The term clone is derived from the Ancient Greek word klōn , referring to the process whereby a new plant can be created from a twig
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1. High failure rate Cloning animals through somatic cell nuclear transfer is simply inefficient. The success rate ranges from 0.1 percent to 3 percent, which means that for every 1000 tries, only one to 30 clones are made. Or you can look at it as 970 to 999 failures in 1000 tries. That's a lot of effort with only a speck of a return!
Cloning ( G.A.B )
WHAT EXACTLY IS
Cloning is the creation of an organism that is an exact
genetic copy of another.This means that every single bit
of DNA is the same between the two!
How does one go about making an exact genetic copy of an organism?
There are a couple of ways to do this: artificial embryo twinning and
somatic cell nuclear transfer.
How do these processes differ?
HOW IS REPRODUCTIVE CLONING
Artificial Embryo Twinning
Artificial embryo twinning is the relatively low-
tech version of cloning. As the name suggests,
this technology mimics the natural process of
creating identical twins.
Artificial Process Video
Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer
Somatic cell nuclear transfer, (SCNT) uses a
different approach than artificial embryo
twinning, but it produces the same result: an
exact clone, or genetic copy, of an individual.
This was the method used to create Dolly the
Somatic Process Video
The types of cloning
DNA cloning or Gene cloning
A clone has been made from this
DNA fragment is transferred to self-
Used to generate multiple copies of the
Human Genome Project Study
Creates embryos for research
The purpose of therapeutic cloning is to extract the stem cells
from the embryos.
Produce whole organs from cloned stem cells.
Produce healthy cells for transplantation.
Test drugs, understand diseases.
Stem cells can be used to treat heart disease, Alzheimer's, cancer,
and various other diseases.
Killing embryos in the process. 908/19/13
Reproductive Cloning|Adult DNA cloning
Reproductive cloning is a technology used to
generate an animal that has the same
nuclear DNA as another currently or
previously existing animal.
Human cloning also falls into this category.
e.g. identical twins
Morally wrong to experiment with animals. 1108/19/13
Reproductive Cloning|Adult dna cloning
Few successes in animal models
Difficulty in obtaining pure cultures in
Difficult to establish and maintain
Problem of immune rejection
Potential for tumor formation and tissue
History of cloning in mammals
( pig )
1996 1998 2000
1/Potential benefits to modern medicine
2/Helping infertile couples
3/Reverse the aging process
4/Protecting Endangered Species
1/The Element of Uncertainty
3/The Potential for Abuse
Google and Others
Dr.Gaza F. Salih
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