M1. lesson 1. concepts, nature & purposes of curriculum

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  • M1. lesson 1. concepts, nature & purposes of curriculum

    1. 1. CTP-HS5 CURRICULUM PLANNING & DEVELOPMENT Prof. Gail S. Montero 2nd Semester, AY 2012-2013
    2. 2. COURSE CONTENT MODULE 1: CURRICULUM CONCEPTS, NATURE & PURPOSES Lesson 1: Concepts, Nature & Purposes of Curriculum Lesson 2: Components of Curriculum & Curricular Approaches Lesson 3: Concepts, Nature & Purposes of Curriculum Add-in: The 8 M’s of Teaching & Learning p.
    3. 3. MODULE 1: CURRICULUM: Concepts, Nature and Purposes PROF ED 4: CURRICULUM PLANNING & DEVELOPMENT Prof. Gail S. Montero University of Makati
    4. 4. If you are to capture scenarios, experiences, situations, faces, places and eventually come up with a PICTURE GALLERY which you want to attract people…what would you include?
    5. 5. Lesson 1: Concepts, Nature & Purposes of Curriculum  Take-Off CONCEPT OF CURRICULUM in its narrow sense: a listing of subjects to be taught in school in a broader sense: it refers to the total learning experiences of individuals; not only in schools but in society as well.
    6. 6. Lesson 1: Concepts, Nature & Purposes of Curriculum  Focus CURRICULUM FROM DIFFERENT POINTS OF VIEW 1. Traditional Points of View of Curriculum 20th Century: “Curriculum is a body of subjects/subject matter prepared by the teachers for the students to learn”; was synonymous to “course of study” & “syllabus”
    7. 7. Lesson 1: Concepts, Nature & Purposes of Curriculum  Focus CURRICULUM FROM DIFFERENT POINTS OF VIEW 1. Traditional Points of View of Curriculum  Robert M. Hutchins: permanent studies/emphasis of the 3Rs  Arthur Bestor: intellectual training should be the mission of the school  Joseph Schwab: Discipline is the sole source of curriculum
    8. 8. Lesson 1: Concepts, Nature & Purposes of Curriculum  Focus CURRICULUM FROM DIFFERENT POINTS OF VIEW 1. Traditional Points of View of Curriculum  Phenix Curriculum should consist entirely of knowledge which comes from various disciplines. Note: most of the TRADITIONAL ideas view curriculum as WRITTEN DOCUMENTS/PLAN of ACTION in accomplishing goals.
    9. 9. Lesson 1: Concepts, Nature & Purposes of Curriculum  Focus CURRICULUM FROM DIFFERENT POINTS OF VIEW 2. Progressive Points of View of Curriculum  John Dewey Reflective thinking is a means that unifies curricular element; thought is not derived from action but tested by application.  Caswell & Campbell “All experiences children have under the guidance of teachers.”
    10. 10. Lesson 1: Concepts, Nature & Purposes of Curriculum  Focus CURRICULUM FROM DIFFERENT POINTS OF VIEW 2. Progressive Points of View of Curriculum  Smith, Stanley & Shores A sequence of potential experiences set up in the schools for the purpose of disciplining children and youth in group ways of thinking and acting  Marsh & Willis All the experiences in the classroom which are planned and enacted by the teacher, and also learned by the students.
    11. 11. Lesson 1: Concepts, Nature & Purposes of Curriculum  Focus CURRICULUM FROM DIFFERENT POINTS OF VIEW 2. Progressive Points of View of Curriculum Note: To PROGRESSIVIST, a listing of school subjects, syllabi, course of study & list of courses or specific discipline DO NOT MAKE A CURRICULUM. It can only be called CURRICULUM if the written materials are actualized by the learner – THE TOTAL LEARNING EXPERIENCES of the individual.
    12. 12. Lesson 1: Concepts, Nature & Purposes of Curriculum  Focus POINTS OF VIEW ON CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT Development  connotes CHANGES which are SYSTEMATIC.  a CHANGE FOR THE BETTER means any alteration, modification, or improvement of existing condition.  To produce POSITIVE CHANGES, development should be purposeful, planned & progressive.
    13. 13. Lesson 1: Concepts, Nature & Purposes of Curriculum  Focus POINTS OF VIEW ON CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT Models of Curriculum Development =RALPH TYLER MODEL= 4 Basic Principles: Tyler’s Rationale  Posited Four Fundamental Principles in examining any curriculum in schools: 1. What EDUCATIONAL PURPOSES should the school seek to attain? 2. What EDUCATIONAL EXPERIENCES can be provided that are likely to attain these purposes?
    14. 14. Lesson 1: Concepts, Nature & Purposes of Curriculum  Focus POINTS OF VIEW ON CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT 4 Basic Principles: Tyler’s Rationale 3. How can these educational experiences be EFFECTIVELY ORGANIZED? 4. How can we determine whether these purposes are being attained or not? TYLER’S Model show that in curriculum development, the following considerations should be made: (1) Purposes of the School; (2) Educational Experiences related to the Purpose; (3) Organization of the experiences and (4) Evaluation of the experiences.
    15. 15. Lesson 1: Concepts, Nature & Purposes of Curriculum  Focus POINTS OF VIEW ON CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT Models of Curriculum Development =HILDA TABA LINEAR MODEL= The 7 Major Steps:GRASSROOTS APPROACH  Believed that TEACHERS WHO TEACH/IMPLEMENT the curriculum SHOULD PARTICIPATE IN DEVELOPING it. 1. Diagnosis of learners’ needs & expectation of the larger society 2. Formulation of learning objectives
    16. 16. Lesson 1: Concepts, Nature & Purposes of Curriculum  Focus POINTS OF VIEW ON CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT The 7 Major Steps:GRASSROOTS APPROACH 3. Selection of learning content 4. Organization of learning content 5. Selection of learning experiences 6. Organization of learning activities 7. Determination of what to evaluate and the means of doing it. THREE INTERACTING PROCESSES in curriculum development: PLANNING, IMPLEMENTING & EVALUATING
    17. 17. Lesson 1: Concepts, Nature & Purposes of Curriculum  Focus TYPES OF CURRICULUM OPERATING IN SCHOOLS [Allan Glatthorn, 2000] 1. Recommended Curriculum  proposed by scholars and professional organizations who has stake in Education [DepEd, CHED, DOST] 2. Written Curriculum  includes documents, course of study or syllabi handed down to the schools, districts, division, departments or colleges for implementation
    18. 18. Lesson 1: Concepts, Nature & Purposes of Curriculum  Focus TYPES OF CURRICULUM OPERATING IN SCHOOLS  Pilot-tested or tried out in samples schools or population [Basic Education Curriculum] 3. Taught Curriculum  composed of the different planned activities which are put into action inside & outside the classroom in order to arrive at the objectives/purposes of the written curriculum  Varies according to the learning styles of students & the teaching styles of teachers
    19. 19. Lesson 1: Concepts, Nature & Purposes of Curriculum  Focus TYPES OF CURRICULUM OPERATING IN SCHOOLS 4. Supported Curriculum  includes material resources [such as textbooks, computers, audio-visual materials, laboratory equipments, playgrounds, zoos & other facilities] other than the teacher, in order to have a successful teaching to enable each learner to achieve lifelong learning 5. Assessed Curriculum  refers to the series of evaluations done by the teachers to determine the extent of teaching & students’ progress
    20. 20. Lesson 1: Concepts, Nature & Purposes of Curriculum  Focus TYPES OF CURRICULUM OPERATING IN SCHOOLS 6. Learned Curriculum  refers to the learning outcomes achieved by the students and indicated by the results of the tests & changes in behavior which can either be cognitive, affective or psychomotor 7. Hidden Curriculum  the unintended curriculum which is not deliberately planned but may modify behavior or influence learning outcomes [factors such as: peer influence, teacher’s mood, school environment
    21. 21. Lesson 1: Concepts, Nature & Purposes of Curriculum  Focus MAJOR FOUNDATIONS OF CURRICULUM [COMMONLY ACCEPTED FOUNDATIONS: (1) Philosophical, (2) Historical, (3) Psychological & (4) Social ] 1. Philosophical Foundations of Curriculum  provides educators, teachers, curriculum makers with FRAMEWORK for planning, implementing & evaluating curriculum  PHILOSOPHY in decision-making provides the STARTING POINT: what the school is for, how students should learn, what methods to use,
    22. 22. Lesson 1: Concepts, Nature & Purposes of Curriculum  Focus MAJOR FOUNDATIONS OF CURRICULUM 1. Philosophical Foundations of Curriculum PHILOSOPHIES: PERENNIALISM ESSENTIALISM PROGRESSIVIS M RECONSTRUC- TIONISM Aim of Education • Educate the rational person • cultivate the intellect • promote intellectual growth • educate a competent person • promote democratic & social living • improve & reconstruct society • Education for change Role of Education • Teachers help students think w/ reason • teacher is the sole authority in her subject area • knowledge leads to growth & development of life-long learning • teachers act as agents of change & reform in various educational projects including research
    23. 23. Lesson 1: Concepts, Nature & Purposes of Curriculum  Focus MAJOR FOUNDATIONS OF CURRICULUM 1. Philosophical Foundations of Curriculum PHILOSOPHIES: PERENNIALISM ESSENTIALISM PROGRESSIVIS M RECONSTRUC- TIONISM Focus in the Curriculum • Classical subjects, literary analysis • curriculum is constant • essentials skills of the 3 R’s, English, Science, Math, History • subjects are interdisciplinary, integrative & interactive • Students’ interest, human problems & affairs • present & future trends & issues of national and international interests Curriculum Trends • use of great books & return to liberal arts • excellence in education & back to basics & cultural literacy • school reforms, relevant & contextualized curriculum, humanistic education • equality of educational opportunities • access to global education
    24. 24. Lesson 1: Concepts, Nature & Purposes of Curriculum  Focus MAJOR FOUNDATIONS OF CURRICULUM 2. Historical Foundations of Curriculum  shows different changes in the purposes, principles & content of the Curriculum  different changes are influenced by educational philosophy, psychology & pedagogical theories.  Implies that curriculum is ever changing, putting in knowledge & content from many fields of disciplines.
    25. 25. Lesson 1: Concepts, Nature & Purposes of Curriculum  Focus MAJOR FOUNDATIONS OF CURRICULUM 2. Historical Foundations of Curriculum FRANKLIN BOBBIT WERRET CHARTERS WILLIAM KILPATRICK HAROLD RUGG HOLLIS CASWELL RALPH TYLER • 1876-1956 • curriculum is a science that emphasizes student’s needs & prepares students for adult life • Objectives w/ corres- ponding activities should be grouped & sequenced • 1875-1952 • curriculum is a science that gives emphasis on students’ needs. • listing of objectives w/ activities ensure that the subject matter is related to obj. • subj matter & activities are planned by the teacher • 1871-1965 • Curricula are purposeful activities w/c are child- centered for child dev’t. & growth. • Teacher & students plan the activities. • Curriculum develops social relationships & small grp instructions • 1886-1960 • Curriculum is child centered & should develop the whole child • w/ objectives & activities, curriculum should produce outcomes • Social studies & teacher plans in advance • 1901-1989 • Curriculum is a set of experiences, organized around social functions of themes, organized knowledge & learners’ interest • 1902-1994 • Curriculum is a science, an extension of school’s philosophy & based on students’ needs & interest. • Emphasize on problem- solving & aims to educate GENERA- LISTS.
    26. 26. Lesson 1: Concepts, Nature & Purposes of Curriculum  Focus MAJOR FOUNDATIONS OF CURRICULUM 3. Psychological Foundations of Curriculum  Psychology provides a basis for the teaching & learning process.  Unifies elements of the learning process & some of the questions which can be addressed by Psychological foundations of education such as: “How should curriculum be organized to enhance learning?”; “What is the optimum level of students’ participation in learning the various contents of the curriculum?”
    27. 27. Lesson 1: Concepts, Nature & Purposes of Curriculum  Focus MAJOR FOUNDATIONS OF CURRICULUM 3. Psychological Foundations of Curriculum BEHAVIORIST PSYCHOLOGY Behaviorism /Association Theories COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY Cognitive-Information Processing Theories HUMANISTIC PSYCHOLOGY Humanistic Theories • To Behaviorists: Edward Thorndike, Ralph Tyler, Hilda Taba, Ivan Pavlov, Skinner, Bandura, LEARNING should be organized in order that students can experience success in the process of mastering the subj. matter in a step by step manner with proper sequencing of tasks which is viewed as SIMPLISTIC & MECHANICAL • to Cognitive Theorists: Jean Piaget, Lev Vygotsky, Howard Gardner, Felder & Silverman, Daniel Goleman, LEARNING constitutes the LOGICAL method for organizing & interpreting learning • Cognitivists focus their attention on HOW individuals process information & how they monitor & manage thinking. • Humanists are concerned with how learners can develop their human potential. • Humanistic psychology is the third force learning theory which is built on Gestalt Psych where LEARNING CAN BE EXPLAINED in terms of wholeness of the problem and where the environment is changing & the learner is continuously reorganizing
    28. 28. Lesson 1: Concepts, Nature & Purposes of Curriculum  Focus MAJOR FOUNDATIONS OF CURRICULUM 3. Psychological Foundations of Curriculum BEHAVIORIST PSYCHOLOGY Behaviorism /Association Theories COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY Cognitive-Information Processing Theories HUMANISTIC PSYCHOLOGY Humanistic Theories • Robert Gagne’s Hierarchical sets of Behavior & Learning outcomes: 1. Intellectual skills/”knowing how” to categorize, use & form concepts 2. Information skills/”knowing what” , facts, dates, names 3. Learning skills 4. Motor skills 5. Attitudes, feelings & emotions learned through • Learning is rooted in the tradition of subject matter and is similar to the Cognitive Development Theory of Jean Piaget • Teachers use a lot of problem & thinking skills in teaching & learning – exemplified by practices like reflective thinking, creating thinking, intuitive thinking, discovery learning, etc. • based on Abraham Maslow’s theory of Human needs for self actualizing persons & Carl Roger’s Non- directive lives, curriculum is concerned with the PROCESS; not the products; PERSONAL NEEDS not subject matter; PSYCHOLOGICAL MEANING and ENVIRONMENTAL SITUATIONS.
    29. 29. Lesson 1: Concepts, Nature & Purposes of Curriculum  Focus MAJOR FOUNDATIONS OF CURRICULUM 4. Social Foundations of Curriculum  Societal culture affects and shapes schools and their curricula.  In considering the SOCIAL FOUNDATION, we must recognize that schools are only one of the many institutions that educate society.  In order for schools to be relevant, school curricula should address diversity, explosion of knowledge, school reforms, & education for all; as well as preserve the culture of society & its aspirations.
    30. 30. Lesson 1: Concepts, Nature & Purposes of Curriculum  Take-Action 1. Identifying the Curricula Operating in a Selected School [p.22] = 35 points 2. Curriculum from Two-Points of View: Traditional or Progressive [p.23] = 20 points
    31. 31. Lesson 1: Concepts, Nature & Purposes of Curriculum  Compare & Contrast Ralph Tyler’s Hilda Taba’s Deductive Model Administrator Approach administration should design the curriculum and the teachers try to implement it Tyler curriculum model is stating of the objectives. Read more: http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_is_th e_difference_between_Ralph_Tyler_and_ Hilda_Taba_theory_of_curriculum#ixzz1 kTr3luy7 Inductive Model Teacher's approach teachers are aware of the students needs hence they should be the ones to develop the curriculum the first step in Taba curriculum model is diagnosis of needs

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