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Introduction to comp+word+access

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    Introduction to comp+word+access Introduction to comp+word+access Document Transcript

    • INTRODUCTION TO MICROCOMPUTERSCOMPUTER: Is an electronic device used to store, input, retrieve and output (printing) information. It works under given instructions from the person controlling it.INPUT: To key in or scan data and feed it into the computer.STORE: To make data permanent in the computer memory.RETRIEVE: Make data accessible on the screen.OUTPUT: Get/obtain a printout or soft copy (screen) of the information fed into the computer.DATA: Any raw facts that can be typed or input in the computer, it can be numbers, text or graphics.ADVANTAGES OF COMPUTERS1. SPEED: - Computers work at a very high speed processing information compared to manual methods2. VOLUME: - It can handle very large volumes of data in a small space simultaneously without becoming tired as long as it is properly programmed.3. COMPLEXITY: - It can handle very complex arithmetic calculations within a very short time as opposed to manual calculations.4. ACCURACY: -Are very accurate so long as the person controlling gives proper instructions. (hence the saying garbage in garbage out)5. SECRECY: - Information is fairly protected by use of a password.6. CONSISTENCY: - Gives the same results given the same data and instructions.DISADVANTAGES:1. COST/PRICE: - Computers are very expensive and cannot be afforded by manycompanies and individuals.2. COMPUTER BREAKDOWN: - Like any other machine, computers do breakdown forcing the users to turn to manual methods that are slow hence time wasting.3. HEALTH HAZARD: - Pose great risks especially to eyesight, affected due to prolonged use if the screen is not properly regulated. 1
    • 4. REDUCTION OF LABOUR FORCE: - Many people have been misplaced by computers leading to unemployment.COMPONENTS/PARTS OF A COMPUTER 1. SCREEN: Also known as monitor/visual Display Unit VDU. Viewing of data is done on the screen when it’s being typed. 2. SYSTEM UNIT: It houses the C.P.U also known as the brain (heart) of the computer – it is where the processing of data is done. It is also the place where diskettes are inserted and other delicate component e.g. the hard disk. 3. KEYBOARD: The data to be fed into the computer is typed on the keyboard. Characters will be displayed on the screen. Basic keys on the keyboard: - (i) Typing keyboard: - contain Alphabets, numerals and a number of punctuation marks. (ii) Special keys: Include control, alternate key, shift keys, caps lock, space bar, Backspace and Tab key. (iii) Additional keys: Include the page up, page down, delete home key, print screen, scroll lock, pause, End, Insert. They are input because they help when it comes to editing and formatting text. (iv) Functions Keys: From F1 to F12. These have different functions as far as a computer is programmed. (v) Numeric key pad: Is positioned on the extreme right of the keyboard, it contains +Addition, Enter-Equal sign, * multiplication sign, /used for division, -used for subtraction. (vi) Arrow keys: They facilitate horizontal and vertical movement during text editing. 4. MOUSE: (movement of user selected entry) Is the alternative to the keyboard, although it can be used for typing but it can be used for opening files in windows based programs. 5. PRINTER: This is a hardware piece used for copy production. It is necessary because it produces whatever is displayed on the screen in written form (hard copy)NB We have many other hardware components that can be connected on a computer. ELEMENTS OF A COMPUTER/REQUIREMENTS 1. HARDWARE The physical/touchable components of a computer necessary to make the Computer function. They include - Keyboard, system unit, Monitor, and 2
    • Printer e.t.c. 2. SOFTWARE Set of instructions designed to perform a particular task. Without the computer software the computer cannot work because it depends entirely on software instructions. 3. PEOPLE/ HUMAN WARE: Constitute the most important requirements of a computer system. Their main work is to operate the computer whenever necessary. Generally the computer has operators: (i) Computer operators: - People who have done some of the computer software packages and they know how they operate but not in details. (ii) Computer programmers: Write programs and take to the computer to see how best they can work. (iii) Computer Analyst/System designer: - Perform the task overseeing that the computer output is at its best. Their jobs are detailed and they also carry out installation of packages apart from doing maintenance work.SWITCHING ON A COMPUTERThe act of putting on a computer is termed as booting.There are two types of booting:1. Cold booting (i) Switch on the main switch (ii) Switch on the power button on the CPU (iii) Switch on the power button on the screen (iv) Follow the commands from the computer2. Warm booting By use of either the reset button on the system unit or by use of a combination ofkeys ctrl+alt+DelSWITCHING OFF A COMPUTER (i) Close the program first (ii) Click start button on the screen (iii) Move to shut down and click (iv) From the dialog box which appear on the screen select shut down then ok/yes (v) Wait until the computer tells you its now safe to turn off your computer (vi) Switch off the power button on the screen (vii) Switch off the power button on the system unit. (viii) Switch off the main switch.CLASSIFICATION OF COMPUTERSWe can classify computers using different criteria e.g.1. Size 3
    • 2. Age3. Type of data they accept/process4. PurposeBY SIZE - Super computers - Main-frame computers - Mini-computers - Micro-computers - Laptops and notepadsSUPER COMPUTERSE.G CRAY XTICS(a) Have a big storage capacity(b) They recognize a word as long as 64 or more bits long. (c) They are used in scientific applications such as processing of geological data etcMAINFRAME COMPUTERS (a) Very powerful (b) Have a big storage capacity (c) Many users even more than 1000 can log on the machine simultaneously (d) They are multitasking in nature i.e. several people doing different tasks. Areas of application - Police stations used to store fingerprints - In banksMINI COMPUTERS (a) Are smaller in size and less costly than super and mini computers (b) Their memory storage can be expanded by adding external storage media e.g. tape disks (c) They recognize 16 and 32 bits of word (d) They are also multitasking i.e. several users can log into them doing different tasks (e) They are well adopted for accounting processing database applications and management.MICRO COMPUTERS (a) They are small in size and are normally referred to as P.C (personal Computers) (b) They are well suited for small organizations and individual purposes.LAPTOPS (a) Small and well suited for outdoor work (b) They consume very little power (c) They are designed for individual use for out office work 4
    • CLASSIFICATION BY AGE1ST GENERATIONThe key electronic device of this computer was a vacuum tubesXtics -They were very large in size - Produce a lot of heat - They used magnetic drums to store data - They used punched cards as the input device - Break down chances were so high - They required experts to run them e.g. UNIVAC (Universal Automated Computers) of 1950 – 1959. - Speed was 40,000 operation/seconds2nd GENERATIONThe key electronic device was a transistor - Were more reliable than 1st generation computer - Were small in size than 1st generation computer - The internal memory was in form of magnetic care. - Their speed was 200,000-operational/sec magnetic tape. - E.g. ATLAS, IBM 70003RD GENERATIONThe key feature was the integrated circuit (IC)An IC is a metric of an electronic channels and related components which enablesprocessors with a relatively small physical size to be produced. - They used magnetic tapes for output - Their processing speed was about 1,000,000 - They had higher internal storage capacity - They had multitasking capacities - E.g. IBM and Compaq.4TH GENERATIONThe key feature is very large scale IC - They are smaller in size e.g. laptops - They have a high level of multitasking - Have a high processing speed. - Have a high internal storage. - E.g. Toshiba, Amstrad etc5TH GENERATIONThey are feature computers e.g. mobile phones - They are predicted to have human capacities 5
    • - Their key feature will be artificial intelligence i.e. performing tasks that require them to think - They will also accept voice input/output - The input will also be from remote devicesCLASSIFICATION BY TYPE OF DATA1. DIGITAL COMPUTERS They process data input in digital form (0,1)2. ANOLOG COMPUTERS They process data in physical quantities. Voltages: Their input is in form of smooth graph in which information can be read e.g. Thermometer, Voltmeter e.t.c.3. HI BREED COMPUTERS They have combined features of analogical and digital computers.CLASSIFICATION BY PURPOSE1. Special purpose computers They are ment for a particular job e.g. in weapon guidance, operation purposes in hospital, petrol pump e.t.c.2. Embedded computers This is a computer with some other devices that cannot be assessed directly e.g. cameras, video recorders, security systems e.t.c.3. General purpose computers They are designed to solve a wider variety of problems. They can be adopted in any of the various applications comfortably by means of special written programs. DATA PROCESSINGProcessed data is referred to as information. Data processing can be done in two ways: (i) Online processing: Data is processed right away within that very day or after a few minutes e.g. typing short documents like letters. (ii) Batch processing: A situation whereby data is accumulated on large quantities and they can be processed after some time e.g. after days, weeks, months e.t.c e.g. payroll system.The processed data has to be stored. Reason for storing of information/data are: (i) Future reference (ii) Updating purposes i.e. adding, deleting etc (iii) Learning purposes 6
    • TYPES OF COMPUTER MEMORIES 1. Primary storage. It is a type of memory whose contents are not permanent i.e. if power is switched off then the contents are lost thus it is called a volatile memory e.g. SIMMS DIMMS They are commonly referred to as RAM (Random Access Memory) 2. Secondary storage. It is a kind of memory whose content are permanently stored i.e. even if power is switched off data is not lost, thus it’s said to be non-volatile. It’s commonly referred to as ROM (Read Only Memory)UNITS OF DATABITS A bit is a smallest logical unit a computer can understand. The bit might be a high or alow (1,0)BYTEA byte is a group of eight (8) bits.A WORDA word is a group 16 bit. It can also consist of 32 bits or 64 bits.KILOBYTEA group of 1000 bytes.MEGABYTEA group of 1000 000 bytes.GIGABYTEA group of 1000 000 000 bytes. THE FLOPPY DISKETTEIt’s a thin plastic made of miller used to store data. It’s the principle secondary storagemedia in most microcomputers.TYPES OF DISKETTES 1. 8 Inch Diskettes 2. 51/4 Inch Diskettes 3. 31/2 Inch Diskettes Parts of a 3.5 diskette Data access hub Spindle hole Index hole 7 Write protect notch
    • THE HARD DISKA hard disk is mounted inside the system unitAdvantages of using the hard disk over diskette 1. It’s secure where as a diskette can be spoilt if it falls in water or fire. 2. It stores voluminous amount of data compared to a diskette. 3. To retrieve data from the hard disk is faster compared to a diskette PROCESSING HARDWARE Takes place in CPU. CPU is referred to as the brain of the computer. There are four elements in CPU.  Register  Microprocessor  Central Unit  Control UnitRegister: A temporary storage location of data in the CPU. Its main purpose is toquickly accept data.Microprocessor: To speed up the processing data that might have been very slowwithout it. It is made up of silicon and chip. It is a good conductor of electricity.Central Unit: Integrated circuit that is capable of performing arithmetic calculations.Can be referred to as arithmetic logic unit. (ALU).Control Unit: The center of circulatory system that responds and coordinate to all actionthat takes place in the computer system. Register Input units A.L.U Output units e.g. Control e.g. printer keyboard unit and monitor Back up Basic storage storage e.g. i.e. the hard floppy disks disk 8
    • KEY Data flow Timing and control signalsSPEED OF ACOMPUTERSpeed of processing depends on (i) Addressing scheme (ii) Register capacity (iii) Data bus capacity (iv) The clock speed (v) The instruction setOUTPUT HARDWARE:In computing we get output from either the screen (soft copy) or from the printer.PRINTERSThere are four types of printer when classified by quality of output:1. Dot Matrix PrinterCharacteristics  It is very noise  Very slow  It’s the cheapest printer in terms of cost  The print out quality is not very clear  It cannot produce pictures2. Daisy Wheel PrinterCharacteristics  Its noisy though not as Dot Matrix  Its slightly expensive that Dot Matrix  The printout quality is a bit better than Dot matrix although not as good as laser and ink jet  It’s slow in printing.3. Inkjet/Desk jet printerCharacteristics  Its fast in printing though not as fast as the laser printer  The printout quality is good though not as in laser  Its expensive though not as laser printer  It can print text and pictures in colored form. 9
    • 4. Laser Printer Characteristics  It is the fastest and the speed can be compared to that of a photocopier  The most expensive printer in term of cost.  Makes minimal noise  Has the best printout quality APPLICATION SOFTWARE OR SOFTWARE PACKAGESDefinition: A collection of related programs that are used to perform various jobs/tasks.These are computer programs designed to perform a specific taskThere are 5 major applications software packages: (i) Word processing (ii) Electronic spreadsheets (iii) Database Management System (iv) Graphics Software (v) (vi) Desktop Publishing software’s.WORD PROCESSING SOFTWARE:This is a program used to type, edit and format texts the way one would like it to appear.It is a useful skill required by almost everyone in a company including secretaries,managers, etc.Examples: Word Perfect Ms word WordStar.ELECTRONIC SPREADSHEETSUsed in mathematical and statistical statements.Figures are arranged into rows and columnsProduce personalized reports, financial, mathematical and statistics.Examples: SuperCalc Lotus 123 Ms ExcelDATA BASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM.This is the kind of software adopted to handle large related files. Are applied in telephonedirectory, payroll system, electricity billing, water billing etc.  Used to maintain information in form of organized files and records.  One can update, delete or add records.Examples: D base F FoxPro Access Oracle 10
    • SQL 2000GRAPHICS SOFTWAREUsed to produce high quality graphics and can also add texts on these graphics.Mostly used by architectures and designersExamples: Harvard Graphics Corel Draw CAD Auto CAD Auto shopDESKTOP PUBLISHING SOFTWAREUsed to produce high quality professional looking publication e.g. wedding cards,calendar, business cards etcRefers to the use of computers in type setting documents for publication.It has a variety of sizes and combines both texts and graphics togetherExample: PageMaker PowerPoint Publisher COMPUTER PROGRAMMINGThis is the writing of programs (software) that perform varies or intended tasks. Theprofessions concerned are called programmers. In programming they use special codescalled programming languages.ExamplesFORTRANFormula translation – the earliest language developed in 1954  Most of its command are written in scientific form  Its not much in use nowadaysCOBOLCommon Business Oriented  Long developed in 1961 with most of its command written in English form.  Mostly used in business organizations for programs writingBASICBeginners, all purpose symbolic instruction code.  Was developed in 1965 with most of its commands written in scientific form.  It’s very easy to learn and interpret and highly recommended for those who want to start programming. 11
    • C-LANGUAGEAn advancement of Fortran and the Basic.  Most of its commands are written in scientific form  It’s the most common and popular programming language used nowadays.VIRUS(Vital information Resources under siege)This is a small program written to corrupt or damage the information stored in thecomputer system. It also duplicates itself from one computer to another. A virus needssome kind of executable programs such as .EXE .SYS .COM to be active to infect asystem and to spread. Based on its working and spreading methods virus can be dividedinto the following types.WORMDoes not do much harm but keeps multiplying to occupy free space in memory.Symptom – Insufficient memory.TRUJANThey hide in useful programs e.g. in music while you are listening to music the virus isformatting your hardware. They attack themselves to files like EXE .COM etcBOMBThey run for some specific event or time to be active e.g. dates, a game time on particulardate.MBR INFECTOR (Master boot record)They are activated every time a machine boots from the hard disk.DBR INFECTOR (DOS BOOT RECORD)Infects DBR in diskettesMULTIPARTITE VIRUSIt has all the above effects. I.e. it affects MBR, DBR and programs.STEALTH VIRUSAre special viruses, which affect memory. They cannot be defected by a virus scannerbecause they keep changing their codes.POLYMORPHIC VIRUSThey change their appearance by using encryption. They are hard to detect.HOW VIRUSES SPREAD  Through network  Through infected hardware e.g. memory and diskettes 12
    • PREVENTION OF VIRUS  Never download information from internet un protected sites  Never access a diskette that you are not sure of the machine that it was used in  Avoid pirated software  Always write protect your diskettes if you are not sure of the machine you are about to use to access your diskette.REMEDY FOR VIRUS  Install an anti virus in your computer  Always scan diskettes before Accessing them in your computerWHAT TO DO WITH THE INFECTED FILES  Remove the virus from the file and restore the file to its original location  Erase the file completely  Quarantine the file and mail it to expertsEXAMPLES OF ANTIVIRUS PROGRAM  Norton anti virus  Macfee anti virus  Doctor Solomon MICROSOFT DISK OPERATING SYSTEM (MSDOS)We have various DOS programs developed by different corporations’ e.g. IBM,MACINTOSH etc; but our case study will be on Ms-dos developed by the MicrosoftCorporation.In MS-DOS we use commands to carry out various tasks. Commands are just keyboardcharacters or symbols that tell the computer what to do. These commands should beissued at a set format for the computer to understand. The correct format of issuing acommand for the computer to understand is referred to as syntax.There are two categories of Ms-dos commands * Internal commands * External commands INTERNAL COMMANDSThese commands are based in the computer primary memory and reside there until thecomputer is shut down. 13
    • When the computer is booted, they are loaded into the primary memory (RAM). Theyalso referred to as memory based commands.This command includes: -DATE - this command displays the system date and gives a chance to change the date.TIME - this command displays the system time and gives a chance to change the time.CLS - (clear the screen) used to clear the screenVER - (version) this command displays the version of Microsoft dos installed in yourcomputer.VOL - (volume) This command displays the volume, label and serial number of a drive.DIR - (display) This command displays the contents of a drive, directory andsubdirectory (that is all files and directories)Note that when you use the command the directories will be denoted at the end with the<DIR>.SWITCHES TO BE USED WITH THE DIR COMMANDA switch is just a character that you can insert after a command to manipulate how thecommand is carried out.Switch P (pause mode) Used to display the content of a drive while pausing every screen-full.Syntax DIR/PSwitch B (bare format mode) Used to display the contents of a drive on the left side ofthe screen.Syntax - DIR/BSwitch W (wide format mode) Displays the contents of a drive a cross the screen.Syntax - DIR/WSwitch L (Lower case)- displays the content of a drive in lower case that is small lettersSyntax - DIR/L 14
    • Switch O (sort order). - It Displays the content of a drive alphabeticallySyntax DIR/OFor the order command to work properly, you must specify to DOS which mode tofollow in sortingE.g. we use switch N to sort the files in order of name alphabetically from A - Z.Syntax DIR/O:NSyntax DIR/O:-N will display the file alphabetically arranged from Z - A.Syntax DIR/O:E will arrange the file extensions alphabeticallySyntax DIR/O:-E will arrange the extensions from Z - A.Syntax DIR/O:D displays the directories or files alphabetically as per date of theirmakingWILD CARDSThese are symbols that denote other characters in DOSThey are mainly two: The asterik (*) denotes many characters The question mark (?) denotes one character ASTERIKIt has two functions:1. Displays files with specific extensions e.g. dir *.Txt displays files with extensions txt no matter the number of characters in the suffix (main name)2. Displays files, which start with specific characters e.g. dir C*.* displays files that start with letter C. QUESTION MARKUsed to display files that have certain number of characters. Each question markrepresents acharacter. E.g. dir ????? Displays files that have maximum characters of five. 15
    • N/B wild cards can be used along other DOS commandsFORMATINGTo format is to prepare your storage media for data inputting. During formatting tracksand sectors are drawn on your storage media. The command should be issued at adifferent drive from the one you intend to format.Syntax c:>format a:PARAMETERS ASSOCIATED WITH FORMAT COMMANDWe can use switches to manipulate the computer to format our drive as per our choicese.g. Syntax c:>format A:/S - Used to transfer system files to the formatted disk. Thesystem files transferred are: 1. Input, output system (io.sys) 2. Ms-dos system (MsDos.sys) 3. Commands.com.Syntax format A:/B - Used for creating a blank space for the system files.Syntax c:>format A:/C - used to check clusters that are currently marked bad.Syntax c:>format A:/V - Used for giving volume label automatically at a command linee.g.C:>format a:/v: name (here type the volume label)Syntax c:>format A:/U This is called unconditional format, it destroys all the existingData and prevents you from using the unformat command.Syntax c:>format A:/F When this switch F is used you must specify the size of the driveyou are formatting e.g. c:>format A:/F:1.44mb.Syntax C:>format A:/q this switch is used to carry out a quick format. Mostly used todelete the content of your disketteThe other variant of the format command is the unformat. This external commandrestores what was lost when formatting.TREEThis is a way of arranging related data in DOS. The data is arrange in root directories,directories, sub-directories, and files.The commands used in tree formation are:i. MD (make directory) used to remind the computer theres a directory waiting to becreated. 16
    • ii. CD (change directory) Used to change from one working directory into another so asto put a sub-directory or a file.iii. CD.. Used to take us one step behind.iv. CD Takes us straight to the root directory.iv RD used to get rid of a directory. You must fulfill the following conditions: -The directory must be empty -You must be one step behind it i.e. it should not have a subdirectory or files. -You must type the correct name of the directory you want to delete.v. Deltree This command is used to get rid of the entire tree structure.FilesA file is a collection of related data. The name of a file comprises of 11characters, eightcharacters in the main name (prefix) and an extension of 3 characters (suffix) e.g.caro.txt. A file name can contain both alphabets and numerals. Such a file name is calledalphanumeric file name.Also we have valid characters and invalid characters when naming files.Invalid characters Valid charactersComma ` @ at signQuestion mark? % SignSemi-colon; $ dollar signFull colon: ! Exclamation markGreater than > # number sign etcLess than sign < Any alphabetical characterPlus sign + etc Any numeral number*SpaceNB: Never give your files names or extensions similar to those used or given to theProgramme/system files e.g. exe, COM, and sys.CATEGORIES OF FILESSYSTEM FILES: They are denoted by the extension (SYS).They contain the hardware instructions which the computer uses to manage andWork with a particular hardware device e.g. of a system files Himem .sys.This file enables the computer to manage the extended memory.BATCH FILES: They are denoted by extension (BAT) They contain commands that arecarried off or executed as a set e.g. of a batch file - Autoexec.bat this contains commandssuch as date, time etcPROGRAMME FILES: They are denote by extension (.com or .exe) They containProgramme files, which enables the computer to run an application e.g. 17
    • Keyb.exe - it contains a program that tell the computer how to utilize the keyboardSPECIALIZED DATA FILES: These have a wide range of extensions. They result as auser works with an application. E.g. txt for text, dbf for database...WORKING WITH FILES.COPY CON - This is used in creating of filesSyntax copy con (file name)N/B You must be at the point in a directory that you want to contain that file.Type - Used to display the content of a fileSyntax at the location of a file issue the commandSyntax: type (file name)COPY - This command has two functions: a). Used to transfer files from one location to another.Syntax [be sure you are at the location of the file] copy (file name)Specify where the file has to be taken starting with the root director E.g. A:copy Ann C:windows b). It is also used for combining filesN/B Be sure you are where the files are locatedSyntax A: copy Ann+Joy (new file name)REN - (rename) this command is used for changing a file nameSyntax A:REN (current file name) (new file name)EDIT Used to modify the content of a fileSyntax [at the location of a file] type edit [name of the file]This takes you to a window with file editing featuresUse the alt key to activate the various menus and press the highlightedLetter to select a desired function EXTERNAL COMMANDSThey are commands, which reside on high-speed disk e.g. the hard disk or floppy disk.They are also called utility commands or disk based commands.Functions: - Used for disk preparation e.g. fdisk, format, label General disk maintenance e.g. scandisk, defrag 18
    •  Sorting and merging files with high speed e.g. append Transferring of files e.g. move, xcopy, diskcopy. Attributes:- they are characteristics given to a filesRead-Only:- when the Read Only Attribute is assigned to a file you cannot make anychanges to that file.Archive: - this attribute will not allow anybody to copy or modify a file, the file isusually hidden.Hide: - it hides the files specified NB-you can not display the files using the Dircommand. WINDOWS (operating system)It’s a graphical user interface operating system. A graphical user interface (GUI)communicates with the user through pictures (icons) thus the mouse becomes an essentialinput device.Functions of an operating system1. Job control-e.g. loading of programs into the main memory, facilitating continuous processing, and passing control from one job to another.2. Configure hardware-The OS controls the operation of input and output devices such that they can accept input data and instructions as well as output information in an efficient manner. It also protects Hardware from electrical abnomalities3. Configure system utilities e.g. date and time.4. Work as a platform for application programs.5. Supports multiprogramming-The Os schedules and contrls the running of several programs at the once.6. Keep details of recourse use- e.g number of files stored, space occupied and the available free space remaining.7. Detect and report errors- During operation the OS checks the process of operation and if an error is detected it is reported to the operator.Versions of windows1. Windows 3.1, 3.52. Windows 953. Windows 984. Windows 2000, 2000 profession and 2000 advanced server5. Windows millennium edition (Me)6. Windows XP7. Windows NT8. Windows.net 19
    • The desktopThis is the concept available in the development of windowsIt is the default window in which a computer running windows ends on booting.Parts of a desktop Task bar: it has the start button, system date and time. It also displays the activities currently happening in the computer. Icons: they are pictorial representation of some features on a computer e.g. Commands, files, folders, My computer, Recycle bin etc Start button: - It initializes most operations in the computer. It lies on the task bar. Wall Paper: - This is the background color that appears on the desktop.Dialog BoxThis is an electric form through which the user inputs data and instructions for thecomputer to complete a task.Parts of a Dialog box 1. Title Bar:- contains the title 2. Menu Bar:- Contains options from where you can choose any. 3. Selection tabs 4. List Box 5. Text box-plain box containing text 6. Preview window-where the results of a procedure can be previewed. 7. Command buttons:- Find now, Stop, New Search. 8. Option Buttons:-the white circular buttons 9. Check Box:- small squares where you can select an option 10. Status Bar:- gives us a report on a procedure. 11. Close button:- used to close or cancel a dialog box.SETTINGSThis is the process of configuring windows appearance and the its response to both inputand output devices.Under settings we shall configure the following:MouseKeyboardDate/TimeDisplayTHE MOUSE 20
    • It’s a pointing device used to issue commands by pointing and clicking. It makes issuingof commands very easy in a G.U.I environment.Terms used with the mouse1. A click: used to select a utility or an icon.2. Double click: used to open a utility.3. Right click: used to bring up a menu about an icon.4. Dragging and dropping:- used to arrange icons and copying of icons.Configuration Of The MouseIn normal circumstances the mouse is configured to be used by the right-handed peoplewhereby the left button is used in ordinary working conditions and the right button isgiven special functions e.g. Retrieving of menus, creating shortcuts.For the left-handed people the mouse is configured in reverse.How to configure the mouse Click on the start button Choose settings Click on the control panel icon Double click the mouse icon Complete the dialog box that appears Click the apply button Click on okOr Double click My Computer icon Double click the control panel icon Double click the mouse icon Make the desired adjustments Click on apply button Click on okADJUSTING THE DATE AND TIME Double click My Computer icon Double click the control panel icon Double click the date/time icon Make the desired adjustments in the window that appears Click apply button Click on ok 21
    • Or Right click the system clock on the task bar, a menu comes up. Click on adjust date/time Make the desired adjustments in the window that appears Click on the apply button Click on okCUSTOMIZING THE DISPLAYUnder Display we can change:Background, Screen saver, Appearance and settings Changing Background Double click my computer icon Double click the control panel icon Double click display icon Click on background tab in the window that appears Choose the desired background at the wallpaper option Specify if you want it tiled or center Click apply button Click on ok Or Right click any empty area on the Desktop From the menu displayed click on properties Click on background Choose the desired wall paper Click apply button Click on okScreen saverIt’s an animation of text or graphic that appears automatically on the screen when acomputer lies idle for a set period of time. It used to protect the screen against electricalburnProcedure Double click My Computer icon Double click the control panel Double click display icon Click the screen saver menu Select the desired screen saver at the screen saver option Set the time duration at the wait option Click on apply button Click on ok 22
    • To set text as the screen saver Double click My Computer icon Double click the control panel Double click display icon Click the screen saver menu Select scrolling marquee or 3D text at the screen saver option Click on settings Type the desired text at the text option Click on ok Set the time at the wait option Click on apply button Click on ok AppearanceYou can change the color or size of icons in your computer.Steps:In the control panel double click on displayClick on the appearance tabUnder scheme option select the scheme color you wantSelect the color you want for the iconsClick on applyClick Ok KeyboardUnder Keyboard we can change:SpeedLanguageCursor blinking rate Adjusting speedIn the control panel double click on the keyboard iconClick on the speed tab and set the desirable repeat rate delay and cursor blinking rate LanguageSelect language tab while in keyboard settings dialogue boxSelect the new language and choose apply.NB: It only works when the dictionary for that language is installed. 23
    • FOLDERSThey are equivalent to directories in MS-DOS. A folder is a storage location, a divisionof a folder is called a subfolder.CREATING FOLDERSAt the desktop Right click any empty area on the desktop Choose new then click on folder. Type the name to be given to the folder Press the enter keyTo make a subfolder in the above folder Double click the folder to open Click on file menu Choose new Click on folder Type the name of the folder Press the enter keyCreating a folder in drive c (hard disk) Double click My Computer icon Double click drive C Click on file menu Choose new Click on folder Type the name of the new folder Press the enter keyTo create a subfolder in the above folder Double click the folder to open Click on file menu Choose new Click on folder Type the name of the folder Press the enter keyCreating a folder in drive A (floppy diskettee) Double click My Computer icon 24
    •  Double click floppy icon Click on file menu Choose new Click on folder Type the name of the folder Press the enter keyTo create a subfolder in the above folder Double click the folder to open Click on file menu Choose new Click on folder Type the name of the folder Press enter keyRenaming of folders and subfoldersa) on the desktop Right click on the folder, a menu comes up Click on rename Type the new name Press the enter keyTo rename the subfolder Double click the folder to open Click on the folder once to select Click on file menu Click on rename Type the new name Press enter keyb) To rename a folder in drive C or A Locate the folder Click on it once to select Click on file menu Click on rename Type the new name Press enter key 25
    • Deleting of folders and subfoldersa) On the desktop Right click on the folder a menu comes up Click on delete Confirm the deletionOr Click on the folder to select Press the delete key on the keyboard Confirm the deletionb) In drive A and C Locate the folder to be deleted Click on it once to select Click on file menu Click on delete Confirm the deletionN/B deleted files and folders are stored temporally in the recycle bin but those deleted indrive A are deleted once and for all.THE RECYCLE BINIts icon is located on the desktop. To go to the recycle bin, double click the icon on thedesktop. To restore a deleted file Double click the icon of the recycle bin on the desktop Locate the file and click on it once to select Click on file menu Click on restoreIf you feel that you want to get rid of the file completely Double click the recycle bin Locate the file and click on it to select Click on file menu Click on delete Confirm the deletionN/B Once a file has been cleared from the recycle bin it cannot be recovered. 26
    • Using the Cut Copy and Paste CommandsCut command is used to move items from one position to anotherCopy command is used to duplicate itemsPaste is used to transfer the copied or cut item to the required positionTo move a folder from the desktop to drive A/C Right click on the folder From the menu displayed click on cut Double click My Computer icon Double click A/C Click on edit menu Click on pasteTo copy a folder from the desktop to A/C Right click on the folder Click on copy Double click My Computer icon Double click A/C Click on edit menu Click on pasteTo move a folder from C to A Double click My Computer icon Double click drive C Locate the folder and click on it to select Click on edit menu Click on cut Close drive C and double click A to open Click on edit menu Click on pasteTo copy a folder from C to A Double click My Computer icon Double click C Locate the file and click on it to select Click on edit menu Click on copy Close C and double click on A to open Click on edit menu 27
    •  Click on paste Working with windows programs (To Load a Program e.g. WordPad) Click on the start button Choose programs Point on accessories Click either Notepad or WordPadPARTS OF A WINDOWA window is the kind of display you get from the computer. It also represent the workingarea of an application program currently active in memory e.g. Ms word window. It’stermed “windows” because of different displays. Title bar: It describes the name of the program running and it’s the topmost part of a window usually blue in color. It has three buttons; minimize button, maximize/restore button and close button. Menu Bar: - It has options or commands that are used when the working on the program e.g. file edit format etc. Standard toolbar:- It represents commands inform of icons, e.g. save icon, print icon, font icon e.t.c. Formatting Bar: - It has options that can be used to change the appearance of text. Ruler: - We have the horizontal and vertical rulers which are used to set the page margins. Typing Area:- This is the area where all manner of typing is done. Scroll bars: We have the horizontal and vertical scroll bars which are used to navigate in your document. Status bar: it shows how your working space has been utilized and displays the name of the program running. Minimize button: - Used to reduce the size of a window to the taskbar Restore button: - It returns the window to the previous size. Maximize button:- It enlarges the size of the window to occupy the whole screen.WORKING WITH FILES IN WINDOWSWhen you use a program and save your work you are creating a file.In windows we shall create our files using the programs WordPad and NotepadCreating a file Open the source program eg Word pad Enter data into the file 28
    • To save the file Click on file menu while you are in the file making program Click on save as Type the name of the file at the file name box in the dialogue box that appears Choose the location or folder to save the file at the save in box. Click on save button.To save again after making changes Click on file menu Click on saveOpening a fileUse any of these ways to open a file1) Open the source program Click on the file menu Click on open In the open dialogue box specify the location of the file Select the file and click on open2) Using Find/Search Click on start button Choose find/search Click on files or folders Type the name of the file at the named option in the window that appears Select where you saved the file at the look in option Click on find now button A list of files with near names will be displayed Locate the file and double click on it to openCOPYING OF FILES Locate the file you want to move or copy Click once on its icon to select Click on edit menu Click on copy Move to where you want to copy the file Click on edit menu Click on pasteMoving of a file Locate the file you want to move 29
    •  Click on its icon once to select Click on edit menu Click on cut Move to where you want to move the file Click on edit menu Click on pasteRenaming of a file Locate the file and click on it once to select Click on file menu Click on rename Type the new name press the enter keyOr if the file is on the desktop Right click on the file Click on rename Type the new name and press enterPAINTIt’s used for designing and drawing of graphics.To load paint Click on the start button Choose programs Choose accessories Click on paintTo draw you click on a utility e.g. pencil then hold down the left button of the mouse todraw.THE CALCULATORIt works like an ordinary calculator Click on the start button Choose programs Choose accessories Click on calculatorTo switch between standard and scientific calculator Click on view menu Click on standard or scientificSystem Toolsa) ScandiskUsed to check for errors on your drivesb) Disk defragmenter 30
    • Used to re-arrange files and file pads in the memoryFORMATING OF A DISKETTEFormatting is preparing of your storage media device for data inputReasons to why we format a disk To quickly delete the entire contents of a disk Unformatted disk cannot store information When you format the disk becomes as good as new. Steps Double click on My Computer icon Click on the floppy A once to select it Click on the file menu Click on format Specify the kind of format i.e full format or quick format Type the volume label Click on start A summary of the format will be displayed Click on closeCopying the Content of One Diskette to Another (Disk copy) Double click My Computer Click on floppy A once to select it Click on file menu Click on copy disk Follow the instructionsWorking with windows ExplorerIt enables one to be able to view all the contents of a computer. Files and folders can beviewed in a hierarchical manner. To load the explorer:-Click on the start button,-Point to programs and click on Windows Explorer.The following operations can be done in the explorer: Creating of folders and subfolders Renaming of folders and files Deleting of folders and files Copying and moving of folders Viewing of properties of a file or folder.Creating Shortcuts of Files on the Desktop Click on the start button Click on find or search 31
    •  Click on files or folders Type the name of the file at the named option Click on find now or search When the file is displayed click on it once to select it Point at it and hold down the right button and drag it to any empty area on the screen and drop it A menu comes up click on create shortcut here and close the find windowWorking with many programs(Multitasking)This is the ability of windows to run more than one program at the same time.To start the second program click at the start button point to programs and locate theprogram you want.Arranging active programs on the Taskbar (commands of the Taskbar)Running programs can be arranged in different ways on the taskbar.-Cascade-Tile Horizontally-Tile VerticallySteps Right click any empty area on the task bar From the menu displayed arrange as desired i.e. Cascade, Horizontal or Vertically.TYPES OF WINDOWSa) Active window- it is a window you can make changes to. It usually has a brighter title barb) Inactive window- it’s a window that is active in memory but changes cannot be made on it. Its title bar is dull coloredc) Minimized window-it’s a window that is active in memory but hidden on the task bard) Maximized window- it’s a window that is occupying the entire area of the screen.e) Restored window- it’s a window that is occupying only part of the screen areaSCANNING FOR VIRUSES Click on the start button Choose programs Choose the Antivirus program Select the drive to scan Click on scan for virus 32
    • MICROSOFT WORDThis is an application program that falls under word processor. A word processor is aprogram that manipulates text in the fastest and most accurate way possible. It is highlyspecialized in text handling (creating, formatting and editing of documents)Examples of Word processors include:Word PerfectWord StarBENEFITS OF MS WORD-You can type a document once i.e. all additions deletions changes and corrections areaccomplished by editing.-You can produce repetitive form letters by merging.LOADING MICROSOFT WORDPoint at the start button and clickPoint to programs and locate Micro soft wordORClick on startPoint and click on runType the path to the program you want to runClick ok Creating a new documentSteps: - When you start word a blank document appears ready for you to start typing. If you do not have one click on file menu Point to new and click Select blank document Click ok Enter data into the documentSaving a documentWe save a document in order to use it at a later time or dateSteps: Click on file menu Select save as 33
    •  In the save as dialogue box specify the name and the location (folder, drive) for your file. Click on save Opening a saved documentSteps When Microsoft Word is open click on file menu Point and click on open Specify the drive or folder for your file Select the name of the file Click on open Closing a documentSteps: Click on file menu Select closeOr Click on the close button on the extreme right of the menu barExiting wordSteps: Point and click on file menu Click on exitEditing textWe can select text using the following methods: Point at the beginning of your selection hold down the left mouse button and drag to the end of the selection Click at the beginning of the selection hold down shift key and move using the arrow keys Click at the beginning of the selection hold down shift and click at the end of the selection. To select one word double click on it To select a paragraph triple click on it To select a whole document click on edit and choose select all or press ctrl+A Formatting TextFormatting evolves changing the appearance of text. Under formatting we can changethe following: Font size Font face Font style 34
    •  Font color Position AnimationSteps: Select the text to be affected Click on format menu and choose font From the font dialogue box format as desired Click Ok Unselect the text to see the effectFormatting paragraphsAlignmentSteps: Select the text you want to align From format menu choose paragraph Chose the alignment you want Click okIndentationThis is positioning a paragraph from the marginSteps Select the paragraph to be affected From format menu click on paragraph Set the indentation as desired Click okLine spacingSpace between lines is called leader and between characters is called track.Steps: Select the text you want to affect From format menu choose paragraph Set the line spacing Click okBullets and NumberingWe use bullets and numbering to mark ordered and unordered listSteps: Select the text you want to add bullets or numbers From format menu click on bullets and numbering 35
    •  Click on bullet or number tab Select the style or symbol you want Click on okNB: You can customize bullet symbols or number styles by clicking on customize button.Change Case command Select the text to be affected From format menu click on change case Choose the case you want from the options displayed Click on OkBorders and ShadingSteps: Select the text you want to add borders or shading From format menu select borders and shading Select the border style, color, line and shading you want Click okTo add a border to a page Choose the page border selection tab Choose the style and color Click okColumnsWe use this command to partition our text into columns.Steps Position the cursor where you want to begin typing the columns From format menu click on columns Specify the number of columns and style you want Click ok Type normallyTo move from one column to anotherSteps From insert menu click on break Specify column break Click Ok Type normally 36
    • Data transfer and replication We do this using the copy, cut and paste commandsSteps Select the text you want to copy or cut From edit menu choose copy or cut Position the cursor where you want the data to appear From edit menu Choose pasteUsing find and replaceSteps: From edit menu click on find or replace Type in the word you want to find in the find what box Click on find nextReplace command If you want to replace a word Type the word in the find box Type the word you want to use for the replacement in the replace with box Click on replace Click on closeUsing the undo commandWe use this command to quickly reverse changes that we make on our document andrealize that they were a mistakeSteps To quickly reverse Click on Edit menu and choose Undo or RedoUsing the view menu (kinds of display in word)We use this menu to change the appearance of our document on the screenWe are able to change the layout and the available tools by this commandNormal viewUnder this view we are only able to see the text and not the drawingIt is useful for quick editing 37
    • Page layoutIt displays all the characters in the document, as they would appear on the print outOutline layoutIt displays the document text in their classificationIt is used to re arrange the document Print PreviewIt displays how you document will appear on the page when printed. Click on file menu Click on print preview Make changes on your document using the preview toolbar Click on close button to exit the previewHeaders/FootersHeader is text that appears at the top of every page in a document.Footer is text that appears at the bottom of every page in a documentSteps: From view menu click on header and footer In the header area type text you want to appear at the top of every page. In the footer area type text that will appear at the bottom of every page Click close button on the header and footer toolbar.NB: You can use the header and footer toolbar to insert header or footerFootnoteThey are used to describe words in the document Position the cursor after the word in the document Click on insert menu Click on footnote Click on the kind of numbering you want Click on Ok.ZoomingWe use the zoom command to adjust the image size on the screenSteps: From view menu click on zoom Adjust the percentage size Click okBackground formatting Click on format 38
    •  Point to background and select the color you want To remove color click on no fillPage setupThis command is used to design the document layout in the following areas:(a) Margins(b) Paper size(c) Layout(d) Paper sourceSteps: Click on file menu Click on page setup Select on each of the selection tabs and adjust your settings Click okInserting a Page BreakSteps Position the insertion point where you want the page break to appear From insert menu click on break Specify you want a page break Click ok To delete a manual page break change to normal view Double click on the page break and press the delete keyDate and Time Place the cursor where you want to insert date or time Click on insert menu Select date and time Choose the format you want Click okText boxIt is found on insert menu and is used to type text at places where other normal means could not be used. Click on insert menu and choose text box Move the pointer to the position you want the text to be Hold down the left button and drag to draw the box Type in your textTo format the Text Box Select the text box Click on it using the right mouse button Click on format text box 39
    •  Make the desired changes Click on OkInserting Symbols Type the text Position the cursor where you want the symbol to appear Click on insert menu Click on symbol Select the symbol you want Click on insert Click on close.Superscript and Subscript Select the text to affect From format menu click on font Under effects select superscript or subscriptInserting a PictureSteps Click on insert menu Point on picture and click on clipart From the clipart gallery select the picture to insert Click on insertFormatting the Background of a picture Select the picture From format menu click on picture Select the borders and shading tab Select the style and color of the border Click OkInserting WordArtSteps: Point and click where you want the text to appear From insert menu point on picture and click on WordArt Select the Wordart style you want Click OkNB use the WordArt toolbar to format the WordArt textPage numbering 40
    • Steps Click on insert menu Click on page numbers Select the position and the alignment of the page number Click on format to specify the number style you want Click on OkNB Specify if want the page number to appear on first page or not. Drop capWe use this command to create a dropped capital letter at the beginning of a paragraph.Steps Select the paragraph Click on format menu and choose drop cap Select the style of dropcap and number of lines to drop Click OkTo remove the drop cap: Select the character dropped From format choose drop cap Select none Click okSpelling and grammarWe use this command to check and correct spelling and grammer mistakes in adocument.Steps From tools menu click on spelling and grammar Select a word from the suggestion box and click on change to replace the mispelt word Complete the dialogue box till the computer report that the spell check is complete.Using the print previewBefore you print your work it is good practice to make sure that it will come out the wayyou want it to by using the preview.Steps Click on file menu and choose print preview Make changes using the preview toolbar Click close to go back to your document 41
    • Tabs Position the cursor where you want to start typing From format menu select tabs Specify the tab stop position Choose the leader if necessary Click on set Click on Ok. TablesThe following are some activities that we can perform on a table:(a) Inserting and deleting of cells(b) Merge cells(c) Split cells(d) Autoformat(e) Sort(f) CalculationSteps for inserting a table Click on table menu and choose insert table Specify the number of rows and columns Click OkDeleting cells Select the number of rows or columns you want to delete From table menu choose delete row or delete columnsInserting cells Select the number of cells you want to insert From table menu choose insert row or columnMerging cells Select the cells you want to merge From table menu choose merge cellsSplitting cells Select the cells you want to split 42
    •  From table menu choose split cellsSorting Select the table From table menu choose sort Specify the column to sort by and the sort order Click okCalculationsSteps: Position the cursor in the cell where you want the answer to appear From table menu choose formulae Edit the formulae accordingly e.g. =sum (A2:A5) Click OkTable AutoformatSteps Select the table to format From table menu choose table autoformat Select the style and design you want Click okAlternatively we can use the borders and shading command to add borders to a tableMail MergeThis is a procedure for combining data base records into a document so as to produce asmany documents as the number of records.It is particularly helpful in producing several copies of the same letter but addressed todifferent shareholders or addresses.Steps Create a new document and type your main document (standard letter) From tools menu select mail merge Under the main document click on create button Choose form letters Select active window buttonStep two 43
    •  Click on get data and choose create data source Specify all the field names you want in your data source To remove a field, select it and click on remove field name button To add a field, type it in the field name box and click on add field name button When done click on ok Save your data source Click on edit data source button Enter all your records in the data source table and choose ok Use the insert merge field button to type the main document To merge the main document to the data source click on merge from tools menu Click on merge again MICROSOFT EXCELIts an electronic spreadsheet that allows you to enter data, perform calculations, makedecisions, organize data in charts and develop professional reports.ADVANTAGES OF SPREADSHEETS.1. It is faster compared to manual method.2. It is easier to use after learning the commands.3. It makes arithmetic calculations to become easier.4. It save time compared to manual methods.DISADVANTAGES1. A wrong formulae will give a wrong answer.2. In case an error occurs then the whole worksheet will be wrong.3. If the worksheet is too large, then it cannot be viewed all at once.OTHER SPREADSHEET PROGRAMS ARE: -1. Lotus 1232. VisCalc3. Quatro Pro4. Multiplan5. SupercalcEXAMPLES OF AREAS WHERE SPREADSHEET ARE APPLICABLE.1. Budgeting 44
    • 2. Financial analysis3. Database management4. Charting and GraphingFeatures in the excel window are the same as those in word except for the following: Work book title Work sheet tab Row headers Column headers Formulae barThe intersection between a row and a column is called a cellThe cells are referred to using the column and the row labelsThe labels given to cells are referred as cell addresses i.e. A1The thick line around the current cell is the cell selectorThe square of a cell at the right hand corner is called AutoFill handleThe thick white pointer, which is seen over the worksheet or cells, is called cell pointer.Navigating through the worksheetWe can use: -Arrow keysWe use this to move to the direction of the arrow by one cellMouseClick on any particular cell where you want to move to and cell sector will be shifted to itCtrl+ HomeTakes you to the first cell in the worksheetCtrl+EndTakes you to the last edited cell in the rangeCtrl+Arrow RightTakes you to the last column in the worksheet 45
    • Ctrl + Down ArrowTakes you to the last row in the worksheetMaking selectiona) Click and hold down the left mouse button and drag the pointer over the range of cellsb) Click on the first cell in the range then hold down the shift key and click the last cell in the rangec) Click on the 1st cell in the range hold down shift and move through the range of cells using the arrow keysd) Click on the row header to select the rowe) Click on the column header to select a columnf) Click on the junction of row and column to select the whole worksheetg) To make non-continuos selection hold down ctrl key and click to select the cells you wantCreating a new WorkbookA workbook is a tool that is used for maintaining predominantly numeric data in a tabularform simplifying numerous calculations and presenting numerical data graphically.Areas where it is used:a) Company sales report showing the sales for each item over the yearb) Employees payroll to calculate employees salaries for each monthc) Students progress to store information on students marksd) Personal expenses to maintain your budget for monthly expensesSteps:a) From file menu click on newb) Select the workbook icon and click on okc) To enter data point and click in the cell where you want the datad) Type in the data using the keyboarde) Press enter To edit data in a worksheeta) Double click on the cell containing the datab) Use the arrow keys to move the cursor to the area of correctionSaving a worksheetSteps:a) From file menu click on save asb) Specify the name and the location for your filec) Click on save 46
    • Opening a saved worksheetSteps: From file menu click on open Specify the location and name for your file Click on open Closing a work sheet From file menu click on close or use the close button Exit ExcelFrom file menu select exit or press Alt f4 simultaneously Re-naming a worksheet Double click on its sheet tab and type the new nameTo copy/move a worksheet Select the sheet you want to copy or move From edit menu select move/copy Indicate the new location for the sheet Click ok Inserting a worksheet From insert menu click on worksheetDeleting a worksheet From edit menu choose delete sheetNB The command is not reversible Copying/moving data Select the cells containing the data you want to copy or move From edit menu click on cut or copy Point and click at the beginning of the cell where you want the data 47
    •  From edit menu select pasteChanging cell addressing system From tools menu choose option Select the general tab Put on or off the check box with the words RICI reference styleData entryThere are 3 main categories of data that you can enter in a worksheet:-Labels e.g. name-Values e.g. 40-Formulae e.g. =sum (C1:C2)Other types of entries include:Pictures From insert menu point on picture and click on clipart Select the source and the name of the picture you want Click on insertCommentsComments are hidden details within a cell and can only be seen when the cell is selectedor pointed at. Click on insert menu and select comment Type in the comment you want Click outside the comment boxNB: To view the comment point at the triangle on the top right corner of the cell.HyperlinkThis is an address which when clicked on will lead to the opening of the indicatedlocation in the network or memory.Steps Select the cell where you want the link to appear From insert menu click on link 48
    •  Type the address or path to data you want to link Click okTo activate hyperlink point on the address till your pointer becomes a hand then clickAdding and removing worksheet parts To insert a column select the number of columns you want to insert From insert menu click on columns To insert a row select insert row from insert menu To insert a cell click on insert then cells then specify the direction of cells Click okDeleting rows or columns Select the number of rows or columns you want to delete From edit menu click on deleteAdding and removing toolbars From view menu point to toolbars Point and click on the toolbar you want to add or removeHiding and unheeding rows and columns Select the row or column you want to hide From format menu click on hide row or columnTo unhide a row or column go to format point and click on unhide row or columnAdjusting row and column width Point between the row or column header till the pointer becomes a resize pointer hold down the mouse and drag to increase or reduceFormatting cells in a worksheetUnder cell formatting we can format the following-Number 49
    • -Alignment-Font-Borders and patternNumber Select the numbers you wan to format From format menu select cells Click on number tab Under category specify the number format and style you want Click okAlignment Select the text you want to align Click on alignment tab Align as desired Click ok Font Select the text you want to affect Select the font tab Complete the dialogue box Click on ok Borders Select the cells you want to add borders Complete the dialogue box Choose ok Pattern Select the cells to add pattern and color shade Click on pattern tab Select the pattern and color shade you want Click okInserting functions In Excel (formulas)This command is found on the standard toolbar and in the insert menu.It is used to insert formulae for analysis.Under formulae we can work out the following functions: 50
    • -Total-Average-Product-Minimum-Maximum-Count-Date/TodaySteps:a) Select the cell where you want your answer to appearb) Click on insert menu and select functionc) Select the function to insert eg Sumd) Complete the dialogue box and click ok OrType in the formulae on the keyboard using the correct syntax=(Function)(Range)I.e. =Sum (A1: A6) =Max (A1: A6) =Average (B2:B6) Symbols used in a formulae= It acts as a prompt or indicator for the beginning of a calculation* It is used as multiplication sign, It is used as a list separator and sometimes stands for the word ‘and’: It acts as a range indicator/ Used as a division sign- Used for subtractionUsing the If functionSimple IFIs used to test for only two conditions Select the cell to contain the answer From insert menu click on function Select the If function Click Ok Type in the argument of your formulae Click OkE.g =If(logical test, value if true, if logical test value if false)= If(B2>=80,”Good”,”Fail”) i.e IF function will return one value as good or Fail. 51
    • Complex IFIt is used to test for up to seven condition (six if’s). Position the cursor in the cell to contain the results Type the formula directly e.g. type in cell f3 =if(e3>=90,”A”,if(e3>=80,”B”,if(e3>=70,”C”,”F”))) to issue the various grades. Press the enter key and copy the formula downwards.N/B you must close the brackets as many times as you have opened. Note also that its notnecessary to open the bracket for the last condition since the computer will test for thegiven conditions but will resort to use the last value if all the other are found to be false.Auto filling a series Make the first entry in the series i.e. 5,10, or Mon, Tue Select the entries Auto-Fill in the desired directionTo Validate Data in a cell or Column Select the range of cells to be affected Click on data menu Click on validation Specify the condition under allow Click on Ok.AuditingThis command is found under the tools menu. It is used to trace precedents (what camebefore) and dependants.Precedents are entries used in a calculation or formulaeDependants are results, which are obtained after using certain entriesI.e.=Sum (A1: A2) = 16(Precedents) (Dependant)To trace precedents or dependanta) Click on tools menu Point to auditing Click on precedents or dependants 52
    • Database OperationsSortingThis command is found under data menu and it is used to arrange entries in ascending ordescending order Click on data menu and select sort Select the column to sort by and indicate the sort order Click okFilteringThis command is found in data menu and is used to select particular records from thedatabase Click on data Point to filter and click on auto-filter Click on the filter button next to the fied you want to filter by Click on custom Complete the dialogue box Click okFind and ReplaceSteps Click on edit menu and select find or replace In the find what box type the word you want to find Click on find first In the replace with box type the word you want to use for replacement Click on replace buttonFreezing panelsThis command is found under window menu and is used to anchor titles to keep themstagnant while other data is scrolled. Position the cell selector after the row or column to freeze From window menu choose freeze panes Scroll to see the effect 53
    • Format paintera) It is used to copy the format of a cell to the other cells in the worksheetb) Select the cell containing the format you want to copyc) Click on format painter on the standard toolbard) Pointer on the cell and old do the left mouse buttone) Drag to the cells you want the format to be applied.Reference:Relative referenceThis is a method of indicating cell addresses in a formulae such that the cell address canchange freely during auto-fillingE.g.=Sum (A1: A4)When this particular formulae is Auto Filled across columns it becomes=Sum: (B1: B4)=Sum: (C1:C4)Absolute ReferenceThis is a method for indicating a cell reference or addresses that are not meant to changeduring auto fillingSuch entries are called costants, we use dollar sign $activate this functionEg$C$8*D5When autofilled through colunms it will become$C$8*D6Inserting ChartsThis command is found in the insert menu and is used to convert the tabulated data into achart 54
    •  Select the table leaving out the title From insert menu click on chart Answer the questions in the wizard from step one to four Clik on finish to insert the chartNB To format the chart use the chart toolbar MICROSOFT ACCESSIt’s a data base management system. Data base management system is a programmedused to maintain a variety of related files, it might be used to run an entire payroll system,school records, registration information they are basically 2 type of data bases Small scale data base e.g Access, Dbase, FoxPro e.t.c Cooperate databases e.g Oracle and SQL 2000, which is the fastest of all.Microsoft Access Window is divided into two:The Application Window comprising of the following:-Application title-Menu bar-Tool bars-Status barDatabase Window comprising of:-Objects i.e. tables-Selection tabs-Command buttons-Control buttons-Scroll barsDesigning a DatabaseA database is a collection of data and objects about a specific topic or purpose. ADatabase contains six objects (tables, queries, forms, reports, macros and modules).During Database designing one should consider the following factors:-Data integrity-Relationships between fields-Data/field duplication-Object size 55
    • Creating a New DatabaseSteps:a) Open Microsoft Accessb) In the dialogue box choose blank databasec) Click okd) Indicate the name and the location for your databasee) Click on createTablesA table is a collection of data about a specific topic e.g. a table can contain data aboutcustomers’ records. Tables organize data into columns and rowsDefinitions in a tableRecord-A record is a complete detail about an entry and is normally entered in a rowE.g. name, date of birth country of origin etc. It is a collection of data about a person aplace an event or some other item. A record is represented in a row in the datasheet viewof a table, query or form.Field- This is a cross of information in a record or database normally entered in a columnIt is an element of a table that contains a specific item of information such as last nameA field is represented by a column or a cell in the datasheet view.Steps in designing a table-List and group your fields-Decide on the data type-Give relevant names to the various groups of fields.The following are available fields (data type)-Text – these are label entries e.g. Eric-Number- these are values e.g. 20, 30, 40-Date/Time- chronological entries-Memo- for long text entries-Auto number- for automatic listing ordering-Currency- it is used to present currency valuesCreating a tableThere are three ways of creating tables1. Design view2. Data sheet view3. Table wizard 56
    • DESIGN VIEW Click on table once in a data base window Click on new Choose design view Click on Ok Enter the fields data type description and the field properties When done save the table Switch to the datasheet view of the table to make entriesPrimary KeyThis is a unique field, which gives records their identityOne or more fields whose value or values uniquely identify each record in a table. In arelationship a primary key is used to refer to specific records in one table from anothertable. A primary key is called a foreign key when it is referred to from another tableTo set up a primary key Select the table Click on view menu Click on design view Locate the column which contains the field to make the primary key and right click on it Click on primary keyDATA SHEET VIEW Click on table Click on new Click on data sheet view Click on o.k. Right click on column heading a menu comes up click on rename to rename them Close the design window and save the changesTABLE WIZARD Click on table Click on new Choose table wizard then click on Ok then answer the given question appropriately 57
    • Determining field propertiesWe can specify the field characteristics so as to limit control entries.-We can determine the following:-Field length size-Default value-Require or not required-Validation rule-Format i.e. uppercase or lower case for a fieldTo determine field properties Change to the table design view Complete the field properties section which appears at the bottom of the design view Switch back to datasheet view to see the effectGetting External DataImporting a table from Access database to Access While the database window is open click on table selection tab Point and click on new button Click on import table Select the source (folder or drive) Select the file or database containing the required table Click on import From the list of tables displayed select the ones to import Click okImporting from a different application Software i.e. Ms Excel When the database window is open click on table selection tab Click on the new button Click on import table In the dialogue box indicate the source (folder or drive) Indicate the application which was used to make the file (files of type) Select the file Click on import 58
    •  Answer the questions in the wizard clicking on next after completing every stage Click on finishN/BRemember to specify:-Whether or not the table has column headers-Whether Access should automatically insert a primary key for you-Whether you are importing it as a new table or into an existing table-The new name by which to call your imported tableImporting a table leads to the creating of a separate copy, which is then imported to thecurrent databaseIn case memory is limited creating of such copies may lead to lack of space, in searchinstances the user can use the link option instead of the import optionThe link option provides a way of opening a table, which would otherwise be importedwhen the user is in the current database.Linking Click on tables selection tab Click on new button Click on link tables Select the source Select the file to link Click on link Select the table to be linked Click okSorting records In the datasheet view of the table Position the cursor in the field, which you want to sort by From records menu point on sort Click on the sort order you wantRenaming objects In the database window right click on the objects name Type the new name Press enter 59
    • Inserting new fields into a table Change to design view of the table Insert the row where you want the field Type in the field data type and field propertiesNB: Inserting and deleting of rows and columns remain as in Ms ExcelAdjusting row height and column width In the datasheet view of the table point to the column or row header junction until the pointer turns to a resize pointer Hold down the mouse button and drag Or Select the column or row From format menu select column width or row height Enter the new values Click okCopy cut paste and paste appendThese commands work similarly as in Excel and WordPaste append is different in that by clicking this command the copy record will beinserted as a new recordSteps: Select the records From edit menu click on copy Click on edit and choose paste appendFinding and replacingWe use the find command to trace particular entries e.g. a person name in the name field Position the cursor to the field you want to search by Click on edit Click on find Enter the data to search for Click on find first Click on find next to find any other entries of the same type 60
    • Finding using wild cardsWe can use a combination of characters to definitions of the same word entries(Everyone, Everywhere, Everyhome)We use the AsterixE.g.Every* Everyone Everywhere Everybody*Ful Wonderful Merciful Faithful? EEN Keen Seen BeenQUERIESThese are electronic questionnaires that can be used to:--Update records (calculations)--Select and display particular records (filtering)--Arrange or sort recordsQueries are named according to their uses e.g.-Update queries change data to required information-Delete queries delete selected data-Append queries transfer selected dataDesigning a QueryEnsure that your tables are having a primary key In the database window click on queries tab Click on New button Click on design view Select the tables you want and choose add Click on close Select the fields using the list boxes provided Set the criteria 61
    •  Click on run button to view the resultSetting criteriaDecide on which records you want to show and the field you want to use as a determiningfactorType in the function, which will filter only the records of interest. E.g. you may need todisplay the list of people who earn more than Ksh 30,000. In this case the field to filterby is salary and the function >30,000. Other function criteria are:= Equal>= Equals/Greater than< Less than<> Not equal to<= Equal to/less thanRelationshipsThis is a way of linking up tables to enable data to be easily shared among tables.Relationships are normally created to curb the duplication of records especially when aquery is created using more than one table.A relationship can either be created in:Tools menuRelationship commandORQuery design screenBefore a relationship is created ensure there are fields sharing the same data type or elseno relationship can be createdThere are three types of relationships:One-OneOne-ManyMany-ManySteps: Click on tools menu Select relationships Add all the tables you want to link and close Click drag and drop field from one table to the other. Ensure that the link is abided to i.e. field name with common data type. A join line appears to show that a relationship has been created. Close and save the link layout 62
    • To delete a relationship point and click on the join line till it becomes a thick linePress the delete key on the keyboardFORMSForms are Microsoft Access objects used for the following:-Displaying records-Edit records-Adding new recordsCreating a formYou can create a form using any of the followingDesign viewForm wizardAutoform: ColumnarAutoform: TabularAutoform: DatasheetDESIGN VIEW Click on form Click on new Click on design view Choose table or query to use Click on Ok Pick label and draw a rectangle in which to type the name of none changing fields e.g. column headings. Pick a text box and draw rectangle in which to type fields that will change to actual fields. Align the labels and text box properly then close and save the formIncase you want to make changes to the form Click on view menu Click on design view Make changes and close the design view and save the changesFORM WIZARD Click on form Click on new 63
    •  Click on form wizard Select the table or query to use Click on ok Select the fields to be shown in the form Click on next Select the layout you would like and click on next Select the style you would like then click on next Type the name of the form then click on finish.Some important symbols in the form wizard> Picks the highlighted field>> Picks all the fields in the table< Removes the selected field from those which will be included on the form<< Removes all the fieldsAUTOFORM: COLUMNAR/TABULAR/DATASHEET Click on form Click on new Click on either of the methods i.e. Autoform columnar/datasheet/tabular Choose the table or query to use Click on ok Close and save the formREPORTSThese are Ms Access objects used for:-Print previewing-Reorganizing and grouping of data and records-Calculations (analysis)Creating a ReportIN DESIGN VIEW Click on report Click on new Click on design view Choose table or query from which the data comes from Click on ok Use a label to draw rectangle in which to type none changing fields e.g. column headings Use text box to draw rectangles in which to type fields that will change to actual fields 64
    •  Position your labels and text boxes properly and then close the design view and save the changesTo modify the report Click on view menu Click on design view Make the changes and close the design view then save the changes.REPORT WIZARD Click on report Click on new Click on report wizard Choose the table or query from which the data will be taken from Click on ok Select the fields to be shown in the report then click on next Click on next Select the field with which to sort your report in ascending or descending and click on next Choose the desired layout and orientation and click on next Choose the style you would like and click on next Type the name of the report and click on finish.AUTOREPORT: COLUMNAR/TABULAR Click on report Click on new Choose either of the two i.e. AutoReport: columnar or AutoReport: tabular Choose the table or query from which the data comes and click on ok Close the report and save it. 65
    • MICROSOFT POWERPOINTThis is a presentation program. It is one of the application software used for:-Presentation-Slides-Power point has two windows:Application WindowPresentation windowCreating a new presentationWe can create a new presentation using two methods: Click on start point to programs and click on power point From the window displayed select the design option “blank, template, AutoContent” Click ok Select the slide layout Enter your dataOr Click on file menu when PowerPoint is open Point to new and click Select the design option ”general presentation design” Click ok Select the slide layout Enter dataTo add a new slide/page to your presentation From insert menu click on new slide Select the layout of the slide Click okDeleting a slide While in slide sorter view select the slide to delete From edit menu click on delete slideChanging slide layout 66
    •  From format menu click on slide layout Select the layout to change to Click on applyWorking with different layoutPresentation layout can be changed to allow modification and re arrangement of slides.Slide layout Click on view menu Click on slideThis layout allows : Editing of text (cut copy paste) Inserting graphics Formatting textOutline layout click on view menu click on layoutThis allows:Promoting and Demoting of slidesselect the dataclick on the button to promote or demote from the outline toolbarCollapsing and Expandingthis allows for viewing detailed and summary dataclick on the slide to expand or collapseRearranging slidesclick on the slide to be movedclick on the move up or down button to move the slideSlide sorter viewThis view enables:rearranging of slidesclick the slide hold down the left button and drag it to the position you wantapplying transition effects is done in this viewchanging slide backgroundNotes page layoutit is used to prepare handouts with notesclick on view then notes page viewedit the notes section 67
    • modifying a presentationApplying design templateDesign templates are formats which act as background to presentation slidesFrom format menu click on apply designSelect the design template you wantClick on applyRemoving and adding colorClick on view menuSelect black and white or visevarsaAdding BackgroundWhen in slide sorter view select the slideFrom format menu click on backgroundSelect the color you wantClick on applyAdding color schemeFrom format menu lick on color schemeSelect the color you wantClick on applySlide manitureIt is used to activate or inactive slide manitureClick on view menu then slide manirtureFormatting fontsSelect the text to formatClick on format then fontComplete the dialogue boxClick okSpell checkThis is used to check and correct spelling errors-Click on tools then spelling-Check if the error is genuine 68
    • -Find out if any of the offered suggestion is correct.-Pick on suggestion and click change else edit the text on the box and click change.Incase where the observed error is genuine click ignore.Repeat the above routine until the computer reports that the spell check is complete.TransitionThis is a process of setting a link between one slide and another with predeterminedcharacteristics.The set event bridges the gape between one slide the proceeding sli0de (a) On the view slide, click slide show (b) Click slide transition from slide show (c) Select from the list the required characteristics (no transition) (d) Select the speed (slow, media or faster) (e) From no transition menu, select horizontal bars, random e.t.c (f) Click OKBuilding In Effects.This are preset behavior on the text, graphic or object, which appears on the screen (a) On view slide select text, select slide show, command. Go to custom animation (b) On the dialog box, select effects e.g. spiral or fly from top. (c) Select grouped one by word (d) ClickAnimation.This gives the presentation a preset sound, which the text and object adapt.This may be laser, camera and printer e.t.cThis effect can only be heard when using a multi media computer (a) On view slide, select slide show command (b) On the command menu, select (click preset animation)Set Up ShowThis allow the presenter to customize his mode of presentation e.g. in display, then screenis supposed to loop continuously. 69
    • a) On view slide, click slide show b) On the dialog box sect loop continuously. c) Select slide order from the lowest to the highest number. d) Select timings.Using a Master TemplateSometimes the presentation may require a constant data (text or graphic that shouldappear on every slide e.g. company Logo, graphic or colour scheme. a) Select the view command master slide (click) b) Enter the logo or graphic required c) Save as – select template, click save.NB The above can be used severally as required to create various presentation withthe preset picture (attributes 70
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    • Topics Sub-Topics TimeIntroduction Introduction 120to ca to computer(720) application27% Introduction 600 to operating systemMs word Word 120(720) processing27% Styles, 120 templates and Graphical effects Table of 240 content, list of figures and printing Macros 240 emerging trendsMs excel Introduction 360(1200) and starting46% spreadsheet application Functions, 360 calculations and spreadsheet tools Macros 120 Charts and 360 emerging trends 74
    • Some Basic DOS Commands • Disk drives • Default drive • Changing the default drive • Directories • Specifying a filename • Copying files • Abbreviating filenames in DOS • Listing the contents of a file on the monitor • To stop scrolling output on the screen • To print what is on the screen • Subdirectories • The AUTOEXEC.BAT fileMS-DOS is a trademark of Microsoft Crop. Unix is a trademark of AT&T BellLaboratories. VAX is a trademark of Digital Equipment Corp. IBM PC is a trademark ofInternational Business Machines Corp.To use SST on an IBM Personal Computer (or compatible), it helps to know a little aboutthe disk operating system (DOS) used on the IBM PC. The best reference is your DOSmanual (supplied with your computer), but we will review a few simple commands here.SST requires version 2.0 or higher of PC-DOS or MS-DOS.Disk drivesYour PC has one or more floppy disk drives and possibly a fixed (or hard) disk to storeprograms and data. The advantage of a hard disk is that it can store large amounts of datawhich can be accessed relatively quickly. SST, however, can be run successfully on a PCwith only a single floppy disk drive (see the section in Chapter 2, "Tips on using SSTwithout a hard disk").Default driveThe "default drive" is where DOS expects to find your programs and data. To remind youwhich drive is currently the default, the DOS prompt is preceded by a letter which refersto it. A and B refer to floppy disk drives, while C refers to the hard disk (if one isinstalled). In the Users Guide all examples of DOS commands are preceded by a defaultdrive designation (typically A>) to avoid confusion with SST commands.Changing the default driveTo change the default drive, type the desired drive letter followed by a carriage return.DOS will respond with a prompt that gives the desired drive as the default.DirectoriesTo obtain a listing of the files on the default drive (a directory), give the command: 75
    • A>dirTo a listing of the files on another drive, type:A>dir a:to see, for example, which files are on the A disk. You could, of course, first make A thedefault drive and then give the previous command, but this is more cumbersome. Thisexample illustrates a general feature of DOS. Unless you specify otherwise, DOSassumes that it will be dealing with the default drive. You can perform most operationswithout changing the default drive by specifing another drive letter at the appropriatespot.Specifying a filenameMost DOS commands require you to specify one or more filenames. Valid filenames arecomposed of up to eight characters and are optionally followed by an extension of up tothree characters. The filename and extension are separated by a period. Some examplesof DOS filenames are:sst.exedemo.cmdjunkExtensions can be used to remind you what the file contains. SST uses the extension`.cmd for files of SST commands and the extension `.sav for SST system files.Copying filesFrequently you will want to make a copy of a file. To copy a file (named oldfile) to anew file named newfile, enter:A>copy oldfile newfileThe file newfile will have exactly the same contents as the file oldfile. As always,DOS assumes oldfile is on the default drive and also places newfile on the defaultdrive. The syntax of DOS commands when two filenames are required is usually "fromto", i.e. the first filename is the source (or "from") file and the second is the destination(or "to") file.To copy a file from one disk to another, it is only necessary to precede the filename by adrive designation. If you are copying files between disks, then the copy can have thesame filename as the original. In fact, if you do not supply a filename for the destination,DOS assumes that you want to use the same filename as the source. For example, if B isthe default drive, the following command makes a copy of the file oldfile from the Adisk on the B disk with the same name:B>copy a:oldfileOn the other hand, if oldfile is on B (the default drive) and you would like a copy onthe A disk, type:A>copy oldfile a:(It is not necessary to precede oldfile with a drive designation since it is on the defaultdrive.) If there is already a file named oldfile on A (the destination drive), it will beoverwritten. 76
    • Abbreviating filenames in DOSDOS allows you to use a simple scheme of wild cards to refer to multiple filenameswithout having to type out the entire list of filenames that you want. There are two wildcards, the question mark and the asterisk. A question mark matches any character whilean asterisk matches any string of characters. For example, `s?t matches `sat,`sst, and `st. Similarly, `s*t would match each of the previous names as wellas `short, `s123.45t. The abbreviation `*.sav would match any filenamewith the extension `.sav (i.e., any SST system file), while `* (or, equivalently,`*.*) would match any filename.To obtain a listing of all the files on the A drive with the extension `.sav, type:B>dir a:*.cmdTo copy all files from A to B, you could use the command:C>copy a:*.* b:SST uses a similar scheme of wild cards to abbreviate variable names.Listing the contents of a file on the monitorTo display the contents of a text file on the monitor, you can use the DOS type commandwhich has the following syntax:A>type filenameAs always, if the filename is not preceded by a drive specification, DOS assumes the fileis on the default drive. To type a file on the A drive, use instead:B>type a:filenameNot all files in DOS are textfiles. Files with the extension `.exe or `.com areexecutable programs stored in a binary format which cannot be typed.To stop scrolling output on the screenIf you attempt to type a large file, it is apt to scroll down the screen faster than you areable to read it. To stop scrolling, press the <Ctrl> and the <Scroll Lock> keyssimultaneously. To restart output, press the <Ctrl> and <Scroll Lock> keys again.To print what is on the screenIf you have a printer connected to your computer and you would like a "hard" copy ofwhat is currently on the screen, depress the <shift arrow> and <PrtSc> keyssimultaneously, and DOS will send a copy of what is on the screen to your printer. If youwant to obtain a printed copy of the rest of your computer session, depress the <Ctrl> and<PrtSc> keys simultaneously. Further output will be sent to the printer as it appears onthe screen. To stop printing depress these keys again.SubdirectoriesDOS allows you to organize disks into subdirectories--groupings of files in a treestructure. For most purposes a subdirectory on a disk is used as if it were a separate disk.To create a subdirectory named sst, type:C>mkdir sstThe subdirectory sst now exists. There are two ways to access files in the subdirectory.First, you can make the subdirectory the default directory in the same way that you makea disk drive the default drive. This is done by changing directories: 77
    • C>cd sstYou are now located within the sst subdirectory. To obtain a listing of files in the sstsubdirectory, give the command:C>dirUnless you specify otherwise, DOS assumes that you only want a listing of files in thedefault subdirectory--which is whatever subdirectory you happen to be located in at thetime you issue a command. To return to the main (or root) directory, give the command:C>cd The backslash (`) is DOSs symbol for the top directory.The other way to access files in a subdirectory is to provide DOS with a path telling ithow to find the file you are interested in. If you are in the root directory and you wouldlike to see the contents of a file in the sst subdirectory, try:C>type sstfilenameThus, it is not necessary to change directories to access a file in another directory.DOS allows you to create subdirectories in subdirectories so directory structures canbecome rather complicated. We do not recommend this practice if you are a newcomer toDOS. For the purposes of this manual we will assume that you do not have subdirectoriesto subdirectories.Specifying pathnames can become rather tedious and DOS provides a facility forspecifying which directories are to be searched for programs with the path command. Ifyou type:C>path ;sstDOS will search the root directory () and the sst subdirectory (sst) when it looks forprograms to execute. With the above path command, it is possible to execute sst, forexample, without being located in the sst subdirectory.The AUTOEXEC.BAT fileEvery time you start your computer, DOS looks for a file called autoexec.bat on thedefault drive and, if it finds this file, it executes the commands there. 78
    • CopyThe prime use of COPY is to copy one or more files to another location but it can also be used tocombine (concatenate) files and to type directly to a file, printer, or other device.Copy - Copying FilesTo copy one or more files:Syntax:COPY source [destination] [/V] [/Y | /-Y]source The file(s) to be copied. Although this must be a single parameter, it may include multiple files specified using wildcards (* or ?). It may also be a valid device (eg. CON)destination The directory and/or filename for the new file(s). If destination... is not specified source is copied to the current directory with the same name and creation date as the original. If source is in the current directory, an error message is displayed stating that the "file cannot be copied to itself" . is a valid directory name the source file(s) are copied to the directory so named with their original names and creation dates. is not a valid directory name but is an acceptable filename source is copied and renamed to that filename with the original creation date. If source comprises multiple files, these are concatenated (see below) and renamed to that filename with the current date. is unambiguously a directory name (eg. it concludes with a backslash ()), but is not valid for some reason an error message is displayed ("Invalid directory") and no files are copied. a valid device (eg LPT1, COM1, etc.) source is sent to that device.file /A Forces COPY to treat the file as an ASCII test file (see Notes below).file /B Forces COPY to treat the file as a binary file (see Notes below)./V Verifies that new files can be read (does not compare with the original - see VERIFY)./Y No warning prompt before overwriting a file (default when COPY is used in a batch file)./-Y Displays a warning and requires confirmation before overwriting a file (default when COPY is used from the command line).Notes: 1. When used from the command line, if a file specified in destination already exists in the 79
    • specified location, COPY will, by default, display a warning message and require confirmation before overwriting the old file. On the other hand, when COPY is used in a batch file, any existing files will be overwritten without warning. This default behaviour can be modified by presetting the /Y | /-Y switch in the COPYCMD environment variable and overruled by using the /Y | /-Y switch on the command line. 2. COPY does not copy files that are 0 bytes long; instead, it deletes such files. Use XCOPY to copy these files. Source and/or Destination may be an appropriate device (such as CON, COMx or LPTx) rather than a file. 3. Depending on context, Copy treats files as binaries or ASCII text files. By default: o When copying files from one location to another (ASCII or not), COPY assumes binary mode; o When concatenating files, COPY assumes ASCII mode; o When source or destination is a device (other than a disk), copy assumes ASCII mode. When operating in binary mode, COPY determines the files starting location from the File Allocation Table and copies the number of bytes allocated to that file from that point. When in ASCII mode, data is copied until an End-Of-File ASCII #026; Ctrl-Z) character is reached. This character is NOT copied, but COPY adds an EOF character before closing the new file. This convoluted procedure enables COPY to concatenate files (see below) and to work with non-file input (the keyboard, for example). On the few occasions that the default mode is inappropriate, it may be over-ridden by adding the /A or /B switch to source and/or destination files as required. 4. The COPY command is neat, simple, (and internal) but XCOPY is far more powerful and flexible.Examples 1. To copy "note.txt" in the current drive and directory to the directory "mynotes": COPY note.txt c:mynotes or COPY note.txt c:mynotes (In the first case, if the "mynotes" directory doesnt exist, "note.txt" is copied to a file named "mynotes" in the root directory of drive C. In the second case, an "invalid Directory" error message will be displayed). 2. To copy all the files in the "mynotes" directory to a directory named "mynotes backup" on drive D: COPY c:mynotes*.* d:mynotes backup 3. To make a copy of "note.txt" in the current drive and directory and call it "program note.txt" 80
    • COPY note.txt "program note.txt"Copy - Concatenating FilesSyntax:COPY source1 + source2 + ... destination [/V] [/Y | /-Y]Notes: 1. When concatenating files, COPY reads the first source file and writes this to destination. COPY then reads the next source file and appends this to destination, and so on. A ramification of this is that if destination has the same name and location as any source file (except the first) the data in that source file will be overwritten before it is read. This data would be very difficult to recover. By default, a warning message is displayed before the file is overwritten. 2. If destination is not specified, the combined files are saved under the name of the first source file (source1). By default, a warning will be displayed asking for confirmation that source1 is to be overwritten. This can be averted by adding the /Y switch to the command. 3. If source is specified with wildcards and destination is unambiguously a filename rather than a directory, COPY combines all files matching the filename in source and creates a single file named destination. 4. By default, both source and destination files are assumed to be ASCII format - binary files can seldom be usefully concatenated. 5. When files are combined, the destination file is created with the current date and time.Examples: 1. To combine "mar89.rpt", "apr89.rpt" and "may.rpt" into one file named "report.rpt" in the current directory: COPY mar89.rpt + apr89.rpt + may89.rpt report.rpt 2. To combine all files in the current directory on the current drive that have the extension ".rpt" into one file named "combined.rpt": COPY *.rpt combined.rpt 3. To combine a series of files that have ".txt" extensions with their corresponding ".ref" files to make new files with the same file names but with ".doc" extensions (ie "file1.txt" is combined with "file1.ref" to form "file1.doc", and so on). COPY *.txt + *.ref *.doc 4. To combine first all files with the ".txt" extension, then all files with the ".ref" extension into one file named "combin.doc": COPY *.txt + *.ref combin.docTricks 1. To "touch" a file (ie. assign the current time and date without any other modification), concatenate it with nothing and save it to itself: COPY /b source + ,, /Y 81
    • Note the use of the /b switch to force COPY treat the file as binary rather than an ASCII text file. The /Y switch prevents the display of the usual warning message. Note also that this will not work with zero-length files (which will be deleted - see above). 2. Using the CON(sole) device as source it is possible to create a text file directly from the keyboard. Thus to create a file called (say) "output.txt", first enter: COPY CON output.txt then type the text for the file followed by a Ctrl-Z. The file is saved as "output.txt." 3. On the same lines, text can be sent directly to the printer on LPT1. First enter: COPY CON LPT1 followed by whatever text you wish to print. Type Ctrl-Z (^Z or F6) to stop the process. 4. To add text to the beginning or end of a file, concatenate the file with con. This presents a hyphen prompt at which text can be entered from the keyboard. When done, press "Ctrl-Z" then "Enter". Thus to append text to the end of Test.txt, (and avoid the warning about overwriting Test.txt) enter: COPY Test.txt + CON /Y This will display: C:WINDOWS>copy Test.txt + CON /Y test.txt CON _ Now type in (say) "This is an extra line" followed by Ctrl-Z and [ENTER]. The file Test.txt will be now comprise the contents of the original Test.txt followed by This is an extra line. 5. Text can similarly be added to the beginning of a file except that a Destination must be specified (or else the amended file is simply copied to the screen (CON)). Furthermore, Destination cannot be the same as source (Test.txt). To add text to the beginning of a file, use the form: COPY CON + Test.txt Test2.txt /YFile Details:InternalIf you should have any comments or suggestions, This page last revised:please contact: Bob Watson. 82