Deloitte The Power of Zoom: Transforming government through location intelligence report 2013
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Deloitte The Power of Zoom: Transforming government through location intelligence report 2013

Deloitte The Power of Zoom: Transforming government through location intelligence report 2013

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    Deloitte The Power of Zoom: Transforming government through location intelligence report 2013 Deloitte The Power of Zoom: Transforming government through location intelligence report 2013 Document Transcript

    • The Power of ZoomTransforming government through locationintelligence A GovLab Study
    • The Power of Zoom Transforming government through location intelligenceAbout the authors Authors Anesa “Nes” Diaz-Uda Anesa “Nes” Diaz-Uda is a GovLab fellow and senior consultant in the Federal Strategy and Operations practice of Deloitte Consulting LLP, where she has supported clients in the US Department of Homeland Security and Intelligence Community. Nes graduated cum laude from Vassar College with a BA in Political Science and Economics, and earned a Master of Public Administration from Columbia University’s School of International and Public Affairs. Joe Leinbach Joe Leinbach is a GovLab fellow and senior consultant in the Federal Technology practice of Deloitte Consulting LLP, where he has supported clients in the US Department of Homeland Security. Joe graduated from The University of Pittsburgh with a BA in Politics and Philosophy, and earned an MS in Public Policy and Management from Carnegie Mellon University’s Heinz College. Research Sponsor Matt Gentile Geospatial Analytics Leader Deloitte Financial Advisory Services LLP Washington, DC +1 571 882 6880 magentile@deloitte.com GovLab Leadership Shrupti Shah John Gibbons GovLab Director US Federal Consulting Leader Deloitte Consulting LLP Deloitte Consulting LLP Washington, DC Washington, DC +1 571 882 7600 +1 412 402 5200 shrshah@deloitte.com jgibbons@deloitte.com William D. Eggers Debbie Sills Global Public Sector Director GovLab Chair Deloitte Research and GovLab Deloitte Consulting LLP Washington, DC Washington, DC +1 571 882 6585 +1 215 405 7878 weggers@deloitte.com dsills@deloitte.comii
    • A GovLab StudyAcknowledgementsWe are grateful to the many individuals who shared their time and experience throughout thewriting of this study. Bill Eggers, director of Deloitte Global Public Sector Research, and MattGentile of Deloitte Financial Advisory Services LLP and lead of Deloitte’s geospatial practice weretireless champions whose energy and insight inspired us from the beginning. Special thanks go toTiffany Fishman of Deloitte Services LP for her creative wisdom, GovLab’s director Shrupti Shahfor helping to shape our approach, and Carmen Medina of Deloitte Consulting LLP for igniting thecontrarian thinkers within us.We would like to thank the individuals whose interviews informed our research, including NigelJacob and Chris Osgood of the City of Boston Mayor’s Office of New Urban Mechanics; the manyresearchers at the MIT Media Lab including Yves Alexandre de Montjoye, Phil Salesses and CesarHidalgo; Prudence Robinson and Eric Baczuk of the MIT SENSEable City Lab; Robert Cheethamand David Zwarg of Azavea; Josh Goldstein and Edward Anderson from the World Bank; AdamGreenfield of Urbanscale; G. Edward DeSeve of the University of Maryland and formerly ARRA;Larry Miller of Activate Networks; and Brett Goldstein and John Tolva from the City of Chicago.We would also like to thank the organizers of South by Southwest, who brought many of these fineindividuals together in the same location [30.2625° N, 97.7401° W].Several Deloitte colleagues provided invaluable feedback at all phases of our research, including JRReagan of Deloitte & Touche LLP; Ben Truscello, James Guszcza, Felix Martinez, Calvin Cheng,Alec Kasuya, Brian Sodl, Devon Halley, Markus Linke, Justin Franks, and Dan Nieves of DeloitteConsulting LLP; and Jonathan Lowe, Brandon Loughery, Joe Dickerson, and Steven Johnson ofDeloitte’s geospatial practice in Deloitte Financial Advisory Services LLP.Lastly, we would like to thank our GovLab colleagues for supporting a culture of innovationthat encouraged us to think big, and for learning to enjoy the many maps hung about the office. iii
    • A GovLab StudyContents Executive summary | 2 Introduction | 4 Seeing the big picture: Better policymaking with geospatial analytics | 7 Finding a common focus: Improving program delivery with place-based collaboration | 15 Creating a new frame: New models of delivery using location-based data | 22 Putting zoom into practice | 29 Zooming ahead | 33 Endnotes | 34 Contacts | 39 1
    • The Power of Zoom Transforming government through location intelligenceExecutive summary T he power of zoom represents an evolution in the way government sees and interacts with the world. When location data is coupled the challenges of diverse communities across the nation, and design more effective solutions. There is an opportunity for citizens to share with existing government data and expertise, and receive information customized not only every point on the map can provide historical to who they are, but where they are—creat- and predictive perspective to inform complex ing a new paradigm for how government can policy decisions. The map itself has been trans- understand and serve the public. formed from a static picture to a living plat- This report describes how governments form for shared decision making and real-time can apply the following principles of zoom to collaboration, focusing the energy of the crowd transform the way they solve problems: and empowering government and citizens to work together to respond quickly to challenges • Seeing the big picture. Geospatial analysis at any scale. can be a powerful tool for policy makers, Government is the original place-based allowing them to interpret disparate and thinker. The lives of citizens have always been complex data through simple, effective tied to their location—where food was grown, visualizations. The context of place creates how shared resources were managed, and an instant connection among layers of data, what threats to health and safety had to be helping agencies zoom in on the details that monitored and addressed. Today, the nation matter, or zoom out to add context. By har- is still divided into municipalities, cities, and nessing place as a comparison tool, policy states, but it has grown to over 300 million makers can sift through the multiple plau- “mobile” citizens. Governments continue sible causes of a particular issue, like poor to rely on traditional geopolitical borders health outcomes, and better understand the to frame the way their agencies understand challenges unique to a specific place. public policy problems and accordingly, how they deliver services. But borders don’t always • Finding a common focus. The universal tell the complete story. How can government language of location allows diverse stake- agencies understand the challenges, tailor holders to share data, imagery, geo-coded services, and measure outcomes at such scale SMS messages, and traditional geographic and complexity? information systems—in a way everyone Place is again the answer. With the conver- can understand. Through the common gence of emerging geospatial technologies and lens of location, government can become the increasing wealth of location data provided a platform for information sharing across daily by smartphones and sensors embedded in agencies, sectors, and levels of government everything from buildings to buses—the “digi- to focus policymaking and tap into the tal exhaust” created as a byproduct of our daily power of the crowd. lives—government can pursue new models for delivering public services, better understand • Creating a new frame. In the commer- cial world, industry leaders are racing to2
    • A GovLab Study develop new products that tailor informa- tion based on a user’s location and context. Government, too, can use location intel- ligence to design new models for deliver- ing services, translating digital exhaust into value to simplify citizens’ interactions with government services and improve the customer experience. Similarly, agen- cies can use data from physical assets like vehicles, buildings, and devices to increase operating efficiency and better track and monitor performance. Government can start moving forward withthe rapidly evolving capabilities of locationintelligence by assembling the geo-data alreadywithin agencies, and looking beyond programor agency boundaries to the private sectorand citizens. Agencies can address issues ofcitizen and employee privacy by framing ser-vices around value, adapting existing privacyframeworks to make sure that protections areadequate, and ensuring the collection and useof location data are transparent. Place plays a significant role in definingwho we are. The power of zoom helps govern-ment get back to basics, empowering publicservants and the community to work togetherto solve the most pressing problems at anyscale—from issues affecting local communitiesto those that transcend national borders. 3
    • The Power of Zoom Transforming government through location intelligenceIntroduction W e live in an uncertain world, but for many people there’s at least one constant—a hot cup of coffee to start the As the weeks and months passed, an MIT server tracked each object’s path across the country. Interestingly, more than 75 percent morning. At the corner diner, in the lobby of of the objects reached a recycling facility, well an office building or at a drive-thru window, above the national average of 34 percent.1 But that first cup gives us the boost we need to for some, such as a printer cartridge that trav- take on the day. And after that cup is empty, eled almost 4,000 miles to its final resting place we rarely give a second thought to where it’s in Florida, the energy spent in transit probably headed afterward. exceeded the environmental benefit of recy- Carlo Ratti, director of the MIT SENSEable cling. “Trash disposal is one of today’s most City Lab, wanted to find out. So his team of pressing issues,” said Ratti. “Our objective with researchers asked—where does our recy- this project is to reveal the disposal process of cling go? How far does it travel? With several everyday objects, as well as highlight potential volunteers, the team launched the Trash Track inefficiencies in today’s recycling and sanita- project, attaching location sensors to more tion systems.”3 than 3,000 pieces of trash in Seattle. Then, they What are the implications for government waited. And waited. when we can use technology to see what wasMIT Trash Track visualization24
    • A GovLab Studyonce invisible? When sensors are so cheap, wecan literally throw them away? For the Trash Geospatial analytics: Statistical analysis of dataTrack participants, it meant that they could elements that can be tied to a location on, above orgather and use data in a way few would have below the earth’s surfacethought possible, bringing attention to an issuemany of us rarely think about and crafting a Location-based services: Programs or services (suchcompelling visual that couldn’t be ignored. as mobile apps) that deliver information concerning an individual’s specific location “As the location reports from the trackedobjects started coming in, we were fascinated Digital exhaust: Data generated by electronic devicesto see an invisible infrastructure unfold- (such as smartphones and credit card purchases) anding,” said Dietmar Offenhuber, Trash Track physical sensors (such as digital wind and temperature gauges and traffic cameras) that include a locationproject leader. “The extent and complexity ofthe network of waste trajectories was quiteunexpected.”4 The increasing wealth of data provideddaily by smartphones, physical sensors, and delivery of public services. Location-based datathe Internet—the “digital exhaust” created as a can be used to focus the energy of the crowd,byproduct of our daily lives—has given rise to empowering government and citizens to worknew models and opportunities for government together to respond quickly to local disastersto better understand its challenges and design or tackle national problems.more effective solutions. We call this the power of zoom, and it repre- When location data is coupled with other sents an evolution in the way government seesonline resources, every point on the map and interacts with the world. The convergencecan provide valuable intelligence. Emerging of traditional geospatial technologies—oncegeospatial technologies allow us to quickly the province of computer scientists and geog­visualize and find meaning in billions of raphers—and location-based services—whichtransactions, tweets, check-ins, and geotagged allow individuals to receive personalized infor­photos. When combined with existing govern- mation that is relevant to their location at anyment data and expertise, this intelligence can, given point in time on their mobile devices—in turn, help us redefine the way we see and can allow us to visualize the choices we make,understand the world, creating digital pictures the relationships we create, and the impacts ofof the ebb and flow of our societies. A place is our actions.no longer simply a point on a map or a politi- As is often the case with new technologies,cal jurisdiction, but a living, evolving hub of some find these capabilities off-putting or eveninformation, a convergence of digital and phys- sinister. But they don’t have to be. What someical worlds. For government, this new ability to would describe impersonally as “big data”,visualize and understand trends at any location we see as just the opposite. Location-basedoffers a historical and predictive perspective data can be used to create policy at a humanfor policymaking to inform complex deci- scale, allowing decision makers to “zoom” insions about the distribution of resources or the to understand events in our communities anddesign and delivery of public services. zoom out for broader context at the national But the new technology of place can provide and even global scale. By coupling its respon-far more. The map itself has been transformed sibilities with advances in geospatial, sensor,from a static picture to a living platform for and location-based technologies, governmentshared decision making and real-time col- can use the power of zoom to overcome a widelaboration, adding a new dimension to the variety of challenges. 5
    • The Power of Zoom Transforming government through location intelligence • Creating a new frame — examining pub- The report describes how governments can lic- and private-sector approaches to the use apply the principles of zoom to transform the of digital exhaust to develop location-intel- way they solve problems by: ligent services, greatly improving the cost- • Seeing the big picture—using geospatial effectiveness of traditional public services visualization and location analytics to We will also see how agencies can put zoom inform better policymaking into practice by tapping into ecosystems of innovators inside and outside of government, • Finding a common lens—employing place- considering the challenges of privacy, and find- based analysis and geospatial collaboration ing ways to deliver better value in exchange for tools to increase the effectiveness of shared public participation. assets and improve their coordination6
    • A GovLab StudySeeing the big picture:Better policymaking withgeospatial analyticsI n 1854, an outbreak of cholera swept through London’s Soho district, killinghundreds. An anesthesiologist named John Borders worked with Google’s Crisis Response team to address the spread of cholera among survivors of the massive earthquake in Haiti.Snow suspected contaminated water might be By mapping the water system along withthe cause of the disease, but in the absence of patients’ neighborhood of origin, analysts visu-any understanding of alized where outbreaks “germ theory, prevail- were happening ining expertise blamed near real-time, allow- When you start to relate“bad air.” Looking for ing Doctors Withoutevidence, Snow literally activities and people and places to Borders to persuademapped the location each other, you see patterns—and response coordina-of individuals who that’s one of the critical things, tors to prioritize repairdied, and observed areas where outbreaksthat they were mostly so we can start to anticipate were occurring.9,10clustered around problems before they arise, and According tothe intersection of have more of a set of tools we can deputy head of missionBroad and Cambridge in Haiti Ivan Gayton, offer to decision makers.”Streets, the site of the “Maps can be a power-now-infamous Broad —— Keith Barber, Director of the National ful advocacy tool. You System for Geospatial Intelligence ExpeditionaryStreet pump. can convince policy- Architecture Integrated Program Office, Further investiga- National Geospatial Intelligence Agency 5 makers to take actiontion revealed that by showing them dataBroad Street’s water in a visual, visceralcame from a stretch of way.”11the Thames contami- Geospatial analy-nated with sewage, which we now understand sis is far more than dots on a map. It can beto be the principal means of cholera transmis- a powerful tool for policymakers, allowingsion. Snow’s arguments led to the removal of them to interpret disparate and complex datathe pump handle—and a precipitous drop in through simple, effective visualizations. Thethe rate of cholera infection. 8 context of place creates an instant connec- Almost 160 years later, the international tion among layers of data, prompting users tomedical relief organization Doctors Without dig deeper and come up with questions they 7
    • The Power of Zoom Transforming government through location intelligence John Snow’s map of cholera deaths near the Broad Street Pump6 Google/Doctors Without Borders map of near real-time cholera cases in Haiti78
    • A GovLab Studymight have never thought to ask. Public policy environmental impacts on minority and low-problems often involve multiple layers of com- income populations.12plexity. What causes banks to fail in one region Create immediate context. Maps provide aand not in another? Where should we send powerful way to organize massive amounts ofpolice officers to stop a wave of gang violence? data around a common attribute or location,Why is a certain group of people afflicted with and provide a starting point for conversationa disease, while only a few miles away no one about many tough decisions with citizensis sick? and other government stakeholders. In New Geospatial visualization and analytics move York City, the Mayor’s Office and Columbiapolicy analysis out of spreadsheets and onto University partnered to develop a digital modelthe map, allowing government to zoom in and that shows how practically every buildingout, seeing multiple factors at a single glance, in the city consumes energy, distinguishingand better understanding how different char- among heating, lighting, and other purposes.13acteristics relate to one other—and to place. Seeing the relationship between energy use and community design can help policymakers and the public alike understand how energyFour uses for geospatial analytics: usage relates to social and environmental1. arness place as a comparative tool H factors. Such information can help property managers and private owners share resources2. rive accountability D among buildings or blocks, and enable city3. ove from prescription to prediction M leaders to target the best locations for different4. ethink boundaries R types of alternative energy generation. Highlight differences to drive innovation. Place-based comparisons are particularly use-1. Harness place as a ful to showcase the variance in factors such ascomparative tool availability, cost, and the quality of services. Healthcare is ripe for this kind of analysis. As with the London cholera outbreak, pre- Our access to affordable health care, treatmentvailing wisdom doesn’t always reveal the root outcomes, and even patterns of disease varycause of a problem. Geospatial visualization widely by geographic location, even acrosshelps us sift through multiple, plausible causes relatively similar regions.of some of the toughest public policy problems, The Dartmouth Atlas Project displaysseeing surprising and unexpected correlations health data across 306 US hospital referralamong different information. regions on factors involving costs and quality, If some characteristics are held constant, allowing users to question and explore geo-such as demographics, per capita funding, graphic variations in health statistics.14and regulatory structures, place can providea strong base for comparison. Policymakerscan zoom in to see why some programs andprojects thrive in one place and fail else- Elements of place-based comparisonwhere. Consider basic environmental issues; • Demographics: Age, gender, incomewe live under the same clean air and water • Infrastructure: Transit, land uselaws, yet environmental protection obviouslyis not uniformly effective across the nation. • Geography: Natural resources, threatsPolicymakers can use geospatial tools to iden- • Public assets: Government facilities, resourcestify and mitigate disproportionately adverse • Administration: Regulations, tax code 9
    • The Power of Zoom Transforming government through location intelligence For example, what drives regional variations most vulnerable to climate change, and under- in the cost of prescription drugs purchased stand how to target aid more effectively.18 through Medicare? Geographic analysis indi- cates that these variations are due primarily to 2. Drive accountability regional restrictions on the use of generic drugs. By easing restrictions on generic drugs The open data movement is fostering more in high-cost areas, policy makers can reduce accountability in government at all levels, by overall Medicare costs.15 enabling citizens to ask informed questions Find mismatches faster. The misalignment about decision making and performance. of the supply and demand for government Geospatial platforms are especially useful services is perhaps inevitable, given compet- in this arena, highlighting “who and where” ing priorities, political mandates, and popula- impacts to defend or oppose current policy— tion shifts.16 But such or expose waste or “ misalignment isn’t political favoritism. always readily appar- Climate change poses One example of this ent, and what begins as an enormous threat to the is Recovery.gov, an a small problem may online public platform not be noticed until livelihoods of millions of that tracks where a major investment Africans. The level of risk, money from the 2009 is required to fix it. A however, is not evenly spread American Recovery study of local health and Reinvestment Act and certainly doesn’t respect departments in several (ARRA) was dis- states found that low- national boundaries. To ask tributed in a simple cost, publicly available critical questions about how visual format.20 geographic informa- development assistance can The platform not tion systems (GIS) data only helped inform the could allow their staff reduce vulnerability, you need public, but also cre- to compare popula- hyperlocal data on climate and ated an expectation of tion distributions with also on aid-funded interventions. accountability for the the location of health ultimate recipients of This is what the new CCAPS facilities, identifying ARRA funds. Grantees gaps between pro- mapping tool shows in a knew their information grams and community digestible, interactive way.” would be published as health needs. 17 soon as it was col- —— Jean-Louis Sarbib, CEO, Development Gateway19 See the big picture lected, giving them an to monitor change. incentive to provide Some policy challenges more precise data in a require us to zoom out and consider regional timely fashion. or environmental problems. For example, White House chief administrator of ARRA researchers from the Climate Change and Ed DeSeve noted, “Through this platform African Political Stability Program (CCAPS) we were able to bring together data from 200 at the University of Texas at Austin are using business units in 40 agencies across 50 states, geospatial analysis to identify and possibly mit- and present it in a way that speaks to people igate political instability that may result from interested in a specific geographic area. It was climate change. By layering climate, popula- also helpful for a defensive posture—we were tion, conflict, and foreign aid data on a map, able to respond to critics, minimize fraud and policymakers can better predict the regions geo-audit recipients.”10
    • A GovLab StudyUsing recovery.gov to identify and compare funding for job training programs by states with the highest unemployment rates21 11
    • The Power of Zoom Transforming government through location intelligence 3. Move from prescription 4. Rethink boundaries to prediction Governments must look beyond tradi- tional jurisdiction lines to address some One of the most fascinating aspects of of today’s most complex policy chal- location-based data is the stability and pre- lenges. Environmental effects, for instance, dictability of patterns that can be mined from pay no attention to political boundaries. seemingly unrelated data. A cluster of random Transportation networks cross state lines, and dots on a map can represent a daily transporta- many people may live in one congressional dis- tion route, the most popular dating spots, or trict yet work in another. Our social networks the neighborhoods with the highest concentra- are even less constrained, with Facebook and tion of gang violence. These patterns, analyzed YouTube connecting individuals around the over time and in large numbers, begin to allow world to act upon a single issue. for informed predictions of behaviors and Geospatial analysis not only helps us events. For government, this analytical capabil- examine issues within traditional, geopolitical ity enables better resource allocation and more boundaries, but also those that blur the lines, effective outcomes.22 encouraging decision makers to consider social Chicago’s chief data officer Brett Goldstein as well as political characteristics and rethink is attempting to prevent violent crimes in the the role of boundaries in policymaking. city before they happen. Goldstein’s predictive Understanding how people move, where analytics unit runs spatial algorithms on 911 they interact, and what services they need call data to identify where and when violent allows government to rethink several basic crimes or robberies are most likely to happen. dimensions of its role: As Goldstein puts it, “Different parts of the city behave in predictable ways—beyond a city of • Resource allocation—where to deploy neighborhoods, Chicago is a city of blocks, and assets, personnel, or funding for health, these blocks are part of an ecosystem. We can transport, and economic development create mathematical models with this ecosys- tem that are statistically significant, and give us • Communication—how to reach a tar- leading indicators for when an expected level get demographic concerning a particular of a given behavior is likely to happen.”23 issue such as obesity, or in the event of Advances in predictive analytics using an emergency location-based data are emerging across sev- eral frontiers. Researchers at Carnegie Mellon • Coordination—when to combine resources University are developing a statistical tool that with other agencies or private or nonprofit combines electronic health records, tweets, entities to aid a specific population and other information with spatial analysis, In the commercial world, particularly for to translate large amounts of social data into retailers, this sort of analysis is critical. The patterns that could identify epidemics or other ideal site for a new store relies far more on health trends.24 Similarly, a UK team found purchasing power, customer drive times, and that by cross-referencing an individual’s loca- consumer preferences than political boundar- tion data with that of their friends, the team ies. It also broadens the frame of reference was able to predict where that person would be from traditional demographic characteristics 24 hours later, within 20 meters.25 such as gender, age, and income to consider “tribes” that share common behaviors and decision patterns. Understand shared characteristics. The practice of identifying groups with shared12
    • A GovLab Studycharacteristics based on their location is a tech- Australian market into 15 “geoTribes” to targetnique called micro-segmentation, which breaks its online advertising.27down 70,000+ US Census tracts into several See the social connections. Researchersconsumer segments. Esri, one company with at Carnegie Mellon have added social mediasuch data, defines these segments with catchy to the mix, mining data from 18 millionnames such as “wealthy seaboard suburbs,” Foursquare check-ins to redraw neighbor-“rustbelt retirees,” and “city strivers.”26 Such hoods in several cities based on check-indesignations help retailers target their core patterns.28 Branding these areas as “livehoods,”customers and ensure that their target demo- the team hopes its information can be used tographic finds their locations and products. For improve city planning, transportation services,example, Internet giant eBay has divided its and public health surveillance.29 Problems addressed with geospatial analytics: • Make sense of scale and complexity. In the last 30 years, the US population has risen by more than 40 percent to more than 300 million people, straining policies and infrastructure.30 Geospatial analytics can help government to understand the complex relationships underlying policy issues, and use place as a comparative tool to gain understanding from disparate data sources. • Support more open and accountable government. Americans’ trust in government to solve big problems is at an all-time low, due in part to a lack of evidence as to whether current policies are working.31 By using geospatial platforms to share government data, agencies can connect with the public in a more transparent manner. • Move beyond assumptions and generalizations. Agencies’ missions have been stretched by shifting priorities, as governments struggle to get in front of key challenges. With place- based thinking, organizations can use the predictive power of spatial data to overcome emerging challenges. • Look beyond “borders” to increase collaboration. Today’s complex challenges are not neatly contained within county or state lines. Geospatial analysis can help government to better visualize mismatches between the supply of public services and citizen demand, and to rethink borders to create a richer context for designing policy interventions.32 13
    • The Power of Zoom Transforming government through location intelligence Then and now: The impact of location intelligence and the power of zoom 33-40 1854 John snowtomapped the London cholera outbreak find the water pump at the TODAY Snow’s taskofcould beHealth experts the power zoom. easier with source of the contamination, for which he’s become can combine the digital exhaust from mobile devices known as the “father of epidemiology.” But his work and physical sensors with geospatial technology to was limited by the technology of the time: respond faster and more effectively: John Snow’s map of cholera A 2011 map of London made up of geotagged deaths in London,1854 tweets and photos LONDON Snow’s work Researchers depended on can visualize mapping deaths leading indicators after the fact, and of an outbreak by Capturing correlating that insight from tapping information with the pump where geospatial data into the600 5 billion+ geotagged they got their water. daily transactions, million such as increased medication sales. daily Foursquare 2 Snow walked through the Soho check-ins neighborhood of London to collect Drawing a Geotagged social data information, interviewing the new map with provides health experts billion social data families of those who succumbed with information directly from users. monthly location- to the disease. tagged Facebook actions 50 Since Snow predated scientific With environmental understanding of bacterial diseases, he sensors in the air and Tapping into had to convince city officials that the environmental water, health officials could pump was the source of the data measure contamination billion contamination. Prevailing wisdom of public water sources blamed the city’s “bad air.” in real-time. connections to the web by 2020 Working with only a single Health experts can use a mobile app to customize information 74% companion, Reverend Henry Harnessing Whitehead, Snow had to place-based based on location. collaboration rely on his own efforts and of U.S. smartphone owners expertise to solve the outbreak. use location-based services14
    • A GovLab StudyFinding a common focus:Improving program deliverywith place-based collaborationM any are familiar with Ushahidi, the online mapping platform that crowd-sources information, and its role in the comprehensive and up-to-date information available to the humanitarian community.44 At the same time, other volunteers usedresponse to the 2010 earthquake in Haiti. What before-and-after satellite imagery freelyis unique about this case, however, is that it provided by commercial vendors to makedemonstrates how crowdsourced mapping hundreds of edits to OpenStreetMap, a freeplatforms have perma- and open wiki-stylenently changed the way mapping platform, “in which governments literally putting Port-and people can interact Place-based management au-Prince on thein times of crisis. promotes decision making that map (see inset).45 In Within days of isn’t bound by programs, or a matter of hours, thethe earthquake, and city was transformedwith little assistance funding streams, or departmental from a couple offrom any government, structures, but brings all of those highways to a thicketa text message from together in the same room to of narrow streets anda survivor could be communities, creating embrace context and leveragegeo-located, translated the baseline layer forfrom Haitian Creole, the resources available across sharing the Ushahidiput on the map via the the board.” information.46 By theUshahidi crisis-map- time urban search and —— Raphael Bostic, former Deputy Administrator, USping team, and routed Department of Housing and Urban Development41 rescue teams arrivedto first responders in from the Unitedless than 10 minutes. 43 States, one responderWithin the first week from Fairfax County,the team received more than 20,000 messages Virginia, commented that he only wished hethat were filtered and mapped along with the had a way to express how valuable this data islocations of makeshift hospitals, shelters, and for responders.47potable water sources. Ten days after the earth- The Haiti response demonstrated the powerquake, US Federal Emergency Management of place-based information. The Ushahidi mapAgency (FEMA) administrator Craig Fugate was developed quickly, outside the administra-tweeted that Ushahidi’s map was the most tive barriers of government, and took advan- tage of the skills and passion of volunteers. The 15
    • The Power of Zoom Transforming government through location intelligence The intersection of sensor technology, imagery, data mining, and web-based platforms creates new opportunities for government to share place-based information among agencies and with the public and other stakeholders across a wide range of policy issues.49 At this intersec- tion lies tremendous opportunity for collabo- ration where government itself can be used as a platform and its employees are perpetually location-aware. Four uses for place-based collaboration:Port-au-Prince on OpenStreetMap before the earthquake42 1. se government as a platform U 2. ocus the power of the crowd F 3. llocate resources with location data A 4. se location intelligence in U daily operations 1. Use government as a platform50 Though many government agencies may take longer to adapt to new technologies or opportunities, they are uniquely poised to marshal and coordinate significant amounts ofPort-au-Prince on OpenStreetMap after the earthquake42 data, resources, and expertise. The ubiquity of mobile devices means that maps and contex- universal language of location allowed diverse tual data will become a fundamental unit for stakeholders to share data, imagery, geo- information sharing.51 To accelerate the deliv- coded SMS messages, and traditional GIS—in ery of smarter, faster (and possibly cheaper) a way everyone could understand. Perhaps services, government should become a plat- even more significantly, Ushahidi allowed the form for information sharing between internal survivors to use their mobile devices to fill in and external stakeholders, with geospatial data the gaps and define the areas of greatest need as the centerpiece. across a large geographic area, not just a couple Reduce barriers with a “geo-cloud.” of blocks. Geospatial data also made crowd- Effective platforms provide data to many sourced information easier to validate; if sev- audiences and are scalable to accommodate eral voices called for help in a specific area and new information and technologies. Geospatial reported the same details, there probably was data stored in the cloud can allow government a significant need there. In fact, Ushahidi data agencies to better understand what their coun- since has become part of the United Nations’ terparts are doing for a specific population official situational reports.48 or target area, and can help pave the way for The usefulness of these technologies, better coordination of programs and services. however, extends well beyond crisis scenarios. Cloud-based storage also can incorporate16
    • A GovLab Studynon-governmental data sets; for example, a 2. Focus the power of the crowdhealth and human services agency could com- While geospatial analysis may have oncebine its own historical health-related data with been the province of internal experts withinhousing statistics from another agency, and government, agencies can focus on buildingthen layer in geotagged social media data and and sustaining a community of developers andnews reports to pinpoint where the next round contributors outside government’s walls.of flu is most likely to emerge. Engage the “geo crowd.” One way to build The federal government has taken steps such a community is to launch a competi-towards creating a shared platform for geospa- tion or challenge that is fun for participantstial data. In the wake of the 2010 Deepwater while furthering a larger public policy goal.Horizon disaster in the Gulf of Mexico, federal, Policymakers may be surprised by how will-state, and local agencies learned how difficult it ing citizens are to lend their time to mappingwas to share geospatial data across their servers projects, if the process is enjoyable.and maps. To enable such collaboration, the For example, the US Agency forFederal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) International Development (USAID) recentlyis working to create a one-stop portal for map- turned to the crowd to geocode internationalping efforts, offering a web-based interface that loan guarantee information. A group of vol-allows users to share maps and data layers with unteers from the online mapping communityone other, as well as with the public.52 rose to the challenge, resulting in the release Encourage external innovators to build of data on more than 117,000 loan records aton government geo-data. Private citizens no additional cost to the agency.56 Motivatedand organizations should be encouraged to by passion for USAID’s mission and a desireadd details or build useful apps for govern- to make the data available for public use, thesement geo-platforms. Consider Foursquare’s individuals turned their private time intonew Connected Apps framework, which public value. NASA also recently experimentedhelps third parties add information on top of with crowdsourcing, using “gamification” tocheck-in data. For example, if you check in at reward participants with points or badges fora restaurant, a diet-related app might suggest identifying scientifically relevant content onappropriate meals, while a social app could maps of the sea floor, a process that might betell you if any of your friends have eaten there, used in the future to quickly map features ofand if they left any comments.53 The parallel asteroids or planets, including our own.57for government is obvious; many apps have Such challenges reveal the power of place toalready been built with government data, from engage the public. Connection to the agency’shealth service locators to navigational aids for mission, a particular geographic area, or anational parks.54 specific population can turn activities that are The city of Chicago, for instance, added fun and fulfilling for citizens into meaningfuldetail to the US Department of Agriculture’s contributions for government.Food Desert Locator map, which shows areas Use commercial partners. The private sectorwith limited access to healthy foods. By layer- can play a valuable role as a data provider, anding city-level data down to the block level, pol- as a partner in solving public-sector challenges.icy makers can pinpoint specific underserved The employee and store location networks ofneighborhoods and use the data to negotiate the nation’s largest corporations represent awith grocery stores regarding site selection, or wealth of potential sensor data, as does thestrategically locate farmers’ markets in areas sophisticated asset intelligence that informsthat need them most.55 modern supply-chain operations and logistics. FEMA has begun embedding executives from large retailers like Target and Walmart 17
    • The Power of Zoom Transforming government through location intelligence into its national operations and response cen- 3. Allocate resources ter for 90-day periods, to facilitate information with location data sharing.58 For example, retailers can share what stores are open or closed during a disaster, A more traditional role for geospatial analy- or show inventory levels of certain products sis in government has been in deciding where such as plywood in advance of a hurricane to to locate fixed resources such as transporta- understand how people are preparing, or what tion systems, hospitals, or public spaces like needs will be greatest after the event. FEMA parks and playgrounds. Much of our current hopes eventually to develop a map of major infrastructure, however, is located based on retailers’ status across the country, and share decisions made decades ago. Today, we can this information with state and local response take advantage of geospatial analysis to make teams during disasters. smarter decisions about where and how to Empower the most vulnerable. The invest scarce resources in ways that are sustain- crowd can make huge able and supported by “ impacts with geospa- the public. tial analysis, without Use complex [S]ensors, smartphones, expensive technol- technologies to enable ogy. Tandale is a slum tablets and collaboration simple analyses. New of between 50,000 platforms will be as geospatial tools allow and 70,000 people transformative of business in the for more sophisti- crammed into less than cated analyses, using one square mile on 2010s as the Internet and the Web multiple layers of data the periphery of Dar browser were in the 1990s. To to compare potential es Salaam, Tanzania. cite two far-reaching examples, scenarios and make Until very recently, it decisions that con- electronic medical records are literally wasn’t even sider the impact to on the map. Over the changing the way hospitals diverse stakeholders course of two months, conduct healthcare, while smart and constituencies. a team from the World meters are transforming the way One example is Bank trained com- Azavea, a geospatial munity members that utilities track and manage software firm that to use inexpensive, demand for electricity.” develops collaborative, global positioning —— Forrester report, “Smart Computing Connects open-source applica- system (GPS)-enabled CIOs With The Business,” March 28, 2012 62 tions to help decision phones to photograph makers and the public and geotag places of visualize and under- interest for the community (such as public stand the impact of public policy decisions.61 toilets, water sources, medical bases, and From collaborative political redistricting to the elementary school) and upload the data targeting the optimal location for new urban to OpenStreetMap. 59 street trees, these types of emerging geospatial Equipped with this infrastructure data, solutions can quickly crunch thousands of residents of Tandale are currently in conversa- variables in a way that many stakeholders can tions with their local government to garner understand. Citizens and policy makers are additional public services. In addition, the empowered to “drag and drop” each new idea community set up a Ushahidi-based site, to assess the impact, making resource alloca- Ramani Tandale, which allows residents to tion decisions more collaborative and data- report flooding, broken street lamps, and driven than ever before. other issues. 6018
    • A GovLab Study4. Use location intelligence Problems addressed with place-based collaborationin daily operations • Use location data to address duplication and The usefulness of location intelligence isn’t overlap. Today’s challenges require governmentslimited to strategic decision making. Place- to coordinate and connect services acrossbased information can be incorporated into jurisdictional lines.64 Without such coordination,daily government operations to improve the service delivery can be disjointed, inconsistent,delivery of programs and services. Take the and ineffective. The US Government Accountability Office (GAO) reports often highlight fragmentedcase of a safety inspector: service delivery due to a lack of common goals or formal data sharing and collaboration • Contextual data—Via her smartphone agreements.65 Place-based coordination and or tablet, the inspector is prepared for analysis within a geospatial platform can improve her daily site visits with directions, over- government coordination and make service view information, and related community delivery more efficient and effective. statistics. For each site, she has profiles of the individuals she will meet, verified • Fill in “blind spots” for better decision making. The United States includes more than 3,100 by whether they have checked into work counties and 19,000 municipalities, each with that morning. its own unique issues.66 Large federal initiatives may not account for local or regional facts on • Location-based notation—Upon arrival, the ground. Governments can create more push notifications provide notes from pre- effective policies by sharing information through vious inspections about particular prob- a cloud-based platform, and looking to public and private partners to help fill in the “blind spots” in lem areas at each site, including pictures their analyses. and resulting action items assigned to the facility. • Accelerate the collection of useful information. Important decisions should be based on the • Augmented reality and internal naviga- best available data. Despite the explosion in digital exhaust from the worldwide spread of tion—As she walks through a site, her smartphones, official information can be outdated device alerts her to areas tagged as prob- or take too long to collect and deliver to decision lems in the past, indicates that this particu- makers. Consider, for instance, that the data used lar site seems to lack necessary supplies, to measure progress toward the UN’s Millennium and offers data about conditions in similar Development Goals is from 2008 or before, facilities to help start conversations with and thus fails to account for the impacts of the global financial crisis. Meaningful geotagged individuals at the site. data, assembled by government workers or the This scenario isn’t at all far from reality. affected populations themselves, can accelerateThe US Department of Veterans Affairs is in the collection of information needed to supportthe process of installing a real-time location decision making.67system for its hospital assets ranging from • Move past big data as a buzzword. Data issurgical instruments to patients’ beds, designed constantly generated via interactions betweento improve efficiency and patient safety. government and citizens—filling out forms,Through the use of radio frequency identifica- completing transactions, and conducting sitetion (RFID) tags and barcodes, employees can visits are just a few examples. The potentiallocate equipment in real-time, monitor inven- of big data lies in tying all of this information together in a useful way. Because each interactiontory levels, and ensure sensitive equipment is possesses location metadata (such as addressesbeing housed within the right temperature and and coordinates), place becomes the lens throughhumidity ranges.63 which employees can access contextualized real- time information, translating big data from zeros and ones into better quality services. 19
    • The Power of Zoom Transforming government through location intelligence The landscape of Satellite imagery location-based data: Opportunities for government to collect digital exhaust 10 01010 10 10 1 Smart dev 10 10 01010 10 10 1 Soil sensor 10 IPv6 tech Expanding th unique addre Tra Livestock sensors Pho road Traffic sensors Public works Technologies accelerating the use of location intelligence Accelerator ‘Smart’ devices Sensors Cloud storage Ma Impact Mobile devices that can detect Sensors provide constant data Cloud-based storage allows for the By ‘learnin location, direction and movement, collection about our physical and collection, scaling and processing of data, comp enabling context-based interaction natural infrastructure, offering a vast amounts of location data, and new data t between government and citizens vibrant picture of trends across a enables geo-data sharing patterns th range of data sources Today Geotagged tweets and text messages Cities can monitor and track air Agencies share geo-data on a Law enforc are used to connect with citizens quality to inform better regulations common platform predictive Tomorrow Government uses geofencing to Government can trace contaminated Real-time data from millions of Unstructur push information to individuals food to its source immediately, and sources are securely available instant ins based on location even predict an outbreak anywhere, anytime20
    • A GovLab Study COFFEE SHOP Water quality sensors HOSPITALvices Machine learning Health & location data POLICE Predictive policinghnology Indoor navigationhe number ofess connectionsansportation sensors Cloud-based sharingone sensors transmit d problems Mass transitachine learning Remote imagery BIM/CAD/GIS integration IPv6 technologyng’ from historical spatial A blend of commercial and govern- The integration of Building Informa- Internet Protocol Version 6 will puter algorithms can scan ment satellites, planes and drones tion Modeling, Computer Aided expand the number of unique to identify anomalies and provide a near real-time picture of Design and Geographic Information addresses on the Internet,hat yield predictive insight the changing conditions on the Systems enables analysis inside and improving geolocation Earth’s surface outside of structuresrcement can create Imagery provides awareness about Site planners and inspectors use Road signs, utilities and other models for violent crimes events like natural disasters, migra- GIS and building specifications to infrastructure are connected to tion patterns and foreign conflicts perform more uniform evaluations the Internetred social data becomes More granular imagery allows for Directions continue seamlessly from Emergency managers rapidly assesssight for policy makers remote monitoring of public outdoors to inside buildings damage using data points from infrastructure to predict future needs thousands of inanimate objects 21
    • The Power of Zoom Transforming government through location intelligenceCreating a new frame:New models of deliveryusing location-based data P reviously, we observed how digital exhaust assisted recovery efforts in Haiti, both through visualization and collaboration. a research fellow at Harvard Medical School. “Informal sources like Twitter are obviously much more real-time.”71 But there is a third aspect to this example—the Similarly, another research team tracked the power of digital signals as a force multiplier, position of 1.9 million cell phones owned by to make big impacts even with relatively small people living in Port-au-Prince, and com- amounts of data. pared their location 42 days before the quake Several months after the cholera outbreak to 158 days after. The analysis showed that that followed the Haitian earthquake, a team 630,000 people fled, more than 20 percent of of health researchers the population, closely “ mined Twitter traf- matching numbers fic and news stories It’s not only infrastructure and from an official UN from the first 100 days centralized sensing networks— survey.72 Through a after the outbreak to real-time study during search for correlations the greatest sensor network out the cholera outbreak, with official reports.69 there is the people themselves. It’s the team was able to After collecting almost some kind of ambient sensing, the show updated popula- 200,000 tweets and tion movements within wisdom of the crowd. You don’t close to 5,000 news 12 hours. Such data reports mentioning need to call 311, you just have to could be used to find cholera in English, complain about it.” survivors and direct French, or Spanish, the resources to where —— John Tolva, Chief Technology team found a strong Officer, City of Chicago68 they are needed, connection between and to model how geolocated chatter populations react in about cholera and the actual times and loca- emergency situations for future responses to tions of outbreaks. humanitarian crises. While official reports took days or weeks, Location intelligence can help government this information could have been available understand problems in new ways, and design almost immediately.70 “Official case reports new models for delivering services that rely have to get verified by hospitals, so it often on these insights. To take advantage of these takes a couple of weeks for that information capabilities, we must identify and collect new to be posted and available to health workers,” types of spatial data and translate them into said Dr. Rumi Chunara, the study’s author and useful information. In the commercial world,22
    • A GovLab Studyseveral industry leaders—Google, Apple, This will become increasingly important asAmazon—are already competing in a location- government agencies attempt to “app-ify” theirbased “arms race” to develop products tailored services. For example, the White House’s newto users’ location and context (see inset box). Digital Government Strategy directs agencies The public sector can benefit as well. Armed to optimize certain customer-facing serviceswith this additional data, governments can within six months, and many of them will takebetter accomplish their missions, create new the form of mobile apps.76,77models for service delivery, and use the power Create a mechanism to collect meta-data.of the public to develop solutions. To get the right data into the hands of the pub- lic requires government to understand what information it wants and needs. Data sourcesFour ways location-based data can power that public agencies can use include:new models: • Direct citizen data—Many agency websites1. ranslate signals into value T already collect web analytics indicating2. ather asset intelligence G what users are searching for.78 User ana-3. esign geo-intelligent programs D lytics go a step further to capture where people are located while searching, whether4. se place-based thinking to redefine U “public” services on a computer or mobile device or at a public kiosk. By correlating search data with particular locations, agencies can tailor search results to improve access to their1. Translate signals into value information or services. The challenge involved in using digitalexhaust is to find value within the terabytes of • Indirect citizen data—Data from publicdatasets produced every hour. Location analyt- sources such as social media are pub-ics offer a means of viewing current trends licly available, and in many cases alreadyin real-time, in a way that keeps the public in geolocated. Chicago is looking to Twitterfocus, allows agencies to ask new questions, to reinvent the way it identifies problemsand begins to yield new insights. involving city services. By establishing aThe location-based “arms race”The commercial battle for location-based service supremacy is heating up. Apple recently announced itsown mapping application for the iPhone and iPad, complete with turn-by-turn navigation from TomTom,replacing a service provided by Google since the release of the first iPhone. There is a strong businesscase for Apple; other products like Siri would benefit from learning users’ locations, destinations, andlocal search habits, data currently valued by Google to target advertising. Google responded by releasingits own set of new mapping features, including Google Now, which uses location tracking to anticipatewhat users might search for (such as transit routes or local dining options), and an updated Google Earthwith 3D imagery of major cities that Google collected with its own fleet of planes.Both giants are primed to invest significant resources in location-based services. By some estimates,Google already spends between $500 million and $1 billion annually on map-related services, up to afifth of its total R&D budget.73 Other players also are getting involved. Microsoft incorporates mappingand navigation powered by Navteq in its new devices, while Amazon recently acquired a small mappingcompany for possible inclusion on future Amazon-branded mobile devices.74,75 23
    • The Power of Zoom Transforming government through location intelligence “geofence” around parts of the city to focus current wait times, pushed to his or her mobile the intake of social media, analysts can col- device without prompting. Through mobile lect data, anonymize identity, and classify apps and other opt-in services, individuals the information for action by the appropri- could receive personally tailored information ate city department. For example, a tweet simply because they’ve entered a “geofence” set stating that “on the bus from loop 2 Wrigley up by an agency. Simpler interactions, custom- and AC has totally died” could trigger a ized data—these services have the potential service request to assess and repair the bus’s to greatly improve the individual’s customer air conditioning.79 experience with government. • Employee interaction—Government can reduce the administrative “friction” of 2. Gather asset intelligence manually entering performance data by Agencies also can use signals from fixed capturing geotagged reports from govern- resources including vehicles, buildings, and ment employees as the task is happening. other devices and infrastructure to increase For example, postal delivery drivers can operating efficiency and better monitor record the most efficient routes or indicate performance. Advances in RFID and GPS when a property appears vacant. technology have increased resolution to Each of these forms of data collection is millimeter-level positioning, creating new possible today, and new technologies offer opportunities for innovation.82 The era of “GPS the potential for even more detailed report- everywhere” allows agencies to visualize rela- ing. One example is Geoloqi, a platform that tionships and collect information in previously blends geofencing, location analytics, and unimagined ways. other services to create reports of consumer For example, governments can structure behavior.80 By framing services around this agreements with automobile companies to level of “hyperdetail,” founder Amber Case make the roads safer for drivers. Many newer- envisions an easier, more efficient world where model cars come fully wired to connect to the “smartphone becomes a remote control for the Internet, and their manufacturers can, for reality.”81 instance, learn when and where airbags are Consider, for instance, a citizen walking deployed to determine whether the driver has into a post office or approaching an airport been in an accident.83 Similarly, transportation security checkpoint and receiving helpful officials could mine geotagged antilock brake information, such as hours of operation or activation data to better locate roadway signs warning motorists of upcoming hazards, or use in-car navigation systems to alert driv- ers of upcoming road closures or accidents.84Location analytics terminology In fact, Honda’s Internavi system was used to facilitate recovery efforts following the March• User analytics: Correlating location metadata with 2011 earthquake and tsunami in Japan by pin- an individual’s current activity pointing where roads were damaged based on• Geofence: A digital boundary for grouping automobile movement patterns.85 location-based data Another opportunity lies in better track-• Dwell time: Amount of time a user spends in a ing critical items, as in the case of food safety. particular location By creating simple interaction points along• Social sharing: Amount of social data the user is the supply chain with barcode scanners, RFID generating (tweets, posts) in a place tags, or QR codes, inspectors could quickly learn the origin of a specific shipment in the24
    • A GovLab Studycase of food-borne sickness or other contami- the agency came up with the FCC Mobilenation. When a juice company recently found Broadband Test app for Android and iPhone.88traces of a particular chemical fungicide, the The result? “We had millions of data pointsUS Food and Drug Administration halted come back to us,” said VanRoekel. “It costall shipments of orange juice into the coun- something like $50,000 to build this wholetry until it could complete an investigation.87 infrastructure in apps. There were questionsLocation data could provide a much clearer about the data quality… but what we noticedand more accurate way to trace the problem was that by looking at different points of datafruit back to the and starting to build relationships between theoriginal farm. points… you could start to get a really mean- ingful map put together. As a decision metric,3. Design geo- it was pretty powerful. And it was super low cost.”89intelligent programs Agencies can take advantage of the data The blend of new digital signals and the collection power of employees or citizens,tools to process them whether as volun-creates opportuni- teers or in exchange “ties for government for some perceivedto rethink the way it Thinking about the citizens value (such as theapproaches traditional first is where the government broadband app, whichproblems. Geo- used to be. Today we’re more showed users theirintelligent programs Internet speed). Thiscan create a new professional then ever, but people kind of experimenta-framework for collect- have more faith in governement. tion can be useful foring data and shaping People don’t care if it takes two tracking things suchstrategy in a way that as the effectiveness of days or two and half days to fixsaves public dollars and healthcare interven-delivers better results. a pothole, they care that it gets tions and new field Test out new done, and they care that they’re office locations.services with “geo- heard.” Use a blend ofpilots.” In 2010, active and passive datathe the US Federal —— Nigel Jacob, Co-Founder, Mayor’s Office collection. Many are of New Urban Mechanics, City of Boston86Communications familiar with 311 apps,Commission (FCC) which allow users,began rolling out a for instance, to take anational map to identify regions of the country picture of a pothole or some graffiti and submitwith access to broadband. To validate cover- it to the city for repair. But what if you didn’tage and broadband-speed data collected from even have to ask? The Boston Mayor’s Office ofInternet providers, the FCC’s then-managing New Urban Mechanics is taking advantage ofdirector (now Federal CIO) Steve VanRoekel sensor technologies in most new smartphonesfirst considered assigning the task to a contrac- to passively sense potholes.tor but was deterred by the price tag and lim- The application, called Street Bump, runsited geographic coverage available. A second in the background while users drive down theoption, installing sensors on every postal truck, road. Data about road conditions are col-also was shot down because of cost. Instead, lected via the phone’s accelerometer (the same technology that turns the screen sideways 25
    • The Power of Zoom Transforming government through location intelligence when you tilt the phone). With every bump, work of government employees voluntarily. signals are captured, geotagged, and uploaded This is exactly what happened with Boston’s to a database that aggregates the bumps felt by Adopt-a-Hydrant program.92 During a Boston all users. The result is a map of Boston’s bumpy winter, piles of snow can make it difficult to roadways that helps direct public works crews navigate the narrow streets of the old city. to the worst stretches receiving the most traf- Enter Erik Michaels-Ober, a fellow with Code fic.90 Before the app, work crews drove around for America. The interactive map platform he in pickup trucks dragging heavy chains to created allows citizens to “adopt” a hydrant measure vibration, costing the city $200,000 (and even name it!) and volunteer to clear each year. Street Bump, by contrast, was devel- snow from around it, freeing city workers for oped with a one-time expense of $80,000—and other tasks. some battery life from citizens on their way The city plans to expand this program to to work.91 other infrastructure, and the local government of Honolulu has copied it with an “adopt a 4. Use place-based thinking tsunami siren” program.93 Rethink service delivery through disruptive to redefine “public” services innovation. Many people are familiar with food When government sets out to solve big trucks, but what if government services were problems, most solutions require an invest- no longer tied to brick-and-mortar spaces? ment in new personnel or new equipment. Two companies, Hello Health and Sherpaa, But what if location data could be used to are redefining the way individuals engage reduce such expenditures? A combination of with healthcare providers.94 Created by Dr. Jay place-based thinking and creative problem Parkinson, these platforms allow doctors and solving can allow government agencies to tap patients to interact in person and online out- the resources of the whole community to solve side the standard confines of a doctor’s office. challenges without big investments. And people are signing on to this approach— Put public works up for “adoption.” within the first month, his Hello Health site Consider a scenario where members of the received 7 million hits.95 Changing the loca- public might fight over the chance to do the tion constraints of health delivery, powered byNew solutions built with location-based data• Asthmapolis: Through a GPS tracker inserted in asthma inhalers, this app maps and tracks symptoms and potential triggers for attacks, letting users review trends.98• Avego: This app allows drivers to find people to share rides in their cars, helping to address road congestion while cutting their own costs.99• Satellite Sentinel: This public-private partnership, made famous with support from George Clooney, uses satellite imagery to draw attention to violence in the Sudanese border region.100• The “squares”: Of the dozens of apps built using the Foursquare API, two are particularly interesting. BlindSquare helps blind users navigate unfamiliar areas using check-in data.101 Another, FearSquare, alerts UK users of the number and types of crimes committed at or near their most recent check-in.102• Waze: With 15 million users, this driving app leverages crowdsourced data to provide real-time traffic information.10326
    • A GovLab Studymobile technology, could equate to big changes avoid regular check-ups, or the elderly whofor regulators, insurers, and government struggle to make a trip across town. Thinkingagencies responsible for ensuring accessibility about service delivery through the lens ofand quality of health services. location-based technologies can help agencies In sectors like health care, location-based make smarter decisions about investments intechnologies are expected to be highly disrup- physical infrastructure.tive. Where people used to have to go to the In some ways, this future has alreadydoctor to get tested for the flu, in the near arrived. For someone suffering from car-future they may be able to spit on their smart- diac arrest, minutes can mean the differencephone for a diagnosis.96 An unsettling thought, between life and death, and emergency medi-perhaps—but how would such technology cal crews can’t always get there immediately.change the need for doctors’ offices, or alter PulsePoint is a mobile app that connects hearthow government health providers interact with attack-related 911 calls with individuals nearbycertain populations? Mobile health apps might who are certified in CPR to provide immediatebe a way to engage healthy young people who assistance until an ambulance can arrive.97 Problems addressed with new models: • Improve the citizen experience. Research shows that 74 percent of US smartphone owners use their phones to access location-based information, a number that has doubled in the past year.104 Innovation in commercial location-based services is driving consumer expectations, leading citizens to expect more from government as well. Advances in location analytics can allow government agencies to improve their interactions with the public and harness data to design services more effectively. • Target government actions more effectively. In some cases, government develops solutions without getting to the root cause, such as the FDA’s temporary ban on all orange imports, which can adversely impact economic or program performance. Collecting signals from multiple sources, including physical assets, can help government better manage program performance and target solutions. • Use digital exhaust to evaluate performance. Identifying inefficiencies, reviewing performance, and prioritizing spending in large, complex programs can be difficult without costly evaluations.105 By tapping the “citizen sensor network” to collect information about service usage or infrastructure quality, government can aggregate small signals to guide its investments without expensive evaluation efforts. • Create new, more efficient delivery models to cope with decreasing budgets. Continued advances in mobile device and sensor technology may break the brick-and-mortar constraints that once anchored services such as healthcare and social services to fixed locations. Geospatial collaboration platforms and location-based data can support new models of service delivery that serve citizens where they are, avoiding costly investments in physical infrastructure and engaging the public as partners to achieve better outcomes. 27
    • The Power of Zoom Transforming government through location intelligenceApplying the power of zoom to international developmentLike many policy challenges, international development requires government agencies to work with several partners and sift througha lot of information. It can be difficult for decision makers to understand the root cause of conflict or instability, or know the best wayto empower vulnerable populations or allocate resources. How can the principles of zoom transform international development? Climate related hazard exposure Seeing the big picture Policy makers can see the big picture by using geospatial analysis to A F R I C A understand the impact that climate change is having on conflict-prone regions, then zoom in to target the right type of aid most effectively. Finding a common Tandale focus By turning to the crowd, agencies can find a common focus through place-based coordination to empower communities to literally put themselves on the map, to improve the delivery of services. Creating a new frame Engaging with new types of People moved location-based data creates away from the a new frame for delivering earthquake epicenter to HAITI services—mapping mobile different regions. data, for example, can help Léogâne aid workers predict where Port-au- Petit-Goâve Prince individuals will go in times Jacmel of crisis to better plan and position assets.28
    • A GovLab StudyPutting zoom into practiceE mploying the principles of zoom may require government to do more than sim-ply add new technology to existing programs. in spreadsheets and is infrequently expressed through a geospatial platform. Facilities information such as computer-aided designThe combination of new data and new prob- drawings or architectural specs and admin-lem-solving approaches can impact mission istrative data such as official records, patientoffices, shared services such as technology and or constituent files, invoices, and workforcehuman resources and liaisons with external data already possess location metadata suchpartners including the public, industry, and as geographic coordinates and addresses.other agencies. This section outlines how When combined with traditional GIS data,agencies can put zoom into practice through this information can be used to paint detailedthree considerations: informational portraits. Don’t wait for perfect data. Governments • Collect the location-based data already already possess volumes of rich data and can within the agency, and integrate location gain real insights from information already intelligence into employee decision making. available—even if it’s incomplete. By visual- izing data for preliminary analysis to predict, • Connect with external partners and data speculate and infer (not conclude), patterns sources that support mission priorities. emerge that may lead to more detailed inves- tigation. Consider the “small signals” from • Protect citizens and employees by mobile phone data in Haiti that are enabling understanding the privacy issues related new models of crisis response; tracking the to location-based data, and focus on location of several thousand didn’t account for delivering value in exchange for sharing everyone, but it provided responders with an location information. improved understanding of how people might react in future disaster scenarios.Collect: Assembling Reduce friction to collect better data. Lastly, it’s important not to overlook employ-the data within ees’ capability to collect more and higher- Breaking down mission priorities according quality location data. By reducing the amountto their “place” components (such as “Where is of “friction” in reporting—that is, making geo-my agency serving the most citizens, and why located data entry easier for front line employ-that place?” or “Which of my assets are most ees—agencies can take advantage of entirelyutilized, and how does that compare to other new sources of information. This friction couldplaces?”) can help leaders get a sense of the be reduced in several ways:ways place-based analysis and location intel-ligence could frame a possible solution. • Take mobile tech to the front lines. Look for the geo-data within. Many Employees and citizens equipped withgovernment agencies already have data with mobile devices and tailored apps can auto-a place component—information that lives matically geotag data, including metadata 29
    • The Power of Zoom Transforming government through location intelligence such as pictures, location-tagged notations, Connect: Look beyond program and contextual data. Such practices elicit a sense of community and empower employ- or agency boundaries to ees and citizens—consider the case of enhance location intelligence Tandale. With a few GPS-enabled phones, To take full advantage of the potential residents and World Bank staff were able to of zoom, agencies can connect information geotag places of interest to put Tandale on across the ecosystem of data falling within the map. their mission space. This involves looking to data sets from other programs and agencies • Make data collection geo-automatic. as well as the private sector. It’s also important Agencies can create programs that enforce to consider how specific agencies can most quality control rules. For example, location effectively motivate citizens to contribute data such as addresses or zip codes could useful information. be verified automatically for consistency Engage through existing platforms and against matching databases, to check their partnerships. Federal, state, and local govern- accuracy and completeness. ARRA did so ments oversee an immense amount of both and was better able to respond to critics, existing and collectable geotagged information. reduce fraud, and geo-audit recipients. To take advantage of potential partnership opportunities, government agencies should • Reveal insights to the organization. become active participants in and users of Geospatial visualizations offer a common geospatial platforms within (like FGDC’s geo- frame of reference for diverse parts of an platform.gov) and outside of government. Data agency. By opening data internally and platforms are subject to the network effect: The encouraging employees to engage with data becomes more valuable as more and more geospatial platforms, managers can pro- users participate. By contributing, and building mote collaboration and the discovery of to such ecosystems, agencies may see a greater interesting trends. return. University partnerships can harness Support a geo-capable workforce. Place- academic research for real-world solutions, and based analysis can be a natural integration the government can also find overlapping goals point between mission and technical offices, and missions with the private sector. Consider but the continued evolution of geospatial FEMA’s ongoing collaboration with large retail- technologies will likely require agencies to ers, like Target and Walmart, to respond more cultivate cross-functional skillsets among effectively to future crisis scenarios. employees. While many agencies have GIS Create a geo-following. A number of units, integrating location intelligence across policy areas are of interest to groups of private the agency could require more individuals citizens, academic institutions, and nonprofit with expertise in statistics, computer program- organizations which could become partners in ming, and data analysis. At the same time, by collecting and analyzing geotagged informa- incentivizing frontline employees and mission tion—it’s a matter of finding the right balance experts, not just technologists, to understand of incentives and workload. USAID utilized the basics of geospatial and mobile technolo- microtasking to assign small pieces of labo- gies, agencies can better take advantage of new rious geocoding work to citizens who were capabilities, and interface more effectively with passionate about USAID’s mission, and were external partners. willing to share their time and skills to provide better data for the agency. In Boston, the New30
    • A GovLab StudyUrban Mechanics demonstrated two other for citizens outweighs the risk of providingmeans of obtaining public participation. With location information.Adopt-a-Hydrant the city tapped into citizens’ Be transparent about collection. Inpride in their community by taking ownership November 2011, two shopping malls inof a hydrant, whereas with Street Bump the California and Virginia tracked the Wi-Fiexperience was “passive”—beyond download- signals of shoppers’ smartphones as theying the app, little effort was required to receive walked through the mall. Without any noti-the benefit of better roads. fication, aside from a few small signs about a “survey,” the technology monitored patterns toProtect: Address the see which stores individuals entered and how long they spent in different locations.108 A fewprivacy challenges of days after this information became public, thelocation-based data malls received a call from US Senator Charles Schumer’s office asking the service to be sus- The factors that pended, while callingmake location data for the US Federal “useful—the ability to Trade Commission tovisualize individual In the long term, a examine the legality ofbehaviors and pat- number of issues may arise as the process.109terns—also create risk citizens collaborate more with This example illus-with regard to privacy. trates the challenges government. As we use socialAs the US Court of that organizationsAppeals wrote in a media on phones and tablets to can face by engaging2010 opinion on war- report potholes, crimes, leave a in location analyticsrantless GPS tracking, note for the town watch group, without taking the time“A person who knows to adequately informall of another’s travels the boundary between public and users about how theircan deduce whether private are blurred. There will be information is beinghe is a weekly church- concerns about what can be done collected, analyzed,goer, a heavy drinker, and stored. In a recent with it, what can be released anda regular at the gym, study, Pew found thatan unfaithful husband, what is appropriate to share with 57 percent of app usersan outpatient receiving the public.” have either uninstalledmedical treatment, an or declined to install —— Robert Cheetham, Chiefassociate of particular Executive Officer, Azavea106 an app because ofindividuals or politi- concerns surroundingcal groups—and not sharing their personaljust one such fact about a person, but all such information. While the White House’s new 110facts.”107 digital privacy framework and “consumer pri- Moving forward with the rapidly evolv- vacy bill of rights” are helping to shape govern-ing capabilities of location-based services will ment’s response to the ongoing challenges oflikely require government to develop adequate privacy in the digital age, for many agencies,and flexible privacy regulations with a focus specific rules and structures are already inon educating citizens and consumers about place to handle personally identifiable infor-how their data is being used. At the same mation, though these guidelines will need totime, agencies should ensure that the benefit 31
    • The Power of Zoom Transforming government through location intelligence evolve to account for the unique challenges of data, whether it’s keeping in touch with friends location data.111,112 or finding the fastest way to get somewhere. Providing a transparent and secure experi- There is an expectation of privacy on the ence that preserves privacy by design, while part of consumers (and employees) that has clearly defining the value proposition for citi- continued to shape and evolve many compa- zens, will likely become a priority for agencies. nies’ policies, but the point is that millions of Frame services around value. Consumers people are willing to share very personal data if are becoming increasingly comfortable sharing they feel they are receiving a better product or personal information—almost three-quarters service in return. of US smartphone owners use location-based For government, efforts ranging from services, and Facebook executives noted that mobile apps to new forms of location analysis over 200 million users shared 2 billion loca- should be framed upon a clear economic or tion-tagged posts in a single month.113,114 These policy benefit that is communicated to citizens applications offer users some sort of value in upfront, and considers privacy protections exchange for sharing their social and location from the start.32
    • A GovLab StudyZooming aheadL ocation-based data will change how we interact with our world. The devicesthat connect us to one other, and the sen- enable better policymaking, improved service delivery, and new opportunities to reinvent government programs.sors that speak for our natural and manmade Place plays a significant role in definingenvironment will paint a portrait of how who we are. How we shape our communitieswe engage with each other and the places and connect with one another reflect the valueswhere we live. When something as simple as at the foundation of our society.a discarded coffee cup can tell a story about Zoom helps government get back to basics,relationships that were once invisible, the empowering public servants and the com-possibilities to understand ourselves and each munity to work together to solve our mostother are limitless—as are the possibilities pressing problems at any scale—within localfor governments to address our most press- communities or from a global perspective.ing societal needs. The principles of zoom can 33
    • The Power of Zoom Transforming government through location intelligenceEndnotes 1. Sarah Murray, “Waste Opportunity,” Financial 12. US Environmental Protection Times, January 6, 2012, http://www.ft.com/ Agency, “EJView,” http://epamap14. intl/cms/s/2/8cfd120a-2673-11e1-91cd- epa.gov/ejmap/entry.html. 00144feabdc0.html#axzz1iqSEtWmZ. 13. Columbia University Fu Foundation 2. MIT Trash Track Image—MIT SENSEable School of Engineering and Applied Sci- City Lab, “Visualizations”, http://senseable. ence, “Model Created to Map Energy Use mit.edu/trashtrack/visualizations.php?id=2. in NYC Buildings,” January 31, 2012, 3. MIT Senseable City Lab, “MIT Researchers http://engineering.columbia.edu/ Map the Flow of Urban Trash,” February model-created-map-energy-use-nyc-buildings. 2011, http://senseable.mit.edu/trashtrack/ 14. Dartmouth Institute for Health Policy and downloads/trash-track-nsf.pdf. Clinical Practice, “The Dartmouth Atlas of 4. MIT News Office, “Findings of Trash Track Health Care,” http://www.dartmouthatlas.org/. Project Revealed,” February 18, 2011, 15. Julie M. Donohue et al, “Sources of Regional http://web.mit.edu/press/2011/findings- Variation in Medicare Part D Drug Spend- of-trash-track-project-revealed.html. ing,” New England Journal of Medicine, 5. Keith Barber, “Forum on Place-Based Public February 2012, http://www.nejm.org/doi/ Management,” National Academy of Public Ad- full/10.1056/NEJMsa1104816#t=abstract. ministration, May 20, 2011, http://www.napa- 16. Malcolm V. Williams et al, Mapping the wash.org/continuing-programs/initiative-on- Gaps: Ideas for Using GIS to Enhance place-based-public-management/052011video. Local Health Department Priority Set- 6. John Snow Image—Wikipedia, “Snow- ting and Program Planning, The Rand cholera-map-1.jpg”, http://en.wikipedia. Corporation, 2011, http://www.rand.org/ org/wiki/File:Snow-cholera-map-1.jpg. pubs/technical_reports/TR1146.html.. 7. Google Cholera Image—Photo courtesy of 17. ibid. Ivan Gayton. Originally appeared in: David 18. The University of Texas at Austin Robert S. Holmes, “How Doctors Without Borders is Strauss Center, “New Geocoded Data Sheds Mapping the World’s Epidemics,” Daily Dot, Light on Social Conflict,” June 28, 2012, http:// March 9, 2012, http://www.dailydot.com/news/ strausscenter.org/ccaps-news/new-geocoded- doctors-without-borders-sxsw-ivan-gayton. data-sheds-light-on-social-conflict.html. 8. Steven Johnson, The Ghost Map: The Story of 19. “ESRI Announces Technology Used to View London’s Most Terrifying Epidemic—and How How Climate Change Impacts African Popula- It Changed Science, Cities and the Modern tions,” GPSWorld, March 30, 2012, http:// World (Riverhead Books, 2006), pp. 195–196. www.gpsworld.com/gis/environment/news/ 9. Ivan Gayton, “Adapting New Technologies esri-announces-technology-used-view-how- for Humanitarian Aid,” SXSW Interac- climate-change-impacts-african-populati. tive Conference, March 2012. 20. Recovery.gov, “Map Gallery,” http://www. 10. Google.org, “Doctors Without Borders recovery.gov/Transparency/Pages/Maps.aspx. in the Haiti Earthquake,” http://www. 21. ARRA Image—Recovery.gov, “Job Train- google.org/crisisresponse/pdfs/doctor- ing Awards vs. Unemployment,” http:// swithoutborders_haiti_case_study.pdf. www.recovery.gov/Transparency/ 11. David Holmes, “How Doctors Without Borders MapGallery/Pages/maps.aspx. is Mapping the World’s Epidemics,” Daily Dot, 22. Interview with G. Edward DeSeve, March 9, 2012, http://www.dailydot.com/news/ former White House ARRA chief ad- doctors-without-borders-sxsw-ivan-gayton. ministrator, December 15, 2011. 23. Interview with Brett Goldstein, Chicago chief data officer, March 28, 2012.34
    • A GovLab Study24. Daniel B. Neill, “New Directions in Artificial 36. Jeff Jonas, “Your Movements Speak for Intelligence for Public Health Surveil- Themselves: Space-Time Travel Data Is lance,” IEEE Intelligent Systems Magazine, Analytic Super-Food!” Jeff Jonas Blog, January-February 2012, http://www.cs.cmu. August 16, 2009, http://jeffjonas.typepad. edu/~neill/papers/ieee-is2012.pdf. com/jeff_jonas/2009/08/your-movements-25. David Talbot, “A Phone that Knows speak-for-themselves-spacetime-travel- Where You’re Going,” MIT Technol- data-is-analytic-superfood.html. ogy Review, July 2012, http://www. 37. Stacey Higginbotham, “Foursquare’s Crowley technologyreview.com/news/428441/a- wants to take on Yelp, Google and Harry Potter,” phone-that-knows-where-youre-going/. Gigaom, September 20, 2012, http://gigaom.26. Esri, “Lifestyles—Esri Tapestry Seg- com/mobile/foursquares-crowley-wants-to- mentation,” http://www.esri.com/ take-on-yelp-google-and-harry-potter/. data/esri_data/tapestry.html. 38. Brittany Darwell, “200M users include27. Alex Hayes, “eBay Maps Audience into location in Facebook posts; company looks 15 ‘geoTribes,’” B&T, May 2012, http:// to expand location APIs,” Inside Facebook, www.bandt.com.au/news/marketing/ April 5, 2012, http://www.insidefacebook. ebay-maps-audience-into-15-geotribes. com/2012/04/05/200m-users-include- location-in-facebook-posts-company-28. Livehoods, “Livehoods,” http:// looks-to-expand-location-apis/. livehoods.org/about. 39. Dave Evans, “The Internet of Things,” Cisco29. Carnegie Mellon University, “Livehoods,” Blog, July 15, 2011, http://blogs.cisco.com/ http://www.cmu.edu/homepage/comput- news/the-internet-of-things-infographic/. ing/2012/spring/livehoods.shtml. 40. Kathryn Zickuhr, “Three-quarters of smart-30. White House Office of Management and phone owners use location-based services,” Budget, “Developing Effective Place-Based Poli- Pew Internet & American Life Project, May cies for the FY 2011 Budget,” August 11, 2009, 11, 2012, http://www.pewinternet.org/ http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/ Reports/2012/Location-based-services.aspx. omb/assets/memoranda_fy2009/m09-28.pdf. 41. Raphael Bostic, “Forum on Place-Based31. Pew Research Center for the People Public Management,” National Academy and the Press, “Public Trust in Govern- of Public Administration, May 20, 2011, ment: 1958-2010,” April 18, 2010, http:// http://www.napawash.org/continuing- www.people-press.org/2010/04/18/ programs/initiative-on-place-based- public-trust-in-government-1958-2010/. public-management/052011video/.32. White House Office of Management and 42. Mikel Maron, “Haiti.osm. pre-event,” and Budget, “Developing Effective Place-Based “Haiti.osm. 200901141800900,” http:// Policies for the FY 2012 Budget,” June 21, 2010, www.flickr.com/photos/mikel_ma- http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/ ron/4274264767/ and, http://www.flickr. omb/assets/memoranda_2010/m10-21.pdf. com/photos/mikel_maron/4274264771/.33. Wikipedia, “Snow-cholera-map-1. 43. Patrick Meier, “Keynote—Social Networks jpg”, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ for Disease Detection,” HealthMap Confer- File:Snow-cholera-map-1.jpg. ence on Digital Disease Detection, February34. Steven Johnson, The Ghost Map: The Story of 16, 2012, http://healthmap.org/ddd/. London’s Most Terrifying Epidemic—and How 44. Tweet by Craig Fugate, FEMA administra- It Changed Science, Cities and the Modern tor, January 22, 2010 https://twitter.com/ World (Riverhead Books, 2006), pp. 195–196. CraigatFEMA/statuses/8082286205.35. Eric Fischer, “See something or say 45. Tony Hake, “Google and Geoeye Team Up to something: London,” http://www.flickr. Show Haiti Earthquake Devastation as Seen com/photos/walkingsf/5925800427/ from Space,” Examiner.com, in/set-72157627140310742/. January 14, 2010, http://www.examiner.com/ar- ticle/google-and-geoeye-team-up-to-show-hai- ti-earthquake-devastation-as-seen-from-space. 35
    • The Power of Zoom Transforming government through location intelligence 46. Jonathan Gray, “Open Street Map Community 58. Ylan Q. Mui, “Seeking Private-Sector Responds to Haiti Crisis,” Open Knowledge Input, FEMA Invites Executives to Work at Foundation Blog, January 15, 2010, http:// Headquarters,” Washington Post, Febru- blog.okfn.org/2010/01/15/open-street-map- ary 16, 2011, http://www.washingtonpost. community-responds-to-haiti-crisis/. com/wp-dyn/content/article/2011/02/16/ 47. Andrew Turner, “Conveying Real-time AR2011021603156.html. Information,” Tech@State: Real-time Aware- 59. Interview with Josh Goldstein, World ness Conference, February 3, 2012. Bank, November 16, 2011. 48. Patrick Meier, “Keynote—Social 60. Ramani Tandale, “Tandale Reports,” http:// Networks for Disease Detection.” tandale.ramanitanzania.org/ushahidi/. 49. Dan Curtin, “Zipcar and the Sharing 61. Interview with Robert Cheetham, chief Economy: What Can Government Learn?” executive officer of Azavea, February 10, 2012. Harvard Kennedy School Ash Center for 62. Forrester—Andrew Bartels et al, “Smart Democratic Governance and Innovation, Computing Connects CIOs With The Busi- May 9, 2012, http://www.innovations.harvard. ness,” March 28, 2012, http://www.forrester. edu/xchat-transcript.html?chid=375. com/Knowledge-Management#/Smart+C 50. Tim O’Reilly, Government as a Plat- omputing+Connects+CIOs+With+The+B form, 2010, http://ofps.oreilly.com/ usiness/quickscan/-/E-RES58990. titles/9780596804350/defining_govern- 63. Claire Swedberg, “Veterans Affairs Implement- ment_2_0_lessons_learned_.html. ing RTLS Across Seven Midwest Hospitals,” 51. Quentin Hardy, “Apple and Google Go Head RFID Journal, August 6, 2012, http://www. to Head Over Mobile Maps,” New York rfidjournal.com/article/view/9780. Times, June 17, 2012, http://www.nytimes. 64. Vivek Kundra, “Issuance of OMB Circular A-16 com/2012/06/18/technology/apples-goes-head- Supplemental Guidance,” White House Office to-head-with-google-over-mobile-maps.html. of Management and Budget, November 10, 52. Joseph Marks, “Government Geoplatform to 2010, http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/ Launch by October,” Nextgov, February 29, 2012 files/omb/memoranda/2011/m11-03.pdf. http://www.nextgov.com/nextgov/ 65. William B. Shear, “Economic Development: ng_20120229_5351.php?oref=topnews. Efficiency and Effectiveness of Fragmented 53. Sarah Perez, “With ‘Connected Apps,’ Four- Programs are Unclear,” US Government square Firms Its Position As The Social Network Accountability Office, March 2012, http:// for Places,” TechCrunch, www.gao.gov/assets/590/589470.pdf. July 1, 2012, http://techcrunch. 66. White House Office of Management and com/2012/07/01/with-connected- Budget, “Developing Effective Place-Based apps-foursquare-firms-its-position- Policies for the FY 2012 Budget,” June 21, 2010, as-the-social-network-for-places/. http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/ 54. USA.gov, “Mobile Apps Gal- omb/assets/memoranda_2010/m10-21.pdf. lery,” http://apps.usa.gov/. 67. United Nations, “Global Pulse: About,” http:// 55. Interview with John Tolva, City of Chicago www.unglobalpulse.org/about-new. chief technology officer, March 2012. 68. Interview with John Tolva, City of Chicago 56. Ben Hubbard, “With a Little Help from chief technology officer, March 2012. the Crowd, USAID Increases Govern- 69. Rumi Chunara et al, “Social and News Media ment Transparency,” US Agency for Enable Estimation of Epidemiological Patterns International Development, June 2012, Early in the 2010 Haitian Cholera Outbreak,” http://blog.usaid.gov/2012/06/with- American Journal of Tropical Medicine and a-little-help-from-the-crowd-usaid- Hygiene, January 2012, http://healthmap.org/ increases-government-transparency/. documents/Chunara_AJTMH_2012.pdf. 57. Chris Gerty, “Crowdsourcing Science at 70. Rachel Ehrenberg, “Twitter Kept Up with NEEMO-15,” National Aeronautics and Haiti Cholera Outbreak,” ScienceNews, Space Administration, October 2011, February 25, 2012, http://www.science- http://open.nasa.gov/blog/2011/10/19/ news.org/view/generic/id/337538/title/ crowdsourcing-science-at-neemo-15/. Twitter_kept_up_with_Haiti_cholera_outbreak.36
    • A GovLab Study71. Mathew Ingram, “How Twitter Data-Tracked 82. Todd Humphreys, “The GPS Dot and Its Dis- Cholera in Haiti,” Gigaom, March 11, 2012, contents,” University of Texas Cockrell School http://gigaom.com/2012/03/11/10-ways- of Engineering, March 8, 2012, http://www. big-data-is-changing-everything/6/. engr.utexas.edu/features/7233-humphreysgps.72. Linus Bengtsson et al, “Improved Response 83. Jeff Joyner, “Keynote,” Directions Magazine Lo- to Disasters and Outbreaks by Tracking cation Intelligence Conference, May 22, 2012. Population Movements with Mobile Phone 84. Doug Newcomb, “Real-Time Traffic Info Gets Network Data: A Post-Earthquake Geospatial More Real,” Wired, June 2012, http://www. Study in Haiti,” PLOS Medicine, August wired.com/autopia/2012/06/inrix-real-time/. 30, 2011, http://www.plosmedicine.org/ article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal. 85. Duncan Macleod, “Honda Internavi Connecting pmed.1001083. Lifelines,” The Inspiration Room, April 23, 2012, http://theinspirationroom.com/daily/2012/73. Quentin Hardy, “Apple and Google Go Head honda-internavi-connecting-lifelines/. to Head Over Mobile Maps,” New York Times, June 17, 2012, http://www.nytimes. 86. Interview with Nigel Jacob and Chris com/2012/06/18/technology/apples-goes-head- Osgood, Boston Mayor’s Office of New to-head-with-google-over-mobile-maps.html. Urban Mechanics, February 8, 2012.74. Sam Biddle, “Get Ready for Amazon Maps,” 87. David Goldman, “OJ crises Can Be Avoided Gizmodo, July 2, 2012, http://gizmodo. with Barcodes,” CNN Money, January 12, 2012, com/5922994/get-ready-for-amazon-maps. http://money.cnn.com/2012/01/12/technology/ orange_juice_fungicide_solution/index.htm.75. Paul Briden, “Nokia Drive and Nokia Maps Will Be Part of All Windows Phone 8 Devices,” 88. Alex Howard, “21st Century Smarter Know Your Mobile.com, June 21, 2012, http:// Government is ‘Data-Centric’ and ‘Digital www.knowyourmobile.com/blog/1442946/ First’ Says US CIO,” O’Reilly Radar, April 12, nokia_drive_and_nokia_maps_will_be_part_ 2012, http://radar.oreilly.com/2012/04/21st- of_all_windows_phone_8_devices.html. century-smarter-governmen.html.76. Jasmine Melvin and Alister Bull, “Obama 89. ibid. Orders Agencies to Shift Services to Mobile 90. Interview with Nigel Jacob and Chris Apps,” Reuters, May 23, 2012, http://www. Osgood, Boston Mayor’s Office of New reuters.com/article/2012/05/23/us-usa- Urban Mechanics, February 8, 2012. obama-mobiles-idUSBRE84M10B20120523. 91. Shira Ovide, “Tapping ‘Big Data’ to Fill77. The White House, Digital Government: Potholes,” Wall Street Journal, June 12, 2012, Building A 21st Century Platform to Bet- http://online.wsj.com/article/SB1000142405 ter Serve the American People, May 23, 2702303444204577460552615646874.html. 2012 http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/ 92. Chris Osgood, “(Fire)mans Best Friend,” default/files/omb/egov/digital-government/ New Urban Mechanics, January 20, digital-government-strategy.pdf. 2012, http://www.newurbanmechan-78. Alice Lipowicz, “USA.gov: What Analyt- ics.org/2012/01/20/hydrant/. ics Can Tell Us about the American Mind,” 93. Interview with Nigel Jacob and Chris Osgood. Federal Computer Week, November 28, 2011, http://fcw.com/Articles/2011/11/28/ 94. Jay Parkinson, “Rethinking Healthcare,” QA-Bev-Godwin-GSA.aspx/. presentation at TEDxMidAtlantic 2011 Conference, October 2011, http://79. Interview with John Tolva, City of Chicago tedxmidatlantic.com/2011-talks/. chief technology officer, March 2012. 95. ibid.80. Steven James Snyder, “SXSW: Why Geo- Fencing Might Change Your Life (and Make 96. Trevor Mogg, “Feeling Under the Weather? You Believe in Location Sharing),” Time, Spit on Your Smartphone Then!” Yahoo March 12, 2012, http://techland.time. News, December 1, 2011, http://news. com/2012/03/12/south-by-southwest-amber- yahoo.com/feeling-under-weather-spit- case-geo-fencing-geoloqi/#ixzz1p1vzN7Ld. smartphone-then-061616884.html.81. Amber Case, “Ambient Location and the Future 97. PulsePoint, “Enabling Citizen Superhe- of the Interface,” SXSW Interactive Confer- roes,” http://pulsepoint.org/app/. ence 2012, March 11, 2012, http://schedule. sxsw.com/2012/events/event_IAP992057. 37
    • The Power of Zoom Transforming government through location intelligence 98. Wouter Stomp, “Asthmapolis Receives FDA http://www.cadc.uscourts.gov/internet/ Clearance for Asthma Inhaler Sensor System,” opinions.nsf/FF15EAE832958C13852578 medGadget, July 12, 2012, http://medgadget. 0700715044/$file/08-3030-1259298.pdf. com/2012/07/asthmapolis-receives-fda-clear- 108. Annalyn Censky, “Malls Stop Tracking ance-for-asthma-inhaler-sensor-system.html. Shoppers’ Cell Phones,” CNN Money, 99. Avego, “About Avego,” http://www. November 28, 2011, http://money.cnn. avego.com/about-avego/. com/2011/11/28/news/economy/malls_ 100. Michael Blanding, “Inside Harvard’s track_shoppers_cell_phones/index.htm. Spy Lab,” Boston Globe, April 29, 2012, 109. ibid. http://articles.boston.com/2012-04-29/ 110. Jan Lauren Boyles, “Privacy and Data magazine/31428585_1_south-sudan-nuba- Management on Mobile Device,” Pew mountains-harvard-humanitarian-initiative. Internet and American Life Project, 101. Mike Melanson, “Fearsquare: If You Knew September 5, 2012, http://pewinternet. the Crime Stats, Would You Still Go There?” org/Reports/2012/Mobile-Privacy.aspx ReadWriteWeb, April 12, 2011, http://www. 111. Juliana Gruenwald, “Panel Sympathetic To readwriteweb.com/archives/fearsquare_if_you_ Geolocation Privacy Concerns,” Nextgov, knew_the_crime_stats_would_you_s.php. May 18, 2012, http://www.nextgov.com/ 102. Joann Pan, “BlindSquare: App Uses Foursquare cybersecurity/2012/05/panel-sympathetic- Data to Help the Blind Navigate Streets,” geolocation-privacy-concerns/55804/. Mashable, June 1, 2012, http://mashable. 112. The White House, “Consumer Data Privacy com/2012/06/01/blindsquare-app/. In A Networked World: A Framework For 103. Assaf Gilad, “Israeli Founder of Waze Protecting Privacy And Promoting In- among Top 10 Mobile Movers,” Ynet News, novation In The Global Digital Economy,” March 24, 2012, http://www.ynetnews. February 2012, http://www.whitehouse. com/articles/0,7340,L-4206583,00.html. gov/sites/default/files/privacy-final.pdf. 104. Kathryn Zickuhr, “Three-Quarters of Smart- 113. Kathryn Zickuhr, “Three-quarters of smart- phone Owners Use Location-Based Services,” phone owners use location-based services,” Pew Internet & American Life Project, May Pew Internet & American Life Project, May 11, 2012, http://www.pewinternet.org/ 11, 2012, http://www.pewinternet.org/ Reports/2012/Location-based-services.aspx. Reports/2012/Location-based-services.aspx. 105. White House Office of Management and 114. Brittany Darwell, “200M users include Budget, “Use of Evidence and Evaluation location in Facebook posts; company looks in the 2014 Budget,” May 18, 2012, http:// to expand location APIs,” Inside Facebook, www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/ April 5, 2012, http://www.insidefacebook. omb/memoranda/2012/m-12-14_1.pdf. com/2012/04/05/200m-users-include- 106. Interview with Robert Cheetham, CEO location-in-facebook-posts-company- of Azavea, February 10, 2012. looks-to-expand-location-apis/. 107. US Court of Appeals for the District of Colum- bia Circuit, “United States v. Lawrence May- nard,” August 2010, 1:05-cr-00386-ESH-10,38
    • A GovLab StudyContactsDeloitte Analytics Leaders William Eggers Global Research DirectorMatt Gentile Public SectorGeospatial Analytics Deloitte Services LPDeloitte Financial Advisory Services LLP Washington, DCWashington, DC +1 571 882 6585+1 571 882 6880 weggers@deloitte.commagentile@deloitte.com Amy LeonardBrad Eskind MarketingU.S. Federal Analytics Public SectorDeloitte Consulting LLP Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu LimitedWashington, DC Arlington, VA+1 571 882 8200 +1 571 882 7888beskind@deloitte.com aleonard@deloitte.comKristen Miller AmericasU.S. State AnalyticsDeloitte Consulting LLP BrazilAustin, TX Eduardo de Oliveira+1 512 226 4198 +55 11 5186 1675krmiller@deloitte.com eoliveira@deloitte.comCosti Perricos CanadaGlobal Public Sector Charles PerronDeloitte LLP +1 613 751 5243London, United Kingdom cperron@deloitte.ca+44 20 7007 8206cperricos@deloitte.co.uk Caribbean Cluster Taron JackmanGlobal +1 345 814 2212 tjackman@deloitte.comPaul MacmillanGlobal Leader ChilePublic Sector Jose BenguriaDeloitte Touche Tohmatsu Limited +56 2 7298272Toronto, Ontario, Canada jbenguria@deloitte.com+ 416 874 4203pmacmillan@deloitte.ca LATCO Armando GuibertJerrett Myers +54 11 43204022Chief of Staff aguibert@deloitte.comPublic SectorDeloitte Touche Tohmatsu LimitedToronto, Ontario, Canada Mexico+ 416 775 2328 Alonso Yanezjermyers@deloitte.ca +52 55 50807085 ayanez@deloittemx.com 39
    • The Power of Zoom Transforming government through location intelligence United States Vietnam Jessica Blume Ha Thu Thanh Government & State Sector +84 4 6288 3568 +1 813 273 8320 hthanh@deloitte.com jblume@deloitte.com United States EMEA Robin Lineberger Austria Federal Sector Guido Eperjesi +1 571 882 7100 +43 1 537 00 2522 rlineberger@deloitte.com geperjesi@deloitte.com Asia-Pacific Belgium Wim Vergeylen Australia + 32 2 800 28 12 Andrew Johnstone-Burt wvergeylen@deloitte.com +61 2 9322 7525 ajohnstoneburt@deloitte.com.au Cyprus Panicos Papamichael Guam +357 22 360 805 Dan Fitzgerald ppapamichael@deloitte.com +(671) 646 3884 x229 dafitzgerald@deloitte.com Denmark Lynge Skovgaard India +45 36102666 Vedamoorthy Namasivayam lskovgaard@deloitte.dk +91 80 6627 6112 vnamasivayam@deloitte.com Finland Markus Kaihoniemi Japan +358 20755 5370 Takashi Nagata mkaihoniemi@deloitte.fi +08035899317 takashi.nagata@tohmatsu.co.jp France Gilles Pedini Korea +33 1 40 88 22 21 Min Keun Chung gpedini@deloitte.fr +82 2 6676 3101 mchung@deloitte.com Germany Thomas Northoff Malaysia +49 (89) 29036 8566 Theng Hooi Tan tnorthoff@deloitte.de +603 7723 6590 tanth@deloitte.com Greece Nicos Sofianos New Zealand +30 210 678 1100 Cobus Scholtz nsofianos@deloitte.gr +64 4 4703727 cscholtz@deloitte.co.nz Iceland Jonas Jonasson Singapore +354 580 3044 Patricia Lee jjonasson@deloitte.is +65 6216 3283 patricialee@deloitte.com40
    • A GovLab StudyIreland PortugalHarry Goddard Filipe Simoes de Almeida+353 1 417 2200 +351 21 0422515hgoddard@deloitte.ie fialmeida@deloitte.ptSouthIsrael South AfricaChaim Ben-David Nazeer Essop+972 2 5018860 +2712 482 0268cbendavid@deloitte.co.il nessop@deloitte.co.zaItaly SpainAlberto Donato Gustavo Garcia Capo+39 0647805595 +34 915145000 x2036aldonato@deloitte.it ggarciacapo@deloitte.esLuxembourg SwedenThierry Hoeltgen Kim Hallenheim+352 45145 2559 +46 (0)8 506 722 11thoeltgen@deloitte.lu kim.hallenheim@deloitte.seMid Africa SwitzerlandJoe Eshun Matthias Scherler+255 (22) 2116006 +41 43 500 30 10jeshun@deloitte.com mscherler@exsignodeloitte.chMiddle East TurkeyAbdelhamid Suboh Saim Ustundag+971 50 552 0437 +90 212 366 60 46asuboh@deloitte.com sustundag@deloitte.comNetherlands United KingdomHans van Vliet Mike Turley+31 (0) 882881538 +44 207 303 3162hvanvliet@deloitte.com mturley@deloitte.co.ukNorwayHelge Torgersen+47 23 27 97 35htorgersen@deloitte.nolu 41
    • Follow @DU_PressSign up for Deloitte University Press updates at www.dupress.com.About Deloitte University PressDeloitte University Press publishes original articles, reports and periodicals that provide insights for businesses, the public sector andNGOs. Our goal is to draw upon research and experience from throughout our professional services organization, and that of coauthors inacademia and business, to advance the conversation on a broad spectrum of topics of interest to executives and government leaders.Deloitte University Press is an imprint of Deloitte Development LLC.This publication contains general information only, and none of Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu Limited, its member firms, or its and theiraffiliates are, by means of this publication, rendering accounting, business, financial, investment, legal, tax, or other professional adviceor services. This publication is not a substitute for such professional advice or services, nor should it be used as a basis for any decision oraction that may affect your finances or your business. Before making any decision or taking any action that may affect your finances oryour business, you should consult a qualified professional adviser.None of Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu Limited, its member firms, or its and their respective affiliates shall be responsible for any losswhatsoever sustained by any person who relies on this publication.About DeloitteDeloitte refers to one or more of Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu Limited, a UK private company limited by guarantee, and its network ofmember firms, each of which is a legally separate and independent entity. Please see www.deloitte.com/about for a detailed descriptionof the legal structure of Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu Limited and its member firms. Please see www.deloitte.com/us/about for a detaileddescription of the legal structure of Deloitte LLP and its subsidiaries. Certain services may not be available to attest clients under the rulesand regulations of public accounting.Copyright © 2012 Deloitte Development LLC. All rights reserved.Member of Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu LimitedAbout GovLabGovLab is a think tank in the Federal practice of Deloitte Consulting LLP that focuses on innovation in the public sector. It works closelywith senior government executives and thought leaders from across the globe. GovLab Fellows conduct research into key issues andemerging ideas shaping the public, private, and non-profit sectors. Through exploration and analysis of government’s most pressingchallenges, GovLab seeks to develop innovative yet practical ways that governments can transform the way they deliver their services andprepare for the challenges ahead.As used in this document, “Deloitte” means Deloitte Consulting LLP, a subsidiary of Deloitte LLP. Please seewww.deloitte.com/us/about for a detailed description of the legal structure of Deloitte LLP and its subsidiaries. Certain services may notbe available to attest clients under the rules and regulations of public accounting.