Future elevator(english)


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Future elevator(english)

  1. 1.   2011FutureElevatorProject ReportGalina LalovaCourse: Export SalesNordic Business InstituteSupervisor, NBI: Susanne HeinonenSupervisor, Åhmans i Åhus: Henning BeyerSPRING 2011
  2. 2. Future Elevator Design Concepts for Elevators Project report by Galina Lalova Supervisors: Susanne Heinonen, Henning Beyer 2
  3. 3. SummeryThis study is about the future development of the elevator design and lift systems. In thisconnection I have described sudgestions of some existing concepts and I will explaintheir role in the future and their relation with young people. The report aims to inspireyoung and innovative architects, building owners and consultants. It is a result of aninternship at Åhmans i Åhus - an elevator company, located in Sweden and the help ofit’s CEO, Henning Beyer, who with his motivating energy gave me the task to “jump” inthe future. Also I want to thank Sussane for helping me with the editing of the Swedishversion. The English translations was requested from readers and I want to thank every-body for the interest. I hope you like what you read here and I hope to “infect” manyof you with the enthusiasm of the concepts I present so you can develop new ideas ofyour own! 3
  4. 4. Table of Contents1. Introduction - 5 Purpose - 5 Exclusions / Restrictions - 5 Method - 62. Company Positioning - 73. Problems And Discussions - 84. Framing The Problem - 9 The Process Of Concept Generation. What Is Design Concept And Why It Does Work - 95. Theory - 11 Sustainable Design For The Elevator - 11 Sustainable Design For Elevators - 136. Concepts And Design Of Lifts - 14 Concept “Ropeless Multi-Car Lift System” And 3D Control Lifts - 14 Burj Khalifa, Dubai - 15 Concept Helixator - 16 Huge Lift, Sperone Westwater, New York - 17 Concept Circular Elevator - 18 Concept Space Elevator. Science And Fiction - 19 Concept Domaquaree - 22 Elevator For “Thriller Seekers” - 23 Apple Store, New York - 23 Elevator Interior, Student Project - 24 Kleemann Lift - 25 Elevator Lobby - 267. New Materials And Design Ideas For Elevator - 27 Lighting Systems And Daylight - 27 Lightings And Lighting Software - 29 Materials. Carbon Fiber - 30 Corian - 318. Empirical. 32 Surveys And Studies - 32 Poll - 33 Analysis - 346. Conclusions - 35 Results. Own Reflections - 357. Sources - 36Attachments 4
  5. 5. IntroductionAll new products which are at the market have already began their developmentwhen they still were an idea. Nowadays we call “new products” even such productsthat already exist. But what exactly is a “new product”?New product may be a product that is new for the company and that require adaptionof new terms of production, logistics, service or other routine. It may be a product thatthe market has accepted and it’s actually not new, but when we move this productto a new market where it is unknown, we have a new product for this market. Productsat the end of its life-cycle can sometimes come back on the market with a differentpurpose, but at the end it is the same product. When it comes to such new products, itis not the product itself that is different but equipment, transportation, strategy or otherbusiness activity are changing instead.There are other products that are brand new or developed ones which update theirpositions in the market, to meet the trends and ideas of the new era. These productsrequire research, testing, and a job that often costs too much to chance if customersor the company’s management will like them. This requires designers and architects tohelp with the presentation of the products in a form of so-called Concept Design.In this study, I will present the elevator - a product that we use often and that is changingrelatively slowly. But even this product must be kept updated as part of all the incrediblenew buildings which the young architects create today. PurposeHere we will explore new concepts of elevators and lift system which has appear in thelast 10 years as a respond to the new needs in the future. The company,which requestedthis study is Åhmans in Åhus, a successful elevator company, located in South Swedenwhich wants to develop further and prepare for the new demands of the tomorrowmarket. Such innovative companies can be powerful information and support links forarchitects, building owners and consultants because they are used to create uniqueproduction. The report’s aim is to use the link for to inspire architects for new ideas. Exclusions / RestrictionsThe task is to explore new design concepts in the elevator industry. The study has notechnical limitations, but it’s oriented towards the future. Some of the projects are notso new, since design concepts are often upgraded and have a previous concept as abase. Another aspect is that the opinion of the new generation (young people under30 years old) is considered.As an obstacle I see is that young designers often work behind the shadow of greater 5
  6. 6. architects or brands, where it is difficult to distinguish which is new from which is a pre-vious-generation idea. According to me, the important is the clear concept becauseit is the result of united work, where experienced designers develop young people. Theyoung designers, in their turn, come with new ideas, inspired by the earlier examples. Itis after all the new demand (or need), coming at the beginning of the 2000s, which willbe in focus. MethodYoung people’s needs will be represented through a survey among people between 15and 30 years old. The survey aims to investigate what values they have in design aspect ​​and how far they are targeting in the future, what they think is fun.I will focus at new large and interesting projects and how the elevator is matchingthem. Buildings with concepts that have something new to say and generate newproblems that did not exist before will be presented with pictures, description and ownreflections. Ideas for new materials that can be applied to the elevators can also be infocus. It will be interesting if, at the end, the new design concepts matches to youngpeople’s desires.Supposition is that today we have a generation that is more responsiblein terms of environment and sustainable development, or they are so called “smartconsumers”. In modern times, the architecture is a responce to modernism andpostmodernism. A building is not the architect’s individual reflection anymore. It is thehuman’s characteristics, the sociaty that inspires the idea for design and construction.In addition, employees in a large projects have different educational backgrounds,different skills and even speak different languages and they all contribute. Theycommunicate in a “global” manner: with symbols, diagrams, visualizations and drawings,which makes it possible to implement unique elements and visions in the project. 6
  7. 7. Company PositioningÅhman i Åhus, which is a family business, is often part of such large projects. It showsthat in large international projects both large and small players are allowed, it onlycounts to be skilled. Åhmans was founded in 1860, in the small town Åhus, Sweden, asa carpentry. They manufacture lifts and elevators since 1920 and today the companyis a leading independent manufacturer with about 35 employees. The company is runby CEO - Henning Beyer and board. With own modern and well organized wood-metalprocessing and construction department, they offer many years of experience in sales,overseas delivery and assembly in place of elevators for new construction and conversionprojects. Åhmans has earned the confidence to deliver to many exclusive hotels andproperties in the Nordic countries such as Grand Hotel Stockholm, Gardermoen AirportOslo, SAS Radisson in Malmö and InfraCity in Stockholm.Elevators and elevator interiors are delivered mainly to Scandinavia and Northern Europe,but deliveries in recent years has also been made to distant markets such as Cuba,China, Tashkent, and Australia.Here I will give example where such type of company can be positioned in the processand at the market. In their business relationships Åhmans are often closer to the suppli-ers than the final consumers. The company has customers among other elevator firmsand also is a very important link between architects, building owners, consultants andproduction. The company has a network of regular suppliers and temporary ones.Finished products are supplied to major elevator contractors as Kone, ALT Elevators, ITK,GMV, ThyssenKrupp, Hissgruppen, Nordisk Hiss, Uppsala Hiss, etc. which communicatewith the architects, building owners and consultants directly or do so through construc-tion companies in the case of new buildings. This gives the company access to majorinternational projects. w Business network at Ahmans i Ahus   Source: Ahmans, Sweden 7
  8. 8. Problems and DiscussionsSince the 2000s, the sustainable architecture is discussed more and more. Sustainablearchitecture is architecture that is designed in an environmentally manner. The purposeof sustainable or “green” architecture is to create structures that are beautiful and func-tional, but also contributes to a “sustainable lifestyle” and culture. A truly sustainable  building will have a design that addresses a number of issues, including heating andcooling, water use, environmental quality, and ener-gy. Architects can manage environmental aspectsof buildings in many different ways, all of which aredesigned to increase efficiency without vocabularyor detract from the function of the building. A largepart of sustainable architecture is focused on build-ing in an intelligent way.For example, a building should be oriented towardsthe south in the northern hemisphere so that thebuilding will be heated during the day by the sunand should be insulated with extra care to minimize Vincent Callebautheat loss. HVAC systems can be designed to use less water and still function normally,and the building may include smart lighting that turns off when people are not aroundto save energy.The new sustainable buildings has an unique design that is often inspired by nature. Thebuildings of the future appear to become more and more merged with the environment.Architects as Foster + Partners, Vincent Callebaut, Zaha Hadid and others are investingin visions of the future while their concepts inspire for new products that can be used inthese new building structures.In an effort to meet the new requirements and apply them into the elevators, theconstraction engineers face problems like: how to do so that the elevators can climb upto top of a 828 m building (Burj Khaliffa in Dubai, United Arab Emirates) fast enough orhow to serve vertical transportation in tall buildings, in a way that avoids the crowds ofwaiting for the elevator too long. Can an ordinary square elevator fit for a building withthe concept “to follow the river’s flow”? Lift manufacturers and engineers will continue tomeet such questions in their work. To solve the problems of the new design thinking, whichthe architects of the future offer, becomes more difficult but not impossible. 8
  9. 9. Framing The ProblemWhat exactly is “concept design” and how it helps us with elevators? Regardless if it isa table, a bag, a car or an entire building, before he / she begins, the designer is in-spired by a concept to formulate and facilitate their work. Concept design is an earlystage in the design process that is often given in addition to the technical issue andexploring ideas in a longer perspective to generate new variations and possibilities.Good examples of the concept, we find at Pininfarina, concept cars for Ferrari, Ford,GM, Jaguar, Maserati, etc., “fluid” structural shapes by the architect Zaha Hadid (RabatGrand Theater, Morocco, etc.) or Giorgetto Giugiaro, who designs everything from carsto macaroni.Many people believe that the concept design is a matter only of drawings and sketches,but when I began to explore various topics, I realized that there is a much longerprocess behing that. Even if a company does not generate design concepts, it couldtake a benefit of studying the subject just in their area by helping them to become bettercompetitors. The Process Of Concept GenerationTo think about a problem and to create more concepts early in the process of thetraditional new product development (NPD), will lead us to a better solution at the end.The literature describes solid case studies of the concept design of the NPD process.Product development is a relatively mature discipline that is practiced in areas such asindustrial and automotive design, so there are more experience to generate conceptsthere than in other areas such as elevator design, for example. It would be difficult toimagine Audi or Ferrari to develop a new car without a comprehensive concept in thedesign stage while to develop an elevator design concept is unusual. But the elevator,which is one of the many products at the market, also has something exciting to offer. What Is Design Concept And Why It Does Work So Well?Conceptual designs are not excentric hobbies and the practice shows that the bestconcepts are created by industrial designers and architects. Their concepts oftendoesn’t solve any of the current problems. But they provide a basis for further devel-opment and behind the drawing (visualization) stand many years of experience andsometimes a whole group of people. In 2008 Victor Lombardi, product and servicedesigner and manager, shares his experience with concept design. At his blog hedisscus how the concepts work, focused on digital products. He discovered that thedesign concepts are powerful artefakts for both planning and convincing so here arehis main reasons:• The primary use of the design concept is to take a bread view of the situation. Abread initial approach helps to explore the entire space of all possible configurations.Exercises like brainstorming generates new options at the beginning of the project, inwhich more ideas can be explored at a lower cost.• Concept gives advice to a large degree of control over a project because they allowus to frame a problem in a way that can make the solution easier or more interesting.The equivalent of this in fashion is couture. Generating the concept is a world where 9
  10. 10. there are no commercial compromises at all.• By controlling how an issue is framed, we can deal with new types of issues, includinglarge, strategic issues, which we would not normally assign.• Concepts are sexy, the Italians have known this for a long time. By using a richvisualization, language and attitude, we can bring strong emotions and thoughts to ouraudience.• Concept reduces risk by ensuring that we explore the space of possible designs forthe best solution. Imagine reaching the end of the project and the customer asks, “Whydo not you design this differently?” And you do not have a good answer.• Concept helps the group to form a common understanding of what they will designtogether, much better than the written specifications.Further, Victor Lombardi defines three different types of concept design according tothe book “Product Concept Design: A Revew at the Conceptual Design of Productsin Industry” (Turkka Keinonen, Roope Takala, Vesa Jaasko, 2006), where three types ofconcepts are described:• Product Concept - supports the definition of product specification, which is neededto identify targets for the design of the subsystems of the product and the subsequentphases of the design process.• Vision Concept - support the company’s strategic decision making by outlining thefuture beyond the range of product development and research. There is no expectationthat this type of vision concept will be implemented and therefore the technical andcommercial requirements are less restrictive than in other types of concepts.• New Concept - created in collaboration with the technical studies or modification ofproducts for radically different markets. They sort out the possibilities of a new technologyor market and growing needs of consumers. 10
  11. 11. Theory Sustainable DesignIn this section I will present some key points of the various authors who have written andthought about how architecture will look like in the future in general and its reflection ofthe design. Such writer is Ann Thorpe, who has published the book “Design for Sus-tainable Development” in 2008. She teaches and researches design for sustainable de-velopment at the Barlett School of Architecture, University of London, after graduating inthe “Design and the Environment” and “Energy and Natural Resources.” She works witharchitects and designers for an ecological building and is a co-chair of the U.S. GreenBuilding Coincil’s Cascadia Chapter. She has published numerous articles and editionsabout sustainable development, including “On The Ground, A Journal On Community,Design And Environment”, which she founded and edited.Ann Thorpe collects a number of significant and inspiring thoughts and turnes them inavailable principles - from the dynamism of the ecological cycle to the mechanisms ofthe economic systems. She goes beyond lectures and shows instead a wealth ofapproaches for designers and others. As the design phase is the first step in a product’slife cycle, there is enormous potential for positive change. Up to 80% of a product’senvironmental profile is determined in this phase, and to make good decisions in aninitial phase is much more effective than cleaning up at a later stage. In the book“Design for Sustainable Development” Ann Thorpe brings together ecology, economyand culture and explains how they affect design.The term “sustainable development” has been used first in 1986 in connection with theconcern for global environmental degradation and its relation to our understanding ofthe concept of “development”. According to the World Commission on Environmentand Development, to the development say that it must “meet our needs today withoutcompromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs” (Lewis, H., GertSakis, J., Grant, T., Morelli , N., Sweetman, A., “Design + Environment: A Global Guide TueDesigning Greener Goods,” Sheffield, United Kingdom: Greenleaf, 2001).Ann Thorpe explains that over time the term has begun to be used not only in thecontext of the ecological concerns but also social, or as a new label for activities in theeco-efficient production and friendly work environment. Among the various definitionsof sustainable development that Thorpe uses, is one of the phrases from the book “Howto Do Ecodesign?” (Tischner, U., Schmincke, E., Rubik, F., Prosler, M., Frankfurt: Verlagform, 2000): “development that stimulates environmental and social conditions thatcan promote human welfare indefinitely. “Furthermore, she generalizes a definition of sustainable development: “Developmentthat is based on environmental and social conditions that promote human well-being ofindefinite duration.” (Thorpe, A., “Design for Sustainable Development”, 2008, p.12) andthe Sustainable design: “Theories and methods of design based on ecological, eco-nomic and cultural conditions that promote human well-being of indefinite duration.”An interesting argument in this book is that nature has its own ways to solve different 11
  12. 12. problems so it is time to learn from it, instead of using products that are toxic or can notbe recycled. For that she generates the definition of biomimic design thinking:“Biomimik in design means that we are inspired by nature to solve design problems. Upto this moment, the biomimicry has been an area for engineers and biologists, but de-signers of all kinds should embrace these ideas. Shark skin, for example, has inspired newmaterial structures for aircraft and swim suits in order to make them more aerodynamical. Lotusblade has inspired a new kind of color with a self-raising finish. Perhaps the most famousexample is the burdock, which is shaped like a burr, a seed pod that sticks to your clothing.Another example is the natural weather pattern1 (repeating of the weather) that hasinspired ventilation of buildings. “(P. 59)In the chapter “Economy” Ann Thorpe examines the economic constraints standing infront of a sustainable design. It is often the case that green products have higher pricesand therefore the market often chooses other less expensive products without calculat-ing the costs that accrues in the future for to remove the natural degradation. We borrowfrom the future and discount values: “Future generations will perhaps have more moneythan we do today, but they will probably have fewer forests, making forests more valuablein the future. To the extent that the discounting of the value resulting from the use offorests at the expense of future generations, we borrow from the future to reach the(monetized) growth in the moment “(p.91).1 weather pattern - repeating weather under some regularity. For more information please visit http://theweatherprediction.com/habyhints2/450/       Swimming suit by Speedo,   insired by the shark skin The Berlin Oil Channels, inspired by shark skin 12
  13. 13. Sustainable Design For ElevatorsIn the context of sustainable architecture Jay A. Popp realizes that the elevator can notlag behind the development of new designs and ideas. Jay A. Popp is Executive VicePresident of Lerch Bates Inc. for Asia and the Middle East. He began working for thecompany in 1977 in the analysis and design of vertical transportation. He received hisBS in Environmental Design at the University of Colorado. Today he is responsible for thevertical transportation equipment, administration of design and engineering services,contract documents, studies and design. He is also responsible for the completemanagement of services in engineering design and construction of Lerch Bates facadesystem access. Popp is a certified QEI1 since 1988 and is linked to NAES International(the National Association of Elevator Safety Authorities), The Council on Tall Buildingsand Urban Habitat, and The National Association of Vertical Transportation Proffessional’sboard.In 2009 he wrote an article for www.elevator-world.com about sustainable design ofelevators. There, he comments that just as every building has a unique design, the sameway the elevators in these buildings are unique. “Sustainable design or optimization ofthe elevator system begins with an efficient lobby design to optimize pedestrian flow,way finding, passenger loading and unloading at the main-floor lobby and a sufficientnumber of elevators to minimize passenger waiting times during peak traffic periodswhile meeting the handling-capacity requirements of the building tenancy. This is furthertempered by the quality of the surrounding buildings, cultural expectations, andpositioning of the building in the local and/or world real-estate market. “(Jay A. Popp,2008).A method for the efficient functioning of the elevators in a building according to theauthor is through innovative organization of the positioning of the vertical transport suchas larger number of slower elevators in low-rise1 groups or zones of a multi-rise2 buildingto reduce initial costs and maximize rentable area and yield in the upper zone. In largerbuildings the solution is using sky lobbies and double platform lift system. Double platformsystem has two elevators in the same vertical shaft, permanently connected and theywork independently. This will optimize the capacity of passenger handling.“Modern elevator microprocessor control systems are provided with some form of“learning” or advanced decision-making capabilities (genetic algorithm, fuzzy logic,etc.) to optimize their efficiency. Sophisticated destination control selection systemsprovide further optimization by providing the ability for a person to register thedestination floor from a terminal in the elevator lobby prior to boarding the elevator.This information is then communicated to the elevator control system, which instantlyassigns each person’s destination to a particular elevator car. Persons arriving in thelobby are grouped together to minimize the number of stops that each elevator mustmake during any given trip. The result is that more people can be handled with fewerstops during the morning up-peak traffic condition during any given time period. Inaddition, special control features that allow elevators to operate at higher speeds dur-ing off-peak traffic periods are becoming available. This utilizes fewer elevators. Con-trols are also available that allow regenerative power to be temporarily stored andtransferred to other elevators in the group during emergency standby power conditions,thereby providing additional elevator capacity for use by firefighters or building evacuation.“(Jay A. Popp, 2009) 13
  14. 14. Concept And Design Of Lifts As Ann Thorpe explains, design is not a material form but it is information, because it is theory and trends that are mixed together and developed further to new ideas. Today we are experiencing a digital globalization of economy and communication so that information can orbit the Earth in a few minutes. “As digital information circulates freely, global and fast, it is easy to modify it at almost every network node. It is difficult to distinguish between «visions» and who has contributed what and how. (...) Information leaves traces wherever it goes, and it changes all the time, evolves and adapts, much as if it was alive. “(Thorpe, A., Design for Sustainable Development” 2008). Thus, it is difficult to distinguish between concepts, because often a concept is upgraded over the years and especially today when we are almost completely digitized. In addition, ideas from various earlier periods can be borrowed and applied to the present. In the case of elevators, however, especially in recent, the elevator began to be perceived as a product of design, which I’ll show in this section. Concept “Ropeless Multi-Car Lift System” and 3D control Elevators In 2000, Lerch Bate Inc. took the responsibility for the design   of vertical transport in London’s tallest building - The Shard. The struggle with the challenges continues up to 2012 when the handover of all the 40 elevators and escalators must be compleated. The Shard is a building that is, for its most part, a tapered structure that has an decreasing floor area when moving towards the top. Lerch Bate follows the method preferred by the building’s architects: in this unique multi-use tower the arranging of the vertical transportation is organised by functional areas of usage: offices, as most densely occupied areas located at the base; panorama and public viewing levels and, finally, the areas with the lightest density: apartments on the upper floors. Another challenge is how to provide separate entrances and The Shard receptions at own dedicated lift lobbies and lifts. In line with Popp’s advise double-deck lift system and three sky lobbies are used. In this way the shaft area is reduces by 30-40% at the expence of more floor space. The Shard will use the last Lerch Bate’s methods of destination double deck control (3Dcontrol) system for handling up peak and off peak and will increase traffic by 10% without any service degradation.   Lerch Bates applies further not only the method with two cars in each elevator shaft. Bringing out the first “Ropeless multi-car lift system” (see attachments) with the nickname “Skytrak” will allow multiple cars to raise up and go down without counter- wights. In addition, the same technology enables the vertical transportation in a curved or circular path, which opens a whole new degree of freedom to design radically new forms of buildings and in very efficient way of service as well.Skytrack, Lerch Bates Inc. 14
  15. 15. Burj Khalifa, DubaiAnother building that has used the latest technological innovations in the verticaltransportation field is Burj Khalifa (or so-called Burj Dubai). The tower, with its 828m hight,is now the world’s longest building, and it is part of a comprehensive master plan inDubai, United Arab Emirates. The fastest double-deck elevators will serve passengers ata speed of 10m / s. The architects of Burj Khalifa are Skidmore, Owings & Merrill LLP fromChicago. The main elevator, is located in the center of Burj Khalifa, and it’s the world’shighest elevator with its 504 meters - more than the height of Taipei 101 in Taiwan (448meters) and also has the longest route for an elevator. Another elevator in the skyscraperhas the world’s highest land point at 636.9 m. Double-deck lifts, with built-in light andentertainment features including LCD screens, will only be available for visitors of “Atthe Top”, and office staff that passes between the sky lobby and 123rd level . “The Top”is the world’s highest outdoor observation platform located on the level 124th. Thecross-platform devices are used for the first time in the Middle East by Otis, they are thehighest rising double-deck lifts in the world and will have a capacity of 12 to 14 peopleper cabin.( F more information about the project Burj Khalifa visit or  http://som.com/content.cfm/burj_khalifa )   Hymenocallis - Organic inspiration Just like petals of a stam the tower extends wings of its central core. No stranger to the Middle East design, the architect Adrian Smith applies patterns from traditional Islamic architecture. But his most inspiring muse is a regional desert flower,   Hymenocallis, whose harmonic structure is one of the organizing principles of the tower’s construction.Source: www.burjkhalifa.ae Source: www.burjkhalifa.ae 15
  16. 16.  Photos: helixator.wordpress.comThere are some other interesting news and ideas about 3D control elevators on the blog“Future of Transportation” (http://helixator.wordpress.com /). There you can also viewsolutions for buildings with unique designs like these above. Concept HelixatorThis idea comes from the traditional escalators and in the same time the need to besaved more area, but also to give opportunities for vertical transport of more people.Helixator which is so far only prototype (with data from 2009!), has design innovations thatoffer the possibility of a continuous spiral. The designer Michel Davis says that the greattechnological breakthrough is a single-track that did not exist before. Traditional curvedescalator is made by multiple rails on both sides of the ladder and must be supported bycomplex and heavy structures. Monorail solution concentrate all necessary rails in onecentral and easy system. Moreover Helixatorn driven by a linear motor in place of chainsystem where the top link in the chain carries the whole weight of the ladder.Helixator is not really an elevator. It is more like the escalators, but there is a proposal thatsaves space as elevators and is also independent of the building’s form and structure.Therefore, I was curious to know more about it. It tound out that it is unknown in Swedenso far, but not impossible to use already somewhere in the world. 16
  17. 17.   Huge lift, Sperone Westwater Gallery, NY The lack of area is a major problem nowadays. But it gave a unique idea for one of the greatest lifts in the world. It was designed by the architect Norman Foster as leading part of the concept of a building in Manhattan. The area is only 7.62 x30,48m and is a real challenge for many architects, but not for one of the most creative people in the world-Sir Foster. 257 Bowery is the new address of the art gallery owned by Sperone Westwater. The actual lift is designed much as room that moves between floors. The new building is now open. It is around 40 m long with eight   views, two for office and one for a library, plus mechanical floors. Three of the floors are for public galleries, two for private floor and basement. In response to the compact site, a part of the project is a mobile gallery with size 3.66 x6,10 m, which connects the upper four floors of exhibition and allows visitors to move gradually between levels. It can accommodate 240 persons entrusted to expect not so many visitors at once. The   usual for a lift 45.72 m/min (150’/min). There is a prominent elevator has a speed of 15.24 m/min (50‘/min) instead of the feature along Bowery which is visible from the street. Its tran- quil pace contrasts with the fast traffic on the street. At each level, the exhibition space extends by parking the moving room. Another elevator and stairs provide alternative access.   The gallery offers a range of exhibition spaces, which vary according to the atmosphere. The construction includes Elevator Gallery, Project: F + Partners, a 27 meter high exhibition space at street level, with a sky- oster New York, 2001 light gallery, an entrance awning, a terrace with a view at Photo: Sperone Westwater the park, and privat exhibition galleries on the fourth and fifth floor. Works of art are stored mainly in the basement, while the library is located at the top of the building under the mechanical floor. The milled glass facade that houses the moving room, acts as a buffer zone that protects the building from extreme temperatures and isolates acoustically the gallery space. ‘The concept for Sperone Westwater represents both a response to the Bowery’s dynamic urban character and a desire to rethink the way in which we engage with art in the set- ting of a gallery. The moving gallery animates the exterior of the building and creates a bold vertical element within. Like a kinetic addition to the street, it is a lively symbol of the area’s reinvention and a daring response to the Sperone Westwater’s major program. I hope that artists will be inspired by the gallery’s new spatial and structural possibilities.’ Norman Foster Constructive facts for the moving gallery: Size: 3.66 x6, 10m, height: 3.96 m (12’x20 ‘, h-13’) Steel frame construction with red exterior cladding. Driven by hydraulic pistons system. 17
  18. 18.  (see a video by Lerch Bates Inc. at: http://www.lerchbates.eu/index.php/about/skytrak/)Photos: Unsangdong Architects Concept Circular ElevatorIndependent Multi-car Circular Elevators (IMCE) is a concept where the cars move alonga circular path so that they don’t depend on their counterweight cars. The car can freelygo to the circular orbit and stop without affecting the other traveling cars. This is the con-cept of ‘Skytrak’, the last innovation from Lerch Bate Inc. reviewed earlier.The building above is a project including IMCE, designed by Unsangdong Architects(http://www.usdspace.com/) from Seoul, Korea for Yeosu EXPO 2012. The building conceptis “Ocean Eco Compounds”, where the majority of the exposition contains marinetechnology, architecture, engineering and information technology. The project allowsvisitors to experience the ocean ecosystem that is relevant to man-made nature in itsmain exhibition area.There is no limit to the number of bins that are placed in these systems as long as congestion isnot noticeable. The kinetic energy from falling cars can be distributed back to the risingcars, thus creating an equal energy cycle as with classic counterweights.The principle of counterweights have application to another interesting concept, namely“Space Elevator”. 18
  19. 19. Concept “Space Elevator”. Science And Fiction“Space Elevator” is a proposal for a structure that transports materials from the planetsurface to the space. Many variations have been proposed, but the concept mainlyrefers to an elevator that goes from Earth and reaches to geosynchronous outer space,with a counterweight attached at the outer end. By attaching a counterweight at theend, it is created inertia that holds the cable taut, countering gravitational forces at thelower parts, thus allowing the elevator to remain in geostationary orbit. The actual coun-terweight can take one of the following forms:First: a heavy, captured asteroid (as shown in the diagram below);Second: Space dock (a “space dock” or mother ships are fictional nature of the ‘drydock’: spaceship that could be located in a low planet orbit; Although the concept hasbeen rejected for real space use in the past, now that can be built with current technology);space station; space port, placed beyond the geostationary orbit, orThird: An extension of the cable itself far beyond the geostationary orbit.The concept of “Space Elevator” came for the first time in 1895 when Konstantin Tsiolkovsky, aRussian scientist, looked at the Eiffel Tower in Paris. He envisioned a structure that reachesspace. During the 1900s writer Arthur Clarke introduces the concept of “Space Elevator” inthe book “The Fountains of Paradise”, 1978. This concept suggests how the space can bereached without a spaceship. Instead, a transport unit will climb on a fixed structure (chainor beam), suspended in space from a fixed geostationary satellite 35 000 km above theearth.After that the concept inspires both “science fiction” authors and scientists. The mainpoint is to find a light, yet strong, material for the track and a safe way to transport peo-ple and goods. In modern times NASA became interested in the development of ahigh-tech elevator that will climb up to the space and founded the “Elevator 2010”, aseries of contests with prizes totaling $ 4 million for teams which manage to invent technology   19
  20. 20. that can help the development of the “Space Elevator“ by 2010. The contest began inOctober, 2006 and the team from the University of Michigan’s “MClimber” won one ofthe prizes. In 2009, a team from Seattle won $ 900 000 for their project. The team “Laser-Motive” featured home-made cable-climbers (cable-climber) who managed to climbup the track (900m long), poured by helicopter, with a speed of 13 km / h.In Europe, we are also interested in this idea. An organization, the European SpaceElevator Challenge (EuSEC), run by students in Germany, took the initiative andthe organization for the competition, in which everybody who is interested can registerparticipation. EuSEC was founded by WARR (Scientific Working Group on Rocketry andSpace Travel). The working group itself belongs to the IRT, the Institute of Space Travelat TU Munich. Chad Lorsung from Team USA / Japan and Andreas Hein from EuSECanswered my questions about this study and I will present the majority in the Empiricalsection.Another organization, The International Space Elevator Consortium (ISEC), promotes thedevelopment, construction and operation of the Space Elevator as a revolutionary andefficient way to the space for all humanity. ISEC is composed of organizations andindividuals from around the world who share a vision of humanity in space.On their website they explain what the future Space Elevator is, above all, why everyoneis so enthused by it. Such a design would save a large amount of money (replacing of thespace shuttle). The principle is the same as above and here are some ideas on how it willcharge the climbing units. They will not have any gas reservoirs, but they will use energyfrom the sun and the laser beam projected from the earth. Initially, the climber will carry20 tonnes and for the further development of up to 100 and even 1000 ton at once.   MClimber, Michigan University,,,,, Visualization of the concepr Space Elevator Source:: www.isec.info 20
  21. 21.   Space has inspired both scholars and dreamers. It is a powerful magnet for young people which encourages them to direct their interests toward the future. Movies like Star Wars, Star T and Stargate have been favorites for generations. The picture rek on the left is such elevator cabin, inspired by space. Panorama elevator, Optima Lift, Russia   Spaceport America, New Mexico Foster + Partners project will be the first space station in the world for space tourists. In this project will be used the elevators with a capacity for 12 people for vertical transportation to three different levels but more information about the design is still confident.Along with these projects, many designers are inspired by the space and here are someexamples of “space” influence for elevator outlook and a whole project for the first spacestation. Both designs shows not only the direction in architecture but also the human aimto unite with the space. 21
  22. 22.   Domaquaree Radisson SAS Hotel, Berlin Source: http://www.icm-corp. com/p-domaquaree-aquadom. cfm#a Concept Domaquarèe, Berlin While some people stare at the stars, others are attracted of the deep sea world. A project that is inspired by the charming underwater life is the unique elevator at Radisson SAS Hotel in Berlin. Radisson SAS hotel is part of the “City Quarter” in the German capital, however, the identity of the building is drastically altered and full of esprit. If you enter the courtyard through the passage and you look up, you’ll see a surprising picture of the world’s largest saltwater aquarium. A 16-meter high cylindrical tank made of a seamless acrylic cylinder creates a very real picture of the subject “water”. This sea world can be experienced even more when using the glass elevator that goes straight through the aquarium. The atrium is covered with a foil that is a filigreed with net-looking structures. Its appearance is in tone with the nearby office building. From the base of the stone up to the two-story, glass-enclosed roof, you can observe design details, especially when looking at the natural stones and the thin, membrane-like roof. The developer of this wonderful design is DIFA AG and architects NPT Tchoban - Voss. This innovative acrylic design holds the record as the world’s largest cylindrical aquarium. Standing over 16 feet in height by 11 feet in diameter, AquaDom holds nearly 1 million gallons of water and more than 100 different fish species. Visitors, who use the elevator in the middle of the cylinder, climb through the depth of water and see an amazing array of colorful corals, rock formations and a myriad of more than 2000 fish. For the creation of this amazing world are responsible the consultants of design solutions from ICM. ICM stands for International Concept Management Inc., company that provide underwater world to the surface through innovative projects that redefines the art and science of conceptual design. ICM was founded in 1995 (as a sister company of Reynolds Polymer Technology, Inc.) and is the world leader in the design, manufacture and installation of acrylic. This design/build firm is unique and recognized worldwide for its boldness and creativity that is constantly driving forward spatial boundaries, boundaries of interior and exhibition design. The visionary ICM team developed almost impossible aquarium design to meet both cost and time constraints - and to meet architects’ vision. The resulting design provides ideal water clarity (a huge feat considering the aquarium’s height and water pressure) and the unique capabilities, characterized by structural factors that make the right species of fish live in each level of the aquarium while protecting certain fish from their major predators, and draws in natural sunlight needed to support the critically endangered species. 22
  23. 23. Elevator for “Thrill Seekers”In modern times it is quite common to see a completely glassed elevator but this examplealso has a transparent floor. There are not so many people who would dare to ride theelevator, but for all those with wild desires for adventures it’s an incredible experience.The elevator is in the Sky Tower, Aukland, New Zealand. At the moment you go up, youunderstand fully the meaning of the expression “The ground disappears under your feet.”The design of such elevator floors is possible with the technology of reinforcing a glassmaterial.There are many technologies for producing a reinforcedglass, depending on the pupose (fireproof, slip and impactresistence): insulated, laminated, reinforced glass.  More about reinforced glass:http://www.structuralglass.com/http://www.ibpglassblock.com/floor/sg.htmhttp://www.rogerwilde.com/design_considerations.pdf Apple Store in New YorkAnother project using structural glas is designed by the architects Bohlin Cywinski Jack-son and structural engineers Eckersly O’Callahan (glass elements) in collaborationwith Apple. Together they designed Apple Store at Fifth Avenew in NY. The entrance ofthe store is 32-feet structural glass cube which leads to the undeerground throughglass elevator, wrapped with a glass stair. Materials used in this project are structuralglas, wood, stainless steel, italian stone while the elevator itself is an all-glassed structure.During the day the underground level is suffused with daylight and at night the lightingsmakes of the entrance a spectacular view.Photo: Nic Lehoux, http://www.bcj.com/public/projects/project/82.html Photo: Nic Lehoux, http://www.bcj.com/public/projects/project/82.htmlMore about the project is available at:http://www.bcj.com/public/projects/project/82.html 23
  24. 24. Elevator Interior, Student ProjectIn a search for interesting project for elevator interiors in modern times I found a blog bya student who studies a Master’s program in Architecture at Yale University. Her name isDaisy Ames. At her blog she presents an unusual proposal for an elevator design that is aco-work of her group.This is the end product of the group’s design.  They wanted to work in a space that fostershandling of uncomfortable situations - to startcommunicating with others instead of awk-ward silence while waiting your floor to showup. While they were playing with the idea of​​forcing people to stand uncomfortably close toeach other, they decided to explore differentreactions that people would interact with thedesigned surface. This “surface” has a bench,footrest, place for sitting and an oddly placedobstacles that hamper the ability to stand inthe middle. Source: http://daisyames.com/createA slight disadvantage here is with the cleaning hinders which can “turn into a nightmarereality” like my teacher, the architect Per Reinholtz with right noted. Since in this studywe examine basic concepts, we just borrow here information and inspiration. I havementioned earlier that the advantage in the creation of concepts is that an idea canbe developed through visualizations and thus discussed and eliminated any drawbacks.I’d like to pay attantion of the social concept here: “forcing” people to communicationthrough design and showing that design can be incredible tool for provocation ofthoughts , mood, melting the ice and much more. Think about: “what impression would Ilike to make when they come to visit me?”   Source: http://daisyames.com/create 24
  25. 25. KLEEMANN LiftIn this English eddition I would like to inclued designers who did really amazing work withelevators. The tipps for the following examples came from Marios Mitrosilis who contactme after the publication of the Swedish edition and I was curious to explore them. ThanksMario!The first project was the elevator for the Apple Store, named earlier. The other example isa series of elevator interiors by the designer Andreas Zapatinas, most famous with his carconcepts for Fiat, Alfa Romeo and Subaru. His latest projects, though, are elevator designsfor Kleemann Lift under the name Future Trend. Made mainly of stainless steel, they showvery innovative and sophisticated touch, and also an artistic game of reflections, daylight,ceilings, forms. Interesting examples are Future Trend T320, T310 (+Panoramic T310), T710(+Panoramic T710), Modern Life L520 (please see here: http://www.kleemannlifts.com/index.php?option=com_docman&task=doc_download&gid=65&Itemid=250&lang=en)For more information and pictures, please visit: www.kleemannlifts.comSource: KLEEMANN Lift 25
  26. 26. Elevator lobbyThe architects often invest enough time and inspiration on Elevator lobbies, especiallyin hotels or entertainment building. Here are few good examples at NPS Tchoban Vosshotels in Berlin - Music & Lifestyle Hotel Ariston, 2011:      Elevator lobby can also be a form of art if you have the right attitude and lots of imagina-tion. The next project (see photos, p. 30) is done in collaboration with the artist JamesTurrell, the architects Kohn Pedersen Fox, New York (Douglas Hocking, Design Principal,Paul Katz, Managing Partner, Christopher Stoddard, Project Manager; Theodore Carpinelli, Limin Ching, Miranti Gumayana, Wendy Hanes, John Lucas, Lloyd Sigal, project team),Benjamin Pearcy - Lighting Designer and Programmer, Isometrix London.The building is in New York near Times Square and is Kohn Pederson Fox’s office unit.Initially they consider glass on the outside but than realized that the weight of a singlelayer would have been prohibitive. To hang such unit was also a hinder. Much lighterglancedmaterial is poured glass, manufactured by the company 3form (http://www.3-form.com) and it met both the artist’s aesthetic and technical architect needs.   While most New York lobbies tend to be of wood and stone (and in one word - expensive), the lobby at 505 Fifth Avenue concludes to be simple in both color and material: white stucco and plaster walls, ceilings, and a dark granite for flooring. “Turrell just wanted stucco and plaster to reflect the light,” said Hocking. But the art- ist was quite specific in his requirements for white paint, the walls are painted in white, while the roof is two steps darker. “It under- lies the whole composition of the optics,” said Hocking, who notes that it was not the most difficult of requests to meet. “YouSource: ARCHITECT Magazine go to Benjamin Moore and you take outPublished 2007-10-01 an off-white,” he says. “It’s not like pick-By Edward Keegan ing some exotic stones.” London-based company Isometrix designed this stunning lighting design, on the left. 26
  27. 27. New Materials And Design Ideas For Elevator In connection with the theme of “Future Elevator” and young people’s perspectives, Iwill borrow some good specimens of design ideas from a movie. It is inspired by a cartoon(Aeon Flux), but what has the Hollywood production with the same name contributedwith is a vision of the future architecture. Aeon Flux is filmed in Berlin and presents a conceptfor a dystopian world of organic architecture seen 400 years ahead in the future.  Although life in the last town on Earth, Bregna, is dangerous and totalitarian, the director Karyn Kusama creates it as a beautiful world filled with “strange energy”, behind which nothing is as it seems. With attention to details, I will examine for trace of interior inspiration among some original and unique design ideas. Besides the movie, there are unlimited variations and I’ll try to include some good examples. Lighting Systems And Daylight Lighting arrangement is like composing music. In an elevator, light is very important for the positive experience. In addition to the technical part (http://ljuskultur.se/fakta-och-miljo/teknik/), there are many ideas about what we want to achieve with the light,how we want to affect and what we want to express. How we will design the lightingdepends primarily on whether we have a panoramic elevator or a closed (with no directnatural light) car. There are many opportunities to play with natural light or lighting, andI’ll try to give some interesting specimens that are not necessarily from elevators, but theyprovide ideas that can be applied in this area. As you can see, at the photos beyondthe light creates incredible effects as reflected on a curved areas. This “trick” is appliedsuccesfully by the designer Andreas Zapatinas with his Future Trend for elevators. A goodexample of interior with lighting effects is the previous project for the elevator lobby atKohn Pederson Fox’s building.To play with daylight...  1. A Hall in Bregna 2. GROBEN wind channels 3. Aeon’s bedroomSee more at http://bregna2415.webs.com/gallery.htm under Set Photographs 27
  28. 28.   ...and lightings See larger photos at http://bregna2415. webs.com/gallery.htm under Set Photographs och StillsThe movie Aeon Flux has its architecture charm thanks to the  choice for filming in Berlin by using existing buildings and touse their concept by inplanting them to a non-existing world.The designers have managed to create a completely differentenvironment than we are used with and it harmonize with thestory’s way of expressing the future. With carefully selectedbuildings in Berlin there was no need of much stage sets, justthe right light that changes everything and turns the scenealready in the 18th century there were and still there are  stage into another building with an entirely different purposeand a future look. This reminds us that in the present andarchitects with visions that can be considered for future.Here are some light compositions by Isometrix, London. Ontheir website (http://www.isometrix.co.uk/) you can find manybeautiful ideas for lighting experiences and some of themseem to be inspired by the movie Aeon Flux or maybe the      opposite. 28
  29. 29. To create a truly unique environment often requires a workof designers and architects with different companies thatmanufacture certain products and give shape to theirideas. Many architects have created concepts, alsoapplicable to other matters than buildings(such as ZahaHadid, Santiago Callatrava, and many others.)Nemo Cassina is a lighting company that has worked withsome of the best designers in the present like Norman +Partners, Karim Rashid, Vico Magistretti, Ikaru Mori. It is pre-sented to retailers in Europe, America and the Far East, in-cluding in Sweden by the Ljusgruppen AB. At the picturein right I have chosen examples of their ISI Systems thatwould fit in an elevator. Regarding lighting in elevators, Iworld of inspiration among the latest models of Modular,  visited Ljusgruppen in Malmö. There I found a whole new Photo: Nemo Casina, ItalyBelgium and LucePlan, Italy. Quite spontaneously I madelist of lightings that would give a new feeling into theelevator (see attachments). Lighting and Lighting SoftwareDesigning lighting is not easy work. Besides the appearance, there are a lot of planningand calculations that must be done. With hand calculations and the old software theresult could only reported figures. While such figures can be compared with the requirementsand standards, for those who are not professional, the results are difficult to understand.With visualizations can be, in a very simple way, demonstrated to a customer or the userwhat it will look like, or how you think it will look like. The programs give way to communicateand explain.Throughout history, many programs have been used and the specialists involved in thedesign of light has their own programs, but the trend develops towards universialisering.Two such universal programs are DIALux and Relux. Both have good distribution inEurope and they are translated in several languages. For such projects, it is obviouslygood to open software where you can use the fittings of different manufacturers. Firstof all, you do not learn as many different programs. You will have a greater security andyou’ll be easy skilled because of the similarities with the programs you use most. 29
  30. 30. Materials Carbon fiber   This material was a tipped by the students involved in the Space Elevator project. Carbon fiber is used together with epoxy, pol- yester or vinylester to produce lighter and stronger structures for aircraft, cars, motorcycles, helmets, boats, canoes, bicy- cles, fishing rods, fishing reels, skis, tennis rackets, weapons, and more. The benefits that I think makes the material suitable for elevators include that it can take a variety of unlimited forms as the plastic products. The big difference here is that carbon fiber is very strong, it is fireproof and a very light material. The products of carbon fiber has the same properties as those made of steel but represent only 40% of their weight. This means that carbon fiber is applied to the construction and facilities, which will change drastically this business. Carbon finds its application in the construction industry through architectural elements, stairs, cat- walk, industrial designs, modern furniture and so on. With carbon fiber, we can create quite unusual “liquid” forms or structural components, some of which needed to be strong and light. In addition, the products of carbon are   very beautiful. (Http://www.carbonbydesign.com/structure.html) Since carbon fiber products are produced in combination with many different subjects dependence of the product’s pur- pose, I was curious to continue my study for more information on this material. I asked for oppinion Lars Viebke dealing ex- tensively with carbon fiber in Sweden, because this material is quite new and I would like to hear more In favour/against car- bon fiber products in elevators. “Carbon fiber is suitable for light and tough constructions, he sais, especially when we need to design a complex struction in one piece, but all this in small series. Disadvantages are the high price of the material and manufacturing, which is manual. Carbon fiber often is mixed with several different kinds of plastic so it can not be recovered completely except that the energy used in firing. So far, products produced in advance and the cost is high so it can not be thought about mass produc- tion. If we talk about elevator design he recommends it in cases when we want to use the maximal payload and possibility for maximal exelleration. However, in special elevators, carbon fiber can provide a good opportunity for wild ideas, such for unusual surfaces. Producers of carbon fiber cello has also proved that their products have the same sound like the traditional wooden cello, but much stronger. See a video about how to make carbon fiber cello: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=J_gI3chGtww This gave me an idea that you can create unique elevator for example a built-in musical instruments (type of harp or something similar) on the wall of the elevator. 30
  31. 31.   Corian Corian is material produced by the group DuPont and it’s a beautiful solution that is suitable as well in private as in public places. It is also environmentally friendly, according to them. The idea came back in the 1960’s but its possibili- ties were estimated recently when the modern designers began to cross the borders of the traditional forms. Corian is a sort of synthetic stone created by mixing an aluminum compound with a acrylic resin. Due to its hygienic, easy clean properties and ease of installation it is prefered for kitchens, bathrooms and hospitals.Here are some of the corian key features:* It is a beautiful material, which can be added and formed into virtually any design.* Can be joined without visible seams, which means that you eliminate the formation ofjoints that accumulate dirt and bacteria.* Solid material that feels warm to the touch and has depth and luminescence.* Extremely durable, no need to be replaced in the foreseeable future.* Can be repaired and restored in case of injury.* An installation can be revised later without visible traces.* Hygienic, easy to clean, not moldy.* Stain resistant, even burn marks can be removed.* The homogeneous, pore-free material rejects moisture, dirt and bacteria.* Matches well other materials such as tile, stainless steel, wood and glass.The picture above shows a part of the 9 square meter apartment that is made of corian.It is a typical example of how we can create a lot of experience even in small areas. Withthe help of corian would be possible to create unlimited futuristic forms, such as this byusing this material and all the100 colors, provided by the producer.The most important advantage that let me consider corian as suitable for elevators isthe fact that this material is above all fireproof. It is also resistant to moisture, cold, heatand UV, so is equally good outside as in. It is possible to build an entire house as did thedesigner Karim Rashid (for more information: http://blog.360dgrs.nl/archives/5224/karim-rashid-unveils-concept-smart-ologic-corian-living-at-milan-design-week.html )Read more about corian at: http://EzineArticles.com/4166126There are numerious new materials that can be applied to elevators, such as thereinforced glass or for example Paroc panels which are made of “stone wool” - a fireresistant and sustainable material. Paroc has another solution applicable for elevatorscalled Parafon, which is made for interiors and its highly soud proof. The usual suspectsstainless steel in its shiny variations and stainless steel mirrors are still a part of the futureelevator. Other materials can be examined in the book “New Materials & New TechnilogiesApplied to Elevators” by Antonio Miravete. 31
  32. 32. Empirical Surveys And StudiesIn connection with the subject I have explored young people’s opinion for elevator design.The aim was to find out what they would find fun and interesting in an elevator sothat architects can consider just the need of the future consumers. A questionnaire wassent out to people up to 30 years with minimal resources and can not be taken asrepresentative but the results are interesting enough to give an idea about this subject.First, I present the answers to my questions of the two students involved in the project“Space Elevator” in EUSEC. Andreas Hein is from Germany and he is media responsible.Chad Lorsung is a member of Team USA / Japan. Both of them are interesting for this studybecause they represent young people who are also involved in developing a productthat is geared towards the future and bold dreams. I have set slightly different questionsto them than the questions in the survey because I thought that their view is wider thanother young people who do not engage in such techniques and concepts. Presentedanswer is only the personal opinions of the respondents.Questions and answers:1.Why are you interested in developing the Space Elevator?Andreas: Space Elevator can change the way we travel into space dramatically byreducing its costs and has a very efficient physical principle than rockets. In addition, itstimulates my imagination. It is fascinating to imagine stepping into a cab and go up tospace!Chad: I am interested in developing a Space Elevator, as it is a challenge and because ithas never been done before. Just enjoy it because of the electronics challenge. Kind ofaccess that puts together a puzzle to me.2.Why, according to you, is the Space Elevator important for people on Earth?A: With the Space Elevator space activities can diversify. This will probably not happenimmediately, but gradually. Commercial space activities will benefit from lowertransport costs and faster delivery of payloads into space. The reliability should also behigher compared to rockets. Please find attached two documents I presented in 2009 onsome possible applications of the Space Elevator to space activities. (See attachments)C: Personally, I think it’s important for people to try new things. A few things work andothers do not. The Space Elevator idea seems like a way to get everyone to witness thespace, or perhaps move to another planet if necessary. And efficient, I think.3.Do you think Space Elevator has application in building construction and architecture?A: If carbon nanotubes develope further and can be used as a material on an industrialscale, I am sure that this material will be used in building construction and architectureto enable designs that were impossible before. There are already some publications onthis topic.C: At this point you may refer to the carbon fiber? I believe that carbon already has manyuses in cars, tennis, etc. But I think many more uses as well. 32
  33. 33. 4.If we consider the Space Elevator in clear design aspect (interior and exterior), howwould it look like and where would the designers get inspiration from (for ex. movies,books, nature (biomimic), sustainable architecture)?A: As for the exterior, I am convinced that the construction will be strictly functional, asin all cases of spacecraft. If you look through existing climber Space Elevator models, itshows that they have already quite similar characteristics and developed in interestingways:http://www.se.kleinquadriert.de/PR/fotos/japan/JP_Konkurrenten.jpgIn the interior there is definitely room for design issues in areas such as transportation oftourists / crew is concerned. The inspiration will probably first come from existing movies,books, but I can imagine that biomimetic designs are also possible.C: I actually think the structure and how it will look like depends on how it needs to keepup and working. For example, an airplane is slightly rounded for strength, but if we findsomething stronger and lighter, it can shape a different form - triangle, for example. PollBesides these interviews, a questionnaire (see attachedments) had helped the study andit was sent to young people, particularly in Sweden, but other countries also tookparticipation. There are general questions about respondents’ profile; specific questions,which are related to their homes and habits in relation to this; questions about what theyare inspired by, and questions about their opinions and what they think is fun in the elevators.Some of the questions contain pictures for better description.• With questions 2,3,4 respondents are thinking about what they inspired of.• Questions 5,6,17’s aiml is to find out what they think is funny.• Questions 7,8,9 investigate their attitude to unusual buildings.• Questions 10,11,12,13,14 ask about their habits in relation to buildings and how often, if so, they tend to use elevators.• With answers to questions 15 and 16 containing elevator pictures, we learn about how they feel in different elevator environments. The elevators are existing and some of the extreme or unusual, some are classic. Question 16 examines whether younger people tolerate intimacy in public spaces.• Question 20 is about their ambitions. The higher ambition you have, the higher require- ments he / she has for the surounding designs.The questionnaire gave interesting results and is a good base to start a mass research ifneeded. 33
  34. 34. AnalysisThe practice shows that future buildings will be higher and higher, but the young peo-ple who took partisipation would rather like to live in a lower houses (buildings). Higherbuildings have a purpose other than habitation and require new solutions for verticaltransportation. How the future of the elevator will look like is not entirely clear, becausethere are very few designers who “dare to get into the elevator”. In the most cases thecabins has a “standard”design and often “inside the box”.According to Per Reinholtz in the most cases the elevator is passage and not an experi-ence. He says that in his work, it had happened in the best case to choose the color ofthe floor or the walls of the building’s elevator.In Sweden, the architects aren’t project managers at the same time and have much lessgeneral responsibility for the project. In this way, the supplier who delivers the elevatorshas much more power to influence the design. They (in the most cases) are trying to stickto standard because producing series is more efficient. In other countries where thearchitect has leading role and primary responsibility for the entire project we are witnessingmore interesting results.The most interesting projects are possible thanks to collaboration between architectsand artists with engineers. Here the elevator is a central figure with different purpose:atraction and special experience. 34
  35. 35. Conclusions ResultsThe result of this study is that we actually set a new issue that has not been discussed somuch before: how to turn the elevator into an experience environment through successfuldesign thinking with less restriction (or with other words, to create concepts for elevatorsas we do for all other products on the market). Own ReflectionsThe young people who have participated in the questionnaires are inspired mainly frommovies and music. A strong magnet is a space which provokes young people tobecome innovators and to turn their dreams into reality. Most of them would like to trysomething unusual but there are still few who dare to go for extreme experiences. Thesurvey showed that young people are still more inclined to refer Antoni Gaudí’s basilicaSagrada Familia to the future than the past. This is confirming my point of view that wecan be inspired by buildings from earlier periods and still be modern (for example, thebuildings in the motion movie Aeon Flux).What can be explored further in connection with elevators? It may be young people’sattitude to small spaces and emotions as laughter, fear, openness/closedness in the con-text of sharing a small space with strangers. For such research we would need only textquestions, preferably in the template of online surveys like SurveyMesh or similar. Such asurvey can be added on a website, blog, social media profile or company page. Itis possible to be made a further study this project report as a base.Since my survey contains a lots of images I chose to use a Word file. For reaching moreparticipants, I would use IT support or would choose paper copies in the ususal case. 35
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