 Do not remove source or attribution from any slide, graph or portion of graph Do you know this artist? David Mccandless: Infographic artist. “My pet-hate is pie charts. Love pie. Hate pie-charts”
  • 76. Galit Fein and Einat Shimoni’s work/ Copyright@2014 Do not remove source or attribution from any slide, graph or portion of graph His works of art http://www.informationisbeautiful.net/
  • 77. Galit Fein and Einat Shimoni’s work/ Copyright@2014 Do not remove source or attribution from any slide, graph or portion of graph Why do we care so much about sentiment? 77
  • 78. Galit Fein and Einat Shimoni’s work/ Copyright@2014 Do not remove source or attribution from any slide, graph or portion of graph Text analytics • Automatic categorization /Content Analysis: • IBM ICA, Vivisimo • Integrators/ BI players solutions (i.e, Opisoft, Matrix, Taldor, Ness…) • Sentiment analysis: • Radian6 (Salesforce) • FocalInfo • SAP • SAS • Tracx (Israeli startup) • New social listening in Microsoft dynamics CRM • Search players: • Attivio • Melingo • HP (Autonomy) Several projects in financial organizations and defense sector 78
  • 79. Galit Fein and Einat Shimoni’s work/ Copyright@2014 Do not remove source or attribution from any slide, graph or portion of graph What do the COO and CFO need? CIO CEO COO CCO BRM ERP EPM Logistics Procurement DW Operational CRM Finance Supply Chain mng WMS 79
  • 80. Galit Fein and Einat Shimoni’s work/ Copyright@2014 Do not remove source or attribution from any slide, graph or portion of graph http://www.forbes.com/sites/joshbersin/2012/08/16/the- move-from-systems-of-record-to-systems-of-engagement/ 80
  • 81. Galit Fein and Einat Shimoni’s work/ Copyright@2014 Do not remove source or attribution from any slide, graph or portion of graph Sales staff Service Agents Marketing staff Procurement staff HR Staff Employees Finance dept. employees Logistics staff Manufact. staff Knowledge/Content Management Logistics Finance Industry- Specific Solutions Legacy Systems Sales Automation Marketing Automation Mobile Sales (Prod. CFG) Field Service Financial Data Mart HR Data Mart Product Data Mart Closed-Loop Processing (EAI Toolkits, ETLM tools, Embedded Mobile Agents) Customer Data Mart Order Data Mart Operational SCM ERP CRM Manufacturing Execution Warehouse Management Transportation Management Transportation Planning Distribution Planning Supply Planning Manufacturing Planning Order Management Service Automation Web/ Intranet Human Resources Manu- facturing Demand Planning Analyze Design Build Deliver Data Warehouse Product Lifecycle Systems of records architecture 81
  • 82. Galit Fein and Einat Shimoni’s work/ Copyright@2014 Do not remove source or attribution from any slide, graph or portion of graph 3 Different ERP markets Enterprise Mid-Large SMB • Very large enterprises • Very large scale implementations • Typical number of users: >1000 • Large organizations • Large scale implementations • Typical number of users: 100-1000 • Small-medium organizations • Small-mid implementations • Typical number of users: 20-100 • Each market has different characteristics, needs, players and cost structure • We position each of these markets and its players separately 82
  • 83. Galit Fein and Einat Shimoni’s work/ Copyright@2014 Do not remove source or attribution from any slide, graph or portion of graph ERP Staffing is (still) an issue On average, the ERP staff accounts for 10% of the total IT staff 83 Galit Fein & Einat Shimoni’s work/ Copyright@2014 Do not remove source or attribution from any slide, graph or portion of graph
  • 84. Galit Fein and Einat Shimoni’s work/ Copyright@2014 Do not remove source or attribution from any slide, graph or portion of graph ERP at its best (practice) • Best practice is king • Pre-built blueprint • Skip the gap analysis • Show the users a pre-set application upfront (only then “must-have” changes can be made) • Cloud is a good enabler • Amount of customizations decreasing: from 30% customized code to 10-15% • Price of implementation can be “sane” (1:5) Source: http://areyoufrank.com/ERP-Employee-Communication-and-Engagement-Experts 84 Best practice is not just about $, it’s also about agility
  • 85. Galit Fein and Einat Shimoni’s work/ Copyright@2014 Do not remove source or attribution from any slide, graph or portion of graph Mid-Large ERP market: The battle begins! 85
  • 86. Galit Fein and Einat Shimoni’s work/ Copyright@2014 Do not remove source or attribution from any slide, graph or portion of graph What does the HR manager need? CIO CEO COO CCO BRM UX Social Gamification Solutions for: Knowledge mng. 86 Talent management
  • 87. Galit Fein and Einat Shimoni’s work/ Copyright@2014 Do not remove source or attribution from any slide, graph or portion of graph Talent Management • Preference of suites (versus point solutions) • Cloud as preferred (sometimes only) model • Social, mobile, cloud & analytics - all inside 87 Source: Johns Hopkins University https://hrnt.jhu.edu/tmod/talent_mgmt/talent_mgmt.cfm
  • 88. Galit Fein and Einat Shimoni’s work/ Copyright@2014 Do not remove source or attribution from any slide, graph or portion of graph Every system of records has an “engagement layer” Engagement Layer System of Records Engagement Layer 88 And it is getting all the attention Mobility of workers Next best offer Contextual IT services Millenials
  • 89. Galit Fein and Einat Shimoni’s work/ Copyright@2014 Do not remove source or attribution from any slide, graph or portion of graph Millennials ask for new models of work 70% of users never login to enterprise communities 50% of enterprise software goes unused • 76% own smartphones • 83% sleep with their smartphones • 68% own a game console Don’t call 80% of current gamified applications fail, because business objectives are not defined at the outset ages 19-36 Millennials: 89 @Gartner
  • 90. Galit Fein and Einat Shimoni’s work/ Copyright@2014 Do not remove source or attribution from any slide, graph or portion of graph Like it or not, Millenials will change the workplace In 5 years, nearly 50% of workforce will consist of Millennials U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics 90 But wait, if you still do not understand the Gen Y
  • 91. Galit Fein and Einat Shimoni’s work/ Copyright@2014 Do not remove source or attribution from any slide, graph or portion of graph It’s all they know Gen Z - “Digital Natives” Coming to Your Office Soon ages 4-19 Born digital & social Constant Connection 91
  • 92. Galit Fein and Einat Shimoni’s work/ Copyright@2014 Do not remove source or attribution from any slide, graph or portion of graph Your Employees Deserve Better VS 92 SAP UI: Also SAP UI Employee view Customer view
  • 93. Galit Fein and Einat Shimoni’s work/ Copyright@2014 Do not remove source or attribution from any slide, graph or portion of graph No More Dumb Staff! Print Sign Fax Scan    Mobile Learning Gamification expected Video-based training Autodidactic
  • 94. Galit Fein and Einat Shimoni’s work/ Copyright@2014 Do not remove source or attribution from any slide, graph or portion of graph Motivation is bigger than money Gamification isn’t about badges, levels, competition, or points It’s about great engagement design It’s a business channel that gets invested for the long-term It’s not a project… + 94
  • 95. Galit Fein and Einat Shimoni’s work/ Copyright@2014 Do not remove source or attribution from any slide, graph or portion of graph Why do people like games? Collaboration Sense of Control Shared Experience “There is the mismatch between what science knows and what business does. The gap is wide. Its existence is alarming.” Fun Immediate Feedback It takes us out of everyday live Chance to learn new skills Feel of Competence - Daniel Pink 95
  • 96. Galit Fein and Einat Shimoni’s work/ Copyright@2014 Do not remove source or attribution from any slide, graph or portion of graph How “active” is your enterprise portal? What is the connection between the 2 images? Enterprise Portal 96
  • 97. Galit Fein and Einat Shimoni’s work/ Copyright@2014 Do not remove source or attribution from any slide, graph or portion of graph Portals evolution 97
  • 98. Galit Fein and Einat Shimoni’s work/ Copyright@2014 Do not remove source or attribution from any slide, graph or portion of graph The organizational Portal (“Intranet”) • A single view for all (lowest common denominator) • Can also be narrowed down to a specific group (subsidiary / geographical location) • Content (not transaction)-centered • Common set of “services” • No high value / ROI • PR/ Brochure nature 98
  • 99. Galit Fein and Einat Shimoni’s work/ Copyright@2014 Do not remove source or attribution from any slide, graph or portion of graph Process Portals • Defined around a specific process or role • More operational in nature (work environment) • Sometimes the only place to perform a task • Linkage to e-forms/WF tools (i.e, Nintex) 99
  • 100. Galit Fein and Einat Shimoni’s work/ Copyright@2014 Do not remove source or attribution from any slide, graph or portion of graph Personalized portals (“mysite”) • Designed for a specific individual • The person can chose his / her specific portlets or web parts (like an app-store experience) • Some apps will be mandatory 100
  • 101. Galit Fein and Einat Shimoni’s work/ Copyright@2014 Do not remove source or attribution from any slide, graph or portion of graph Meanwhile, Knowledge management challenges are growing even bigger “I don’t need any other tools for knowledge & collaboration, thank you.” 101 What’s in it for me? KM projects should be task focused
  • 102. Galit Fein and Einat Shimoni’s work/ Copyright@2014 Do not remove source or attribution from any slide, graph or portion of graph Does this mean we have to behave more like a startup and less like an enterprise? 102
  • 103. Galit Fein and Einat Shimoni’s work/ Copyright@2014 Do not remove source or attribution from any slide, graph or portion of graph CIO has 2 faces COO CDO 103
  • 104. Galit Fein and Einat Shimoni’s work/ Copyright@2014 Do not remove source or attribution from any slide, graph or portion of graph IT Organization 2014 Enterprise Procurement Software House IT Delivery Services Managed Services LOBs BRM - CX Bill of materials Scope of Work Infra requirements 104 OCIO Pay per Use
  • 105. Galit Fein and Einat Shimoni’s work/ Copyright@2014 Do not remove source or attribution from any slide, graph or portion of graph IT Organization 2014 Enterprise Procurement Software House IT Delivery Services Managed Services LOBs BRM Scope of Work Infra requirements 105 OCIO - CIO’s execution arm LOBs LOBs Business requirements SW
  • 106. Galit Fein and Einat Shimoni’s work/ Copyright@2014 Do not remove source or attribution from any slide, graph or portion of graph Office of the CIO - From Gatekeeper to Conductor • IT strategy, IT budget mngt • PPM, PMO, SOW, implementation • Quality Assurance - methodologies • Measurement, control and reporting:  IT solutions usage  Ongoing support • Sourcing mngt  Managed services  Cloud computing • Vendor mngt  Contracts, agreements, SLAs • IT chargeback, IT service catalog 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% OCIO responsibilities STKI 2014 106
  • 107. Galit Fein and Einat Shimoni’s work/ Copyright@2014 Do not remove source or attribution from any slide, graph or portion of graph Holistic Approach to IT Project Management Tool 107
  • 108. Galit Fein and Einat Shimoni’s work/ Copyright@2014 Do not remove source or attribution from any slide, graph or portion of graph OCIO - Managing the Change “Change - it feels like trying to juggle a number of balls, with new balls suddenly appearing and the floor moving” One manager Source: lindsay-sherwin.co.ukproject Managing the stresses and pressures Managing project’ plan & activities At the end of the day, managing change is about managing people, and in particular in managing their reactions to the changes 108
  • 109. Galit Fein and Einat Shimoni’s work/ Copyright@2014 Do not remove source or attribution from any slide, graph or portion of graph Shamrock Organization - 3 Types of Workforce Flexible organizations can react quickly to ever-changing environments Org. don’t consist of just the Core and Outsourced. Periphery can be subdivided multi-skilled core of professional technicians & managers Sourcing of non central activities Part-time & temporary workers Sourcing fringe 109
  • 110. Galit Fein and Einat Shimoni’s work/ Copyright@2014 Do not remove source or attribution from any slide, graph or portion of graph Is outsourcing still a good strategy? Sourcing large projects + fix price = It doesn’t work so well A few big outsourcing contracts have been renewed: IMI, Mada, Court An explosion in public sector outsourcing: Ministry of Sviva, Knesset, Judicial Authority, ECA, Taasuka , Immigration Authority Although ClientsVendors • Highly competitive market • Vendors entering almost no profit projects hopping to get new business • Hashkal effect – 12.5% has become the upper limit • Israel as China’s offshore • Looking for creative ways to offset losses • Chooses service provider by lowest price • Doesn’t take the risk element into account • Ready to pay for additional work to a certain limit • Clients are disappointed and blaming the service providers for lack of transparency and fairness Business model: "‫בסדר‬ ‫יהיה‬"
  • 111. Galit Fein and Einat Shimoni’s work/ Copyright@2014 Do not remove source or attribution from any slide, graph or portion of graph Managed Services… 111 Disappointment from outsourcing service provider for failing to meet client expectations isn’t relevant if you never managed or told him what exactly went wrong Small, manageable packages of work: Well defined, SLA based price list security HD QA e-commerce Develop ment Mobility Outsourcing of non central activities YOU have to be in charge of core managed services
  • 112. Galit Fein and Einat Shimoni’s work/ Copyright@2014 Do not remove source or attribution from any slide, graph or portion of graph Two kinds of temporary workers Temps • Temp Workers who are "Permanently" suck in their 'temporary' situation • Often with more pay but without any benefits and labor rights • It’s the small things that bother you the most: • Parking, dining room, gift for holidays, second-class worker "‫כתף‬ ‫אל‬ ‫"כתף‬ ‫עובדי‬ If it quacks like a duck…it’s a ‫ממשלתי‬ ‫במשרד‬ ‫כתף‬ ‫אל‬ ‫כתף‬ ‫עובד‬ Disappearing trend • ITOs will always use temps for flexibility and scalability • Partial Jobs • Need for different skill sets at different times • Temporary hiring - Try Before You Buy • To hire a FTE, you have to have a long term need. • But a lot of the time, IT only has an immediate need. It’s much easier to budget for a contractor Here to stay 112 Permatemps
  • 113. Galit Fein and Einat Shimoni’s work/ Copyright@2014 Do not remove source or attribution from any slide, graph or portion of graph The Cloud Is Just One Of The Sourcing Models IT delivery will consist of a mix of in-house software and systems, cloud services and some outsourced – all layered with various degrees of complexity 113 XaaS IT Delivery Services (SW + HW) Shared services drive lower cost and faster T2M. When you’re outsourcing DC infrastructure, why would you like to own the servers, network gear, and other support equipment?
  • 114. Galit Fein and Einat Shimoni’s work/ Copyright@2014 Do not remove source or attribution from any slide, graph or portion of graph Cloud empower 6 potentially “game changing” business enablers Cloud’s Business Enablers Cost Flexibility 1  Shifts fixed to variable cost  Pay as and when needed Business Scalability 2  Provides limitless, cost- effective computing capacity to support growth Masked Complexity 4  Expands product sophistication  Simpler for customers/users Context-driven Variability 5  User defined experiences  Increases relevance Ecosystem Connectivity 6  New value nets  Potential new businesses Market Adaptability  Faster time to market  Supports experimentation 3 Source: IBV Analysis We want to pay only for what we use And we want to control it accurately. 114
  • 115. Galit Fein and Einat Shimoni’s work/ Copyright@2014 Do not remove source or attribution from any slide, graph or portion of graph In the Cloud... Instead of Tears it Will Be Rain Source: The METISfiles 115
  • 116. Galit Fein and Einat Shimoni’s work/ Copyright@2014 Do not remove source or attribution from any slide, graph or portion of graph Open Source and cloud in the eyes of new centralized procurement Centralized Procurement is more open to consider new software models (SaaS, Open Source) in alongside classic models In some cases, Cloud and OS are a better fit for fast changing requirements of the market (i.e, mobile, big data, social) Local services (SI) market is progressing but is still a barrier 116 #1 reason is not about price, it’s about (innovative) functionality and agility ADD PINI OPEN SOURCE INDEX
  • 117. Galit Fein and Einat Shimoni’s work/ Copyright@2014 Do not remove source or attribution from any slide, graph or portion of graph Israeli organizations are finally embracing open source •Search • Lucene based projects - Elasticsearch, Solr •Learning Management • Moodle •Web Content Management • Drupla • Joomla • Umbraco • Liferay •Analytics: • BI: Pentaho, Jaspersoft, Birt • Data mining: R Statistics 117
  • 118. Galit Fein and Einat Shimoni’s work/ Copyright@2014 Do not remove source or attribution from any slide, graph or portion of graph CRM SaaS will be the preferred model 70% of enterprises of all sizes (globally) having deployed all or some CRM, or planning to deploy CRM as a SaaS solution (Forrester) 20% of Israeli organizations are already using SaaS CRM An additional 20% are planning to deploy SaaS CRM during 2014 (STKI Survey) Source: STKI Survey 2014 118
  • 119. Galit Fein and Einat Shimoni’s work/ Copyright@2014 Do not remove source or attribution from any slide, graph or portion of graph IT customers would like to get exactly the same from IT Cloud Provider Value Based Pricing List Clear price list, predictable billing, pay only per use 119
  • 120. Galit Fein and Einat Shimoni’s work/ Copyright@2014 Do not remove source or attribution from any slide, graph or portion of graph Chargeback Pain or Gain? NOT an allocation! IT cost can’t be split evenly between the LOBs Chargeback connected to actual consumption 120 NO more all inclusive IT!
  • 121. Galit Fein and Einat Shimoni’s work/ Copyright@2014 Do not remove source or attribution from any slide, graph or portion of graph Start with IT Service Catalog Business Next year you have to be prepared to answer both questions from executives: 1) “How much is this IT service going to cost me?” 2) "How do I know this is a reasonable expenditure?" 121
  • 122. Galit Fein and Einat Shimoni’s work/ Copyright@2014 Do not remove source or attribution from any slide, graph or portion of graph Unfortunately ,You Can’t Separate the Transparency from Chargeback IT budget management ONLY solution example: Excel report with 100x of categories is not a transparent tool BUT self service, process automated, IT service- based, tied to actual usage Aternity BMC CA HP IBM Neebula SAS ServiceNow VMware In alphabetical order 122
  • 123. Galit Fein and Einat Shimoni’s work/ Copyright@2014 Do not remove source or attribution from any slide, graph or portion of graph Traditional Approach for SW Development Life Cycle is Over 16% 31% 53% Standish – The Chaos Report on-time, on-budget, on-scope project is completed and operational but over-budget, over the time project is canceled at some point during the development cycle 18 6 X Average Duration First result On budget months months Project 123
  • 124. Galit Fein and Einat Shimoni’s work/ Copyright@2014 Do not remove source or attribution from any slide, graph or portion of graph Large IT Projects are More Likely to Fail than Small Projects Think big Start small Act fast projectSmall is beautiful —small projects are easier to manage and execute If the greatest projects difficulty is ever changing requirements by the client, there is no sense to be so strict about scope and budget far in advance Embrace agile spirit - work tied with project shareholders; small sprints; ability to show some product in several weeks 124
  • 125. Galit Fein and Einat Shimoni’s work/ Copyright@2014 Do not remove source or attribution from any slide, graph or portion of graph What defines a successful project? In use 5 years after going live Maintainable after 5 years Easily connected to other applications It is NOT about on-time or on-budget! 125 1. 2. 3.
  • 126. Galit Fein and Einat Shimoni’s work/ Copyright@2014 Do not remove source or attribution from any slide, graph or portion of graph Pini’s slide CEO
  • 127. Galit Fein and Einat Shimoni’s work/ Copyright@2014 Do not remove source or attribution from any slide, graph or portion of graph What does the CEO need from the CIO? CIO CEO COO CCO BRM 127 Omni-Channel CX Mobile Ecommerce Dashboard & aggregated data Mobile & personal productivity tools UX Social Gamification KM ERP EPM Logistics Procurement DW Finance Real time campaigns New advanced analytics Amazonification Social listening Technologies that enable innovation and create competitive advantage A necessary critical “backend” to support operations
  • 128. Galit Fein and Einat Shimoni’s work/ Copyright@2014 Do not remove source or attribution from any slide, graph or portion of graph Bottom Lines •The challenge will be weaving together systems of records with systems of engagement: •Systems of engagement create valuable records and information that needs to be stored and managed •The engagement layer will become increasingly more important in systems of records to increase usability, effectiveness and productivity •Every new project / application needs to start with the customer experience in mind (internal or external) 128
  • 129. Galit Fein and Einat Shimoni’s work/ Copyright@2014 Do not remove source or attribution from any slide, graph or portion of graph Please check yourself • Are you capable of providing “dynamic” applications that change as fast as business requirements?Agile applications • Do you support BYOE? Solutions for all types of employees? UX for internal apps?Generations • How can you personalize IT services (per user/ role/ location etc.)?Contextual services • Do you have a BRM (for internal CX) and CCO (for external CX)?CX manager • Are you open to open source?Open Source • Have you deployed SaaS applications?Cloud • Can you provide IT cost transparency and chargeback as cloud providers do?Transparency 129
  • 130. Galit Fein and Einat Shimoni’s work/ Copyright@2014 Do not remove source or attribution from any slide, graph or portion of graph What are you getting: 1 2 3 4 5 130 Newsletters What are you getting
  • 131. Galit Fein and Einat Shimoni’s work/ Copyright@2014 Do not remove source or attribution from any slide, graph or portion of graph Thank you! 131