Cloning ( G.A.B )


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  • The term clone is derived from the Ancient Greek word  klōn , referring to the process whereby a new plant can be created from a twig
  • 1996 In Scotland ((Died from a progressive lung disease )) >> 1998 soviet union (mice)….. Japan nwezland (cow) >> 2000 Scotland >> 2001 >> 2002 Texas >>> 2003 chiness french ( rate ) ….. Italy (horse) >>> 2004 >>> 2005 >>>
  • 1. High failure rate Cloning animals through somatic cell nuclear transfer is simply inefficient. The success rate ranges from 0.1 percent to 3 percent, which means that for every 1000 tries, only one to 30 clones are made. Or you can look at it as 970 to 999 failures in 1000 tries. That's a lot of effort with only a speck of a return!
  • Cloning ( G.A.B )

    1. 1. Scientific debate Cloning 108/19/13
    2. 2. WHAT EXACTLY IS CLONING? Cloning is the creation of an organism that is an exact genetic copy of another.This means that every single bit of DNA is the same between the two! 2
    3. 3. How does one go about making an exact genetic copy of an organism? There are a couple of ways to do this: artificial embryo twinning and somatic cell nuclear transfer. How do these processes differ? HOW IS REPRODUCTIVE CLONING DONE? 3
    4. 4. Artificial Embryo Twinning Artificial embryo twinning is the relatively low- tech version of cloning. As the name suggests, this technology mimics the natural process of creating identical twins. Artificial Process Video 408/19/13
    5. 5. Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer Somatic cell nuclear transfer, (SCNT) uses a different approach than artificial embryo twinning, but it produces the same result: an exact clone, or genetic copy, of an individual. This was the method used to create Dolly the Sheep. Somatic Process Video 508/19/13
    6. 6. The types of cloning DNA cloning or Gene cloning Therapeutic cloning Reproductive cloning 608/19/13
    7. 7. DNA cloning or Gene cloning A clone has been made from this​​ technique. DNA fragment is transferred to self- replicating element Used to generate multiple copies of the same gene Human Genome Project Study Bacterial Plasmid 708/19/13
    8. 8. DNA cloning or Gene cloning 808/19/13
    9. 9. Therapeutic Cloning Creates embryos for research The purpose of therapeutic cloning is to extract the stem cells from the embryos. Produce whole organs from cloned stem cells. Produce healthy cells for transplantation. Test drugs, understand diseases. Stem cells can be used to treat heart disease, Alzheimer's, cancer, and various other diseases. Risks: Killing embryos in the process. 908/19/13
    10. 10. Therapeutic Cloning 1008/19/13
    11. 11. Reproductive Cloning|Adult DNA cloning Reproductive cloning is a technology used to generate an animal that has the same nuclear DNA as another currently or previously existing animal. Human cloning also falls into this category. e.g. identical twins Risks: Highly inefficient: Die mysteriously High costs. Morally wrong to experiment with animals. 1108/19/13
    12. 12. Reproductive Cloning|Adult dna cloning 1208/19/13
    13. 13. Current and potential embryonic stem cell problems: Few successes in animal models Difficulty in obtaining pure cultures in the dish Difficult to establish and maintain Problem of immune rejection Potential for tumor formation and tissue destruction Genomic instability 1308/19/13
    14. 14. Current Clinical Uses of Adult Stem Cells Cancers Autoimmune diseases Anemias Bone deformities Stroke Skin 1408/19/13
    15. 15. History of cloning in mammals Herd of mice Herd mice Cat (CC ) Dolly the sheep Mice and Cow Ppl ( pig ) Rate And Horse Cat (CC) Human embryo 1996 1998 2000 200120022003 Dog Human ?2005 1508/19/13
    16. 16. Dolly the sheep 1608/19/13
    17. 17. DEGREE OF AGING One risk of cloning is that the cells of the clone can aging faster than the normal persons 17
    18. 18. AdVantages and Disadvantages 1808/19/13
    19. 19. Advantages 1908/19/13 1/Potential benefits to modern medicine 2/Helping infertile couples 3/Reverse the aging process 4/Protecting Endangered Species
    20. 20. Disadvantages 2008/19/13 1/The Element of Uncertainty 2/Inheriting diseases 3/The Potential for Abuse
    21. 21. Google and Others Bibliography 2108/19/13
    22. 22. By supervisor : Dr.Gaza F. Salih By : Gailan Ali Bapir 2208/19/13