0
Methods of Instruction Identifying functional target skills Methods of instruction
Review - Characteristics <ul><li>Multiculturalism </li></ul><ul><li>Functional curriculum – best practice </li></ul><ul><l...
Group discussion <ul><li>Group 1: Ethical and legal issues associated with the use of aversives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gia,...
Identifying functional target skills <ul><li>Standardized tests </li></ul><ul><li>Criterion-referenced tests </li></ul><ul...
Ecological inventories – cont’d <ul><li>Domains (Brown at al., 1979):  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Domestic (self-care, clothing...
Ecological inventories – cont’d <ul><li>Five phases of the ecological inventory process: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify th...
Functional Assessment <ul><li>Identifies which environmental variables maintain behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>Functions of b...
Learning phases <ul><li>Acquisition  </li></ul><ul><ul><li># or % corrects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Levels of assistance...
Generalization <ul><li>Strategies for facilitating generalization </li></ul><ul><li>Plan for generalization! </li></ul><ul...
Attentional Processes <ul><li>Attentional cues – teachers’ behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Attentional response – child’s behav...
Prompts <ul><li>Stimulus prompts – cues - pretask </li></ul><ul><li>Response prompts – prompt - task </li></ul><ul><li>Cor...
Methods <ul><li>Methods are noncategorical </li></ul><ul><li>How to teach (research-based) </li></ul><ul><li>Consider pre-...
Methods – Time Delay <ul><li>“ Errorless learning procedure” - < 10% errors </li></ul><ul><li>Systematically delay the tim...
Methods –  System of Least Prompts <ul><li>Min. 3 levels of prompt hierarchy (individualize ) </li></ul><ul><li>From indep...
Method – Most to Least <ul><li>Min. 3 levels of prompts (lower functioning) </li></ul><ul><li>From most to least intrusive...
Method – Naturalistic (Milieu) Teaching Strategies <ul><li>Naturalistic time delay (PTD without 0-s delay) </li></ul><ul><...
Method – Graduated Guidance <ul><li>Gradual presentation and removal of physical assistance, moment-to-moment decision all...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Autism: Methods Of Teaching

2,695

Published on

Published in: Education, Technology
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
2,695
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
60
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Transcript of "Autism: Methods Of Teaching"

  1. 1. Methods of Instruction Identifying functional target skills Methods of instruction
  2. 2. Review - Characteristics <ul><li>Multiculturalism </li></ul><ul><li>Functional curriculum – best practice </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics more severe as we look at lower ranges of ID </li></ul><ul><li>Zeaman & House (1963) – attending to critical stimuli takes longer for ID </li></ul><ul><li>Functional goals </li></ul>
  3. 3. Group discussion <ul><li>Group 1: Ethical and legal issues associated with the use of aversives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gia, Molly, Kathy, Marie, Erin </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Group 2: Achievement in inclusive settings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Alex, Diana, Suzanne, Missy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Group 3: Disproportionate minority </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eden, Claire, Libby, Amanda </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Identifying functional target skills <ul><li>Standardized tests </li></ul><ul><li>Criterion-referenced tests </li></ul><ul><li>Functional assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental assessment - Ecological inventories (Snell, 1987) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Informal assessments (interview & observation) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examine the environments relevant to student </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Totally individualized </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify functional routines and activities required across relevant settings (home, school, work, and community) </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Ecological inventories – cont’d <ul><li>Domains (Brown at al., 1979): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Domestic (self-care, clothing care, housekeeping, cooking, yard work) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Community (street crossing, public transportation, purchasing, eating in restaurant, using public facilities) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vocational (skills involved in meaningful employment) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>School (eating in cafeteria, using a locker, attending) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ecological // developmental approach </li></ul><ul><li>Encourages generalization </li></ul><ul><li>Flexible content (not predetermined, change in worksite) </li></ul>
  6. 6. Ecological inventories – cont’d <ul><li>Five phases of the ecological inventory process: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify the curriculum domains </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify and observe current and future natural environments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Divide environments into subenvironments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify relevant activities within subenvironm. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine the skills needed to perform the activities </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Functional Assessment <ul><li>Identifies which environmental variables maintain behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>Functions of behavior and maintaining consequences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attention – positive reinforcement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tangible - positive reinforcement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sensory - positive reinforcement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Escape - negative reinforcement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Functional analysis – manipulation of environmental factors in order to determine if they maintain behaviors (hypothesis testing) </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Learning phases <ul><li>Acquisition </li></ul><ul><ul><li># or % corrects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Levels of assistance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fluency </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Latency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>duration </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Maintenance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Accuracy and fluency over time </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Generalization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>… under nontrained conditions </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Generalization <ul><li>Strategies for facilitating generalization </li></ul><ul><li>Plan for generalization! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Program common stimuli </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teach sufficient (multiple) exemplars </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Train on-site </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase opportunities to perform skill </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use natural reinforcers – intrinsic to the task (and rf. schedules) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fade (rf., prompts, cues/task formats, have instructional materials replaced, have setting & persons varied) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Train self-evaluation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Modify behaviors of others (peers attention) </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Attentional Processes <ul><li>Attentional cues – teachers’ behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Attentional response – child’s behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Active – inactive/passive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>General – specific </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Simple vs. conditional discrimination </li></ul><ul><li>Attention problems: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Overselectivity – failure to develop responding to relevant features (restricted focus) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Perseveration – failure to sample choices </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Attentional shifts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intradimensional </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extradimensional </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Prompts <ul><li>Stimulus prompts – cues - pretask </li></ul><ul><li>Response prompts – prompt - task </li></ul><ul><li>Correction prompts – post error </li></ul><ul><li>Purpose of instruction: transfer stimulus control from instructional to natural prompts </li></ul><ul><li>Hierarchy of prompts: 1) Physical; 2) Model; 3) Verbal; 4) Gestural; 5) Pictorial (+ Independent) </li></ul><ul><li>Prompt selection criteria: most natural, least intrusive, most effective, ease of fading. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Methods <ul><li>Methods are noncategorical </li></ul><ul><li>How to teach (research-based) </li></ul><ul><li>Consider pre-requisites prior to teaching </li></ul><ul><li>Social validity (objectives, methods, outcomes) </li></ul><ul><li>Effectiveness and efficiency </li></ul><ul><li>Fading procedures (plan) </li></ul><ul><li>Generalization (plan) </li></ul><ul><li>Collect data to guide your instruction </li></ul>
  13. 13. Methods – Time Delay <ul><li>“ Errorless learning procedure” - < 10% errors </li></ul><ul><li>Systematically delay the time between task direction and controlling prompt (CTD, PTD) </li></ul><ul><li>Teach the child to respond correctly before the teacher’s prompt OR wait </li></ul><ul><li>5 types of responses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Correct anticipations (reinforced) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Incorrect anticipations (error correction + wait training) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Correct waits (reinforced) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Incorrect waits (error correction) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No response (error correction) </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Methods – System of Least Prompts <ul><li>Min. 3 levels of prompt hierarchy (individualize ) </li></ul><ul><li>From independent (least intrusive) to most </li></ul><ul><li>Final prompt is the controlling prompt </li></ul><ul><li>Present task direction at each level </li></ul><ul><li>Wait 5-s before and after delivery of each prompt </li></ul><ul><li>5 types of possible responses </li></ul><ul><li>Interrupt errors and move to next level </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforce corrects regardless of level </li></ul><ul><li>Record data </li></ul>
  15. 15. Method – Most to Least <ul><li>Min. 3 levels of prompts (lower functioning) </li></ul><ul><li>From most to least intrusive </li></ul><ul><li>Wait 5-s after delivery of prompt </li></ul><ul><li>5 types of responses </li></ul><ul><li>Student must reach criterion at each prompt level </li></ul><ul><li>Probe/test at least once a day/session </li></ul><ul><li>Mostly used with chain responses </li></ul>
  16. 16. Method – Naturalistic (Milieu) Teaching Strategies <ul><li>Naturalistic time delay (PTD without 0-s delay) </li></ul><ul><li>Incidental teaching (deprivation; SLP; elaborate) </li></ul><ul><li>Mand-model (adult interrupts activity, asks question, waits 5-s, models response, elaborate) </li></ul><ul><li>Transition-based teaching (CTD without 0-s delay; between scheduled activities) </li></ul><ul><li>Common characteristics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Child-directed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interesting materials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Natural contexts/activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Distributed trials across day/session </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brief teaching episodes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contingent access to reinforcer </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Method – Graduated Guidance <ul><li>Gradual presentation and removal of physical assistance, moment-to-moment decision allowing student to reach criterion with least amount of assistance (lower functioning) </li></ul><ul><li>Deliver task direction </li></ul><ul><li>Present controlling prompt </li></ul><ul><li>Gradually fade by: reducing pressure, changing location of control, “shadowing” </li></ul>
  1. A particular slide catching your eye?

    Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.

×