History And Future Of Print


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History And Future Of Print

  1. 1. The History and Future of Print Gail Nickel-Kailing Managing Director Business Strategies Etc April 12, 2008 10:30 AM
  2. 2. What We’ll Talk About Today • How we got to where we are today • Some practical and - not so practical - printing applications • Printing without ink or paper • Where graphic communications is going 2
  3. 3. Before Paper • 200,000 BC - hand prints on cave walls • 4,000 BC - cuneiform writing, Mesopotamia • Papyrus - developed before 2,200 BC by the Egyptians • Parchment - a thin material made from calfskin, sheepskin or goatskin - developed as a substitute for papyrus, common use by 500 BC • In ancient Rome, commercial publishers issued editions of as many as 5000 copies works such as the epigrams of the Roman poet Martial - copied by literate slaves 3
  4. 4. Paper Invented • 105 AD - paper as we know it invented by Ts’ai Lun, a Chinese court official • 200 AD - Earliest surviving printed texts • 972 - Sacred Buddhist scriptures of more than 130,000 pages printed from wood blocks • Late 900’s - playing cards invented 4
  5. 5. Movable Type • 1453 - Gutenberg invented the movable type printing press • 17th Century - springs lifting the platen added - up to 300 impressions per hour 5
  6. 6. Lithography to Laser • End of 18th Century - offset lithography • 1889-1900 - mass produced paper • Modern Printing - multiple printing methods: lithography, letterpress, flexography, gravure and screen printing • Since 1960 - photo-mechanical composition, cathode ray tubes, and laser technologies 6
  7. 7. Digital Print Technology • 1970s - first digital press capable of handling variable data, the Xerox 9700 • 1990s - Indigo introduces its first digital press, the E-Print 1000 • 1990s - Xerox launches its DocuTech digital print range, which can print variable data in black and white or black and one color • 2002 - HP buys Indigo, introduces the H-P Indigo Press w3200, designed for high-volume, seven- color digital print incorporating variable text and images • 2003 - Xerox debuts its DocuColor iGen3 digital production press, geared for personalized direct mail 7
  8. 8. What IS Printing anyway? • Printing has changed. • New processes that don’t fit the old definitions. • Not a squashed tree in sight! 8
  9. 9. Printing on New Things
  10. 10. Printing on Food • A hand-held stamper or roller with changeable letters and graphics to emboss images on hot or cold food. • The embosser can be “inked” with sauce, cocoa, powdered sugar, or other foots to add color to the image. (www.gourmetimpression.com/Foods.html) 10
  11. 11. Printing on Food • Using inkjet technology that doesn’t touch the food surface at all, edible coloring is applied to an uneven surface such as cookies, breads, marshmallows, frosted pastries, or other food products. • The resolution of the image varies partly because of the roughness of the surface, but on smooth white frosting, images can approach photo- quality. (www.dimatix.com) 11
  12. 12. Printing on Seeds By using laser beams to etch seeds with a simple printed message, Miracle Products has developed the Amazing Message Plant (www.message- plant.com), a plant that bears a permanent message on its first leaves after germination. 12
  13. 13. Printing on Flowers Patented technology for printing images and messages on flowers enables Speaking Roses to print on flowers petals. Images can include photos, logos, printed words or handwritten messages. (www.speakingroses.com) 13
  14. 14. Printing Fingernails MeiYiMei, a company based in Xhengshou, China, offers a commercial inkjet printer that applies high resolution (4,800 dpi) images directly onto salon press-on nails or right on the real thing. 14
  15. 15. Printing Make-Up Cartridges with “looks” already programmed will be downloaded to the printer. You just choose the template and colors you want. Handheld and portable it will spray a jet of colors and makeup onto your skin - achieving the perfect makeup in seconds. (Matsushita - owned by Panasonic) 15
  16. 16. Using Print Processes to MAKE New Things
  17. 17. Printing Organs and Tissue A printing device is loaded with quot;bioinkquot; consisting of spherical aggregates of many thousands of cells. The printer deposits the aggregates onto successive layers of biodegradable gel and the aggregates to grow together to form complex structures while the gel degrades. Several types of chicken heart cells and 3D were printed into large sheets with cell-friendly gel. The cells took over from there, sorting themselves into working order. Then they began beating, just as a heart would. (http://organprint.missouri.edu/www/forgacs.php) 17
  18. 18. Rapid Prototyping/3D Modeling Stereolithography is one means by which it is possible to print in three dimensions. A 3-D image (an object) can be produced with a resolution of 328 x 328 x 606 dpi (xyz). A model is produced by depositing very thin layers of plastic, ceramic or other special liquid chemicals, which are photochemical hardened, or fused, with lasers. The solid form is built up one layer at a time, until the model is completed. (http://www.materialise-mgx.com) 18
  19. 19. Print Me Something Yummy! Using a type of 3-D prototyping - printing in three dimensions with inkjet deposition technology - you can print any thing from candy treats to sophisticated sculptures out of sugar. (www.candyfab.org) 19
  20. 20. Printing Houses A house or a colony of houses, each with possibly a different design, may be automatically constructed in a single run and all the conduits for electrical, plumbing and air-conditioning will be embedded in each house. (www.contourcrafting.org) 20
  21. 21. Printed Electronics
  22. 22. Solar Cells Nanorods, bar-shaped semiconducting inorganic crystals measuring just seven nanometers by 60 nanometers make it possible to produce a cheap and flexible material that could provide the same kind of efficiency achieved with silicon solar cells. The nanorod solar cells can be rolled out, ink-jet printed, or even painted onto surfaces. Power Plastic®, an inexpensive, lightweight, and flexible light-activated photo-reactive material that is printed using roll-to-roll printing processes. (http://www.konarka.com/) (http://www.nanosolar.com/processtech.htm) 22
  23. 23. Flexible Batteries The energy cell is an open battery and, unlike conventional batteries, the power source requires no casing to hold the chemicals. It can be printed, pasted, or laminated onto paper, plastic, and other media. Flexible printed batteries can manufactured as an integral part of a product or as a stand-alone accessory and are ideal for disposable products. (http://www.primidi.com/2006/03/27.html#a1479) 23
  24. 24. Printing Medical Devices Drug delivery patch • Iontophoresis patches - a needle free, non- invasive technology for delivering water soluble, ionic drugs or other compounds through the skin using a microprocessor controlled electrical current. • The current carries the compounds into underlying tissue and into the blood stream, making the delivery either site specific or systemic. • The microprocessor facilitates variable dose control enabling programmable or patient controlled dosing as well as rapid onset and cessation of delivery, where desired. www.soligie.com 24
  25. 25. Smart Labels Smart active labels (SAL) are thin flexible labels that contain an integrated circuit and a power source, similar to RFID. Smart labels can provide a means of locating, tracking, and tracing assets or people, and are increasingly finding applications in areas such as access control, supply chain management, security, transportation, ticketing and a whole range of smart forms. (www.fqsinternational.com) (www.paksense.com) 25
  26. 26. Printing Without Ink/Paper
  27. 27. Inkless Printing By embedding dye crystals in a composite substrate with a protective polymer coating, anything that can be printed can be “printed” ink-free. An application of heat melts the dye crystals and - voilá - you have a photo-quality print. (www.zink.com) 27
  28. 28. Programmable-Ink Billboards Large-scale, full-color digital ink display for the outdoor advertising: the “digital ink” is an electronic paste sandwiched between thin sheets of glass or plastic. Electronic signals are transmitted to the back panel of the display and manipulate the size and angle of the molecules to change the appearance of the colors on the surface of the inks. (http://www.magink.com) 28
  29. 29. Smart Signs A digital signage platform that integrates an LCD HD display, media player, network access, and a web-based control system with cellular networks for wireless networking. (www.mediatile.com) 29
  30. 30. E-Paper/E-ink E-paper is a thin, flexible polymer sheet with the look of paper, but contains microscopic electronic ink particles sandwiched between two polymer sheets that display as either white or black in response to an electrical charge. http://www.polymervision.com/ProductsApplications/Readius/Index.html 30
  31. 31. The Future … is Here
  32. 32. Touch Technology A new touch screen - two-handed, front and back - is being developed by a joint venture between Mitsubishi Electric Research Labs and Microsoft Research. “See-through” technology called LucidTouch combines touch screen with a touch pad on the back. 32
  33. 33. Touch Technology á la Microsoft The Surface - A 30-inch display in a table- like form, that provides effortless interaction with digital content through natural hand gestures, touch, and physical objects. (www.microsoft.com/surface/) 33
  34. 34. Touch Technology 2.0 Jeff Han, Perceptive Pixel: Wall-sized touch screen - 10, 20, or MORE fingers! 34
  35. 35. Touch Technology 3.0? T-Mobile displayed this year at CeBIT in Hanover Germany - trade show graphics will never be the same! 35
  36. 36. Touchless Technology! From White Electronics, a touchless system - wave, dance, whistle - no need to touch! 36
  37. 37. Change is Good ...
  38. 38. Changing Culture • Increasing amount of content • Shrinking world • Shorter attention spans • Quicker delivery 38
  39. 39. Changing Technology • Unified communication • Device and media independent… • Personalized AND automated… • Wireless and mobile – phone, browser, PDA? 39
  40. 40. I want it all … I want it my way… I want it now…!
  41. 41. Delivering It All End game…information value chain • Consistent • Seamless • Immediate • Personal • Unified, real-time, 2-way 41
  42. 42. Questions? The greatest problem in communication ... the illusion that it has taken place! George Bernard Shaw 42
  43. 43. Gail Nickel-Kailing, Principal business strategies etc. Providing research, advice, and counsel to enterprises and service providers to enable effective internal and external creation and distribution of online and offline documents since 1984. www.business-strategies-etc.com