Manatee Protection
An Endangered Species <ul><li>In 1966, the Endangered Species Preservation Act was passed. </li></ul><ul><li>The West Indi...
Manatee Protection <ul><li>The West Indian Manatee  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(Trichechus manatus) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Two ...
What is a manatee? <ul><li>Gentle, slow-moving aquatic mammal </li></ul><ul><li>Feeds completely on aquatic plants </li></ul>
Manatee Habitat <ul><li>Mild water temperatures </li></ul><ul><li>Seagrass beds </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Found in slow-moving...
Manatee Maturation <ul><li>Gestation period: 385 to 400 days </li></ul><ul><li>Born tail first </li></ul><ul><li>Newborn c...
<ul><li>Human carelessness and lack of respect for manatees have caused manatees to be injured and killed in their own hab...
<ul><li>Direct hits from boat hulls can kill instantly </li></ul><ul><li>Propellers cut the backs of manatees repeatedly w...
<ul><li>Watercraft do not fall within manatee hearing range </li></ul><ul><ul><li>By the time a manatee realizes there is ...
Floodgates and Canal Locks <ul><li>Manatees stuck inside floodgates and canal locks are crushed when they are closed </li>...
Human Invasion <ul><li>Manatee habitats have mostly been taken over by recreational fishing because they are rich in marin...
Litter <ul><li>People leave behind fishing lines, hooks, and plastic six-pack holders which often cause death and injury <...
<ul><li>Marine Mammal Protection Act (1972) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Federal law which makes it illegal to capture a manatee ...
<ul><li>Endangered Species Act (ESA) (1973) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Administered by the Interior Department’s U.S. Fish and ...
<ul><li>Florida Manatee Sanctuary Act (1978) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The state of Florida was declared a “refuge and sanctua...
<ul><li>Anyone convicted of violating the Sanctuary Act faces a maximum fine of $500.00 and/or imprisonment for up to 60 d...
<ul><li>Florida Marine Patrol (FMP) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Has the authority to enforce violations </li></ul></ul>Who enfor...
<ul><li>Florida’s water system is  so large  that the Florida Marine Patrol cannot monitor it all </li></ul><ul><li>Florid...
Will Manatees Recuperate?
The Manatee Rehabilitation Partnership <ul><ul><li>Columbus Zoo </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disney Conservation Fund </li><...
<ul><li>The rehabilitation program treats and rehabilitates sick and injured manatees and returns them to the wild </li></...
Rehabilitation Centers <ul><li>There are three federally permitted manatee rehabilitation centers: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>L...
<ul><li>Passage of a statewide boating speed limit </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Encourages faster boats to move out of inland wat...
<ul><li>Never enter a designated manatee sanctuary </li></ul><ul><li>Never attempt to touch a manatee and avoid loud noise...
The End
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Manatee Powerpoint

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A presentation about manatees, why they are endangered, and what we should do to help.

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Manatee Powerpoint

  1. 1. Manatee Protection
  2. 2. An Endangered Species <ul><li>In 1966, the Endangered Species Preservation Act was passed. </li></ul><ul><li>The West Indian manatee was first listed on the Endangered Species List on March 11,1967, and still remains today. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Manatee Protection <ul><li>The West Indian Manatee </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(Trichechus manatus) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Two Subspecies: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Florida Manatee </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(T.m. latirostris) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Antillean Manatee </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(T.m. manatus) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. What is a manatee? <ul><li>Gentle, slow-moving aquatic mammal </li></ul><ul><li>Feeds completely on aquatic plants </li></ul>
  5. 5. Manatee Habitat <ul><li>Mild water temperatures </li></ul><ul><li>Seagrass beds </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Found in slow-moving rivers, lakes, canals, estuaries, and saltwater bays </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Manatee Maturation <ul><li>Gestation period: 385 to 400 days </li></ul><ul><li>Born tail first </li></ul><ul><li>Newborn calves </li></ul><ul><ul><li>4 feet long </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>60 to 70 pounds </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nursing: birth to 2 years </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Calves begin eating seagrass a few weeks after birth but continue to nurse to establish a bond </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Human carelessness and lack of respect for manatees have caused manatees to be injured and killed in their own habitats. </li></ul><ul><li>Since 1994, 200+ manatees have died each year in U.S. waters. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1/3 of these deaths were caused by collisions with boats, barges, and powerboat propellers </li></ul></ul>Manatee Protection? From what?
  8. 8. <ul><li>Direct hits from boat hulls can kill instantly </li></ul><ul><li>Propellers cut the backs of manatees repeatedly which sends the animal to the bottom to drown </li></ul><ul><li>An estimated 80% of Florida’s 2,000 manatees have scars from multiple encounters with boat propellers </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Watercraft do not fall within manatee hearing range </li></ul><ul><ul><li>By the time a manatee realizes there is a boat dangerously close, it doesn’t have time to get away </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Being a half-ton or larger, manatees are very slow moving mammals </li></ul><ul><li>Manatee habitats are shallow and there isn’t enough room to dive deeper while a boat passes </li></ul>Why don't the manatees get out of the way?
  10. 10. Floodgates and Canal Locks <ul><li>Manatees stuck inside floodgates and canal locks are crushed when they are closed </li></ul><ul><li>When the gates open, manatees are drowned from the outpouring water which pins them underwater </li></ul>
  11. 11. Human Invasion <ul><li>Manatee habitats have mostly been taken over by recreational fishing because they are rich in marine life </li></ul><ul><li>Divers, boaters, swimmers, and people fishing often harass manatees </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This can force manatees to leave their warm-water habitats and sometimes separates mothers from their calves </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Litter <ul><li>People leave behind fishing lines, hooks, and plastic six-pack holders which often cause death and injury </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Manatees will swallow any litter that floats among the seagrass that they eat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manatees often get entangled in fishing lines and ropes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>manatees become crippled and some lose entire flippers including bones </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Marine Mammal Protection Act (1972) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Federal law which makes it illegal to capture a manatee without a permit, harass, injure, or kill a manatee </li></ul></ul>What are the laws?
  14. 14. <ul><li>Endangered Species Act (ESA) (1973) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Administered by the Interior Department’s U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>States that it is illegal to “hunt, kill, collect, harass, harm, pursue, shoot, trap, wound, or capture an endangered species” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires that the government explore the potential impact to threatened habitats and species when planning construction projects </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Florida Manatee Sanctuary Act (1978) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The state of Florida was declared a “refuge and sanctuary for manatees” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>States that no one may annoy, molest, harass, or disturb a manatee </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gives officials the authority to enforce manatee protection, regulate boat traffic in manatee protection zones, designate speed zones, and to even confiscate the boats of convicted offenders </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Anyone convicted of violating the Sanctuary Act faces a maximum fine of $500.00 and/or imprisonment for up to 60 days. </li></ul><ul><li>If a person causes severe injury or death to a manatee, they can be pursued under federal law and if convicted faces fines up to $100,000 and/or one year in prison. </li></ul>Consequences?
  17. 17. <ul><li>Florida Marine Patrol (FMP) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Has the authority to enforce violations </li></ul></ul>Who enforces the laws?
  18. 18. <ul><li>Florida’s water system is so large that the Florida Marine Patrol cannot monitor it all </li></ul><ul><li>Florida’s water system: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>8,400 miles of tide-affected waters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>11,900 miles of inland rivers and streams </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>10,000 miles of canals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3,000,000 acres of man-made and natural lakes. </li></ul></ul>So, what's the problem?
  19. 19. Will Manatees Recuperate?
  20. 20. The Manatee Rehabilitation Partnership <ul><ul><li>Columbus Zoo </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disney Conservation Fund </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EPCOT-Living Seas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FWC’s Florida Marine Research Institute </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hubbs-SeaWorld Research Institute </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lowry Park Zoo </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Miami Seaquarium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Save the Manatee Club </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SeaWorld Florida </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>USGC’s Sirenia Project </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wildlife Trust </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Established in 2001, the partnership is a cooperative group of non-profit, private, state, and federal entities with a stake in tracking the post-release fate of rehabilitated manatees in the wild. </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>The rehabilitation program treats and rehabilitates sick and injured manatees and returns them to the wild </li></ul><ul><li>The manatees are then tracked to determine how successful the program was to their recovery </li></ul>
  22. 22. Rehabilitation Centers <ul><li>There are three federally permitted manatee rehabilitation centers: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lowry Park Zoo </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Miami Seaquarium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SeaWorld Florida </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Other facilities are equipped to handle manatees that are no longer receiving acute care treatment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Columbus Zoo </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cincinnati Zoo </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EPCOT-Living Seas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Homosassa Springs State Wildlife Park </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SeaWorld California </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>Passage of a statewide boating speed limit </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Encourages faster boats to move out of inland waterways into the gulf and open ocean </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mandatory installation of propeller guards on all power boats </li></ul><ul><li>Equipping boats with underwater alarms </li></ul>What Else Should be Done?
  24. 24. <ul><li>Never enter a designated manatee sanctuary </li></ul><ul><li>Never attempt to touch a manatee and avoid loud noises and splashing </li></ul><ul><li>Do not feed manatees or give them water </li></ul><ul><li>When observing manatees, use a snorkel </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scuba gear sounds can cause manatees to leave the area </li></ul></ul>What Can I Do?
  25. 25. The End
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