Assistive Technology SPED 7110 Legislation Types Benefits Barriers
Definition  <ul><li>IDEA: “any item, piece of equipment, or product system, whether acquired commercially, off the shelf, ...
Federal Legislation <ul><li>The Education for All Handicapped Children Act (1975) –  FAPE, rights of children w/ disab. an...
Controversy <ul><li>FAPE and LRE: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mainstreaming, inclusion, and collaboration </li></ul></ul><ul><li...
Continuum of AT Devices <ul><li>No-tech solutions – no devices or equipment  </li></ul><ul><li>Low-tech solutions – less s...
Benefits of AT for Students w/ Disabilities   <ul><li>Improved motivation and self-concept (longer time spent on-task, sel...
Technology Applications <ul><li>Reading (and math) disabilities : tutorial, drill and practice software to build fluency <...
Technology Applications – cont’d <ul><li>Visual disabilities : enlarged computer images and text; speech output – tells wh...
Technology Applications – cont’d <ul><li>Hearing disabilities:  captioned video – subtitles; TTD (telecommunication device...
Barriers of AT <ul><li>Persons with disab. and their families are unaware of possible benefits of AT </li></ul><ul><li>The...
Assistive technology and IEPs for young children with disabilities - Parette, H. P. Jr. & Murdick, N. L. (1998)   <ul><li>...
References <ul><li>Beirne-Smith, M., Ittenbach, R. F., & Patton, J. R. (2002).  Mental Retardation , Columbus, OH: Merrill...
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Assistive Technology In Instruction

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Assistive Technology In Instruction

  1. 1. Assistive Technology SPED 7110 Legislation Types Benefits Barriers
  2. 2. Definition <ul><li>IDEA: “any item, piece of equipment, or product system, whether acquired commercially, off the shelf, modified, or customized, that is used to increase, maintain, or improve the functional capabilities of a child with a disability” (20 U.S.C. #1401[25]). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>? Increase = improve? </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Federal Legislation <ul><li>The Education for All Handicapped Children Act (1975) – FAPE, rights of children w/ disab. and their parents are protected (Clinton, 1992) </li></ul><ul><li>The Technology-Related Assistance for Individuals with Disabilities Act (1988) – schools have to provide students w/ disab. and their parents access to technology resources. </li></ul><ul><li>The Individuals with Disabilities Act (1990) </li></ul><ul><li>The Americans with Disabilities Act (1990) </li></ul><ul><li>The Individuals with Disabilities Act (1997) </li></ul>
  4. 4. Controversy <ul><li>FAPE and LRE: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mainstreaming, inclusion, and collaboration </li></ul></ul><ul><li>They increase chances of equal opportunities, but also hold school systems responsible for making sure that “all technology opportunities are accessible to all students” (Roblyer & Edwards, 2000) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>AT needs must be mentioned in: IFSP, IEP, transition plan. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Continuum of AT Devices <ul><li>No-tech solutions – no devices or equipment </li></ul><ul><li>Low-tech solutions – less sophisticated devices or equipment; e.g. adapted spoon handles, pencil grip, Velcro. </li></ul><ul><li>Medium-tech solutions – electronic or mechanical devices not very sophisticated; e.g. wheelchairs, VCRs </li></ul><ul><li>High-tech solutions – complicated devices; e.g. computers, software, speaking key board. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Benefits of AT for Students w/ Disabilities <ul><li>Improved motivation and self-concept (longer time spent on-task, self-confidence in succeeding solving tasks) – in turn changes perception of others on these students </li></ul><ul><li>Increased opportunities to communicate and interact </li></ul><ul><li>Fosters student independence </li></ul><ul><li>Improves time-management skills </li></ul><ul><li>Allows equal access to school environment </li></ul><ul><li>Helps with transportation </li></ul><ul><li>Improves job opportunities – more marketable skills </li></ul><ul><li>Provides more support for teachers to cope with paperwork </li></ul><ul><li>(see empirical evidence textbook – p. 505) </li></ul>
  7. 7. Technology Applications <ul><li>Reading (and math) disabilities : tutorial, drill and practice software to build fluency </li></ul><ul><li>Writing disabilities : (talking) word processors </li></ul><ul><li>Generalization strategy enhancement : simulations of not readily accessible environments (or transition from class to environment instruction) </li></ul><ul><li>Physical disabilities : input devices (mouse – switch, touch screen,touch tablets, optical pointers; regular keyboard – customized, alternative, voice-expanded keyboards; voice-controlled devices; word prediction software) </li></ul>
  8. 8. Technology Applications – cont’d <ul><li>Visual disabilities : enlarged computer images and text; speech output – tells what the program does; printers with large print or Braille; tactile output devices – scans a page and translates it into a tactile display (requires training) </li></ul><ul><li>Speech and language disorders : augmentative communication unaided (use only body motions) and aided (use of pictures, notebook, or computerized system) – language analysis, develops articulation skills </li></ul>
  9. 9. Technology Applications – cont’d <ul><li>Hearing disabilities: captioned video – subtitles; TTD (telecommunication devices for the students) – facilitates communication through the telephone </li></ul><ul><li>Other : graphic and drawing software, hypermedia technology, word prediction software (prompting system), virtual reality (cyberspace, 3-D environments), internet (www.), databases (ASD dx. – organizational skills), calendar, note-taking software, multimedia production (high-functioning ASD – foster splinter skills & social interaction) </li></ul>
  10. 10. Barriers of AT <ul><li>Persons with disab. and their families are unaware of possible benefits of AT </li></ul><ul><li>They are not ware of availability of AT </li></ul><ul><li>Limited access to technology (teachers) </li></ul><ul><li>Limited knowledge of how to make AT available to students (teachers) </li></ul><ul><li>Limited equipment funding (classroom, univ.) </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of incentives (classroom, univ.) </li></ul><ul><li>Idealistic views that AT “cures” disability </li></ul>
  11. 11. Assistive technology and IEPs for young children with disabilities - Parette, H. P. Jr. & Murdick, N. L. (1998) <ul><li>Group 1: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Give examples of devices or equipment from each type of AT from the continuum </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Group 2: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Why is AT important in classroom? (discuss benefits and ways to hinder barriers) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Group 3: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Discuss the case study provided on p. 196 (Was it a beneficial placement? How did AT devices help Paul? Would learning of the other students be impeded?) </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. References <ul><li>Beirne-Smith, M., Ittenbach, R. F., & Patton, J. R. (2002). Mental Retardation , Columbus, OH: Merrill-Prentice Hall. </li></ul><ul><li>Parette, H. P. Jr. & Murdick, N. L. (1998). Assistive technology and IEPs for young children with disabilities, Early Childhood Education Journal , 25(3), 193-198. </li></ul><ul><li>Roblyer, M.D. & Edwards, J. (2000). Integrating Educational Technology into Teaching. Columbus, OH: Merrill-Prentice Hall. </li></ul>

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