re-refining of used lube oil

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process of re-refining of used lubricating oil

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re-refining of used lube oil

  1. 1. GUIDE: PROF S. R. KULKARNI SEMINAR BY GAJANAN R. HANGE ROLL NO:B-22
  2. 2. LUBE OIL-INTRODUCTION DEFINITION: Lubricating oil are viscous liquids used for lubricating moving parts of engines and machines. Eg. Engine oils, gear oils, hydraulic oils, turbine oils, grease etc. FUNCTIONS:  Used to reduce friction between moving surfaces.  Remove heat from working parts in Machinery.  Remove wear debris created by moving surfaces.  Provide a protective layering on metal surfaces to avoid corrosion.  Removing contaminants from the engine.
  3. 3. USED LUBE OIL  Used lube oil is defined as the petroleum derived or synthetic oil which remains after applications in lubrications, cutting purposes, etc.  Build up of temperature degrade the lubricating oil, thus leading to reduction in properties such as : Viscosity, Specific gravity, etc  Dirt and metal parts from the surfaces are also deposited into the lubricating oils.  With increased time of uses, the lubricating loses its lubricating properties as a result of over reduction of desired properties and thus must be replaced with fresh one.
  4. 4. CONTAMINANTS IN USED LUBE OIL The main contaminants are : WATER :Fuel burns to CO2 and H2O. When an engine is cold the water Created can pass through to the lube oil. FUEL : Unburned petrol or diesel passes through to the lube oil during Engine start-ups. CARBON : Forms as a result of incomplete combustion when an engine is warming up and passes through to the lube oil. DUST : Small particles pass into the engine through the air breather. METALS : Due to normal engine component wear. OXIDATION PRODUCTS : Additive chemicals at elevated temperatures in the presence of oxygen can oxidize forming corrosive acids.
  5. 5. FACTS ABOUT HAZARDUS NATURE OF USED OIL  Used oil themselves are not toxic. Contaminants such as additives, degradation products, make them so hazardous.  They have high potential to cause damage to the environment by virtue of their persistent nature and potential to spread over large surface areas on land and water.  Films of oil prevents light and air from reaching to life forms on land and water.  As per the data one liter of oil can spoil one million liters of pure water.
  6. 6. ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES CAUSED BY USED LUBE OIL  Oil, in any form, is potentially harmful to the environment.  In aquatic community oil residue tends to settle on the bottom, coating the substance and whatever organisms live there.  When poured on the ground, oil can rapidly migrate through the soil.  In both instances bacteria, plants, invertebrates and vertebrates experience physiological stress.  Oil film on water can reduce the penetration of light into the water and, consequently, reduce the rate of photosynthesis. When photosynthesis is reduced, oxygen production is also reduced.
  7. 7. NEED FOR RE REFINING  The need to conserve crude reserves.  Minimizing unemployment through the building of used lube oil recycling plant.  The elimination of environment pollution. IMPORTANCE AND BENEFITS OF REREFINING      Reduce dependence on base oil imports saving foreign exchange. Prevent ground water contamination and pollution. Preserve natural resources such as coal and crude oil. Reduce sewage treatment costs. Eliminate improper burning of waste oil as fuel, which generate toxic fumes and air pollution.
  8. 8. PROCESS INVOLVED IN USED OIL RE-REFINING Step 1 - Dehydration The oil is boiled in a closed container to remove the water that has been mixed into it. Step 2 - Diesel stripping The dehydrated oil is then fed continuously into a vacuum distillation plant for fractionation. Lighter oils boil off first and are removed, followed by the lubricating oil itself. Other heavier components do not boil in the conditions used. Step 3 - Lube oil distillation and condensation A liquid extraction process then removes any aromatic components from the oil. By this stage, the oil is identical to refined virgin oil.
  9. 9. DEHYDRATION PROCESS
  10. 10. VACUUM DISTILLATION PROCESS The dehydrated oil is fed continuously into a vacuum distillation plant for fractionation. The fractions obtained are as follows: 1.Light fuel and diesel : Oil produces enough diesel from the used oil feedstock to run all the burners and boilers, giving total self-sufficiency in fuel. 2.Lubricating oil : The bulk of the feedstock will distill off in the plant to produce a lubricating oil fraction. 3.Residue : The non-distillable part of the feedstock. This contains all the carbon, wear metals, degraded additives and most of the lead and oxidation products.
  11. 11. LUBE OIL DISTILLATION AND CONDENSATION Then a liquid extraction process is done in the presence of solvent N-methylpyrolidone (NMP). The NMP is an aromatic selective solvent which removes some color and odour. Also it is able to extract all unwanted aromatic contaminants present in lubricating oil fraction.
  12. 12. VACUUM DISTILLATION DIAGRAM
  13. 13. SCHEMATIC OF THE OIL RE-REFINING
  14. 14. CONCLUSION  Used oil is pollutant, and, by re-refining, the pollution is reduced. Hence, it should get the status of eco-friendly technology and get grants and incentives from the Minister of the Environment.  Since re-refining leads to oil conservation, the concept of re-refining should be strongly supported by the Petroleum Conservation Research Association.

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