IDEA: “any item, piece of equipment, or product system, whether acquired commercially, off the shelf, modified, or customized, that is used to increase, maintain, or improve the functional capabilities of a child with a disability” (20 U.S.C. #1401).
? Increase = improve?
The Education for All Handicapped Children Act (1975) – FAPE, rights of children w/ disab. and their parents are protected (Clinton, 1992)
The Technology-Related Assistance for Individuals with Disabilities Act (1988) – schools have to provide students w/ disab. and their parents access to technology resources.
The Individuals with Disabilities Act (1990)
The Americans with Disabilities Act (1990)
The Individuals with Disabilities Act (1997)
FAPE and LRE:
Mainstreaming, inclusion, and collaboration
They increase chances of equal opportunities, but also hold school systems responsible for making sure that “all technology opportunities are accessible to all students” (Roblyer & Edwards, 2000)
AT needs must be mentioned in: IFSP, IEP, transition plan.
Continuum of AT Devices
No-tech solutions – no devices or equipment
Low-tech solutions – less sophisticated devices or equipment; e.g. adapted spoon handles, pencil grip, Velcro.
Medium-tech solutions – electronic or mechanical devices not very sophisticated; e.g. wheelchairs, VCRs
Visual disabilities : enlarged computer images and text; speech output – tells what the program does; printers with large print or Braille; tactile output devices – scans a page and translates it into a tactile display (requires training)
Speech and language disorders : augmentative communication unaided (use only body motions) and aided (use of pictures, notebook, or computerized system) – language analysis, develops articulation skills
Technology Applications – cont’d
Hearing disabilities: captioned video – subtitles; TTD (telecommunication devices for the students) – facilitates communication through the telephone
Other : graphic and drawing software, hypermedia technology, word prediction software (prompting system), virtual reality (cyberspace, 3-D environments), internet (www.), databases (ASD dx. – organizational skills), calendar, note-taking software, multimedia production (high-functioning ASD – foster splinter skills & social interaction)
Barriers of AT
Persons with disab. and their families are unaware of possible benefits of AT
They are not ware of availability of AT
Limited access to technology (teachers)
Limited knowledge of how to make AT available to students (teachers)
Limited equipment funding (classroom, univ.)
Lack of incentives (classroom, univ.)
Idealistic views that AT “cures” disability
Assistive technology and IEPs for young children with disabilities - Parette, H. P. Jr. & Murdick, N. L. (1998)
Give examples of devices or equipment from each type of AT from the continuum
Why is AT important in classroom? (discuss benefits and ways to hinder barriers)
Discuss the case study provided on p. 196 (Was it a beneficial placement? How did AT devices help Paul? Would learning of the other students be impeded?)
Beirne-Smith, M., Ittenbach, R. F., & Patton, J. R. (2002). Mental Retardation , Columbus, OH: Merrill-Prentice Hall.
Parette, H. P. Jr. & Murdick, N. L. (1998). Assistive technology and IEPs for young children with disabilities, Early Childhood Education Journal , 25(3), 193-198.
Roblyer, M.D. & Edwards, J. (2000). Integrating Educational Technology into Teaching. Columbus, OH: Merrill-Prentice Hall.