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Leadership in the public service of Kenya
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Leadership in the public service of Kenya



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  • Thanx for the quick refresher on Leadership, Gabriel. Looking forward to enrolling for SLDP at KSG in January 2014, God willing, for more insights thereon. Cheers!
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  • 1. SENIOR MANAGEMENT COURSE LEADERSHIP IN PUBLIC SERVICE Gabriel Lubale Phone: 0726 9344411 Copyright © 2012
  • 2. Objectives 1. Describe the nature and role of leadership in the public Service. 2. Identify the qualities of a good leader. 3. Identify the factors influencing public service leadership. 4. Apply styles and strategies appropriate in the 21st Century2 Public Service. Copyright © 2012
  • 3. Opening Shot Are leaders born or made?3 Copyright © 2012
  • 4. Opening Shot .. contd Ans 1. Leaders are neither born nor made. However, most research findings indicate that leaders are made by the environment in which they are brought up. Some research findings also indicate that certain cognitive abilities and personality traits are at least partly innate (inborn). This implies that certain natural abilities may offer certain advantage or disadvantage to a leader. Ans 2.“ Leaders can trained or can be nurtured”.4 Copyright © 2012
  • 5. Definition leadership (n) 1. The position or function of a leader. 2. the period during which a person occupies the position of leader: during her leadership very little was achieved. 3. a. the ability to lead. b. (as modifier): leadership qualities. 4. the leaders as a group of a party, union, etc.: the union leadership5 Copyright © now very reactionary. Source: The is 2012 Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary
  • 6. Definition by the Leadership Gurus “The only definition of a leader is someone who has followers." Peter Drucker “Leadership is influence - nothing more, nothing less." John C Maxwell.6 Copyright © 2012
  • 7. Definition by the Leadership Gurus … contd "Leadership is a function of knowing yourself, having a vision that is well communicated, building trust among colleagues, and taking effective action to realize your own leadership potential." Warren Bennis “if you know yourself, you need not fear the result of a hundred battles. If you know yourself but not the enemy, for every victory gained you will also suffer a defeat. If you know neither the enemy nor yourself, you will succumb in every battle….. Thus Leadership is state of warfare; therefore the Leader must have self-awareness. Sun Tzu7 Copyright © 2012
  • 8. Definition… the facilitator’s thoughts Leadership is defined in different ways but the elements commonly emphasized are to “guide”, “direct” “control” and “influence”. Leadership thus connotes not only having the power and authority but also being accountable to the people. Leader rises or falls on the foundation a vision (a dream) and Mission (a sense of purpose) entrenched in their8 personal core values. Copyright © 2012
  • 9. Definition… the facilitator’s thoughts:Power, Authority and Accountability .. contd 9 Copyright © 2012
  • 10. Sources of Power Legitimate Power - is based on the belief that the individual holding position of leadership has authority or the right to exercise influence over others because of his or her role in the organization. Reward Power - is based on the control and management of rewards considered of value to others. It is based on the ability to administer resources such as pay, promotion, fridge benefit, praise, recognition and responsibility.10 Copyright © 2012
  • 11. Sources of Power .. contd Coercive Power - is based on the ability of the leader to effect punishment on the others, when they have not engaged in expected behavior. Coercive methods include reprimand, pay deduction withholding promotion or privileges. Reverent Power - is based on the perceived attractiveness, personal characteristics or attributes, charisma or reputation of the leader. It is the process of identity with another person or a leader because of desirable qualities of that person. Expert Power - is based on the perceived technical or professional expertise of the leader. It is based on credibility and clear evidence of the expertise or knowledge in a given profession.11 Copyright © 2012
  • 12. Leadership Styles 1. Behavior Styles. 2. Situational Approach (Contingency Model). 3. Functional (Group Approach).12 Copyright © 2012
  • 13. Leadership Styles .. contd 1. Behavior Styles - This approach focuses on leader action (behavior) rather than attributes or personality characteristics. Three classic styles of leadership behavior are: 1.Authoritarian or Autocratic . 2.Democratic or Participatory. 3.Laissez-Faire or Give freedom.13 Copyright © 2012
  • 14. Leadership Styles .. contd 2. Situational Approach (Contingency Model) The basic premise for this approach is that leader’s effectiveness is contingent upon an appropriate match between the leader’s styles and the degree to which he or she controls the situation. Two leadership styles have been identified: 1. Task oriented Styles. The leaders emphasize the tasks that the group is supposed to perform. Also consider more the job and less the people. 2. Relationship oriented styles. The leaders are interested in building cooperative and harmonious working relationship. That is employee centered. The leader highly considers the employees and14 their welfare Copyright © 2012
  • 15. Leadership Styles .. contd 3. Functional (Group Approach) This approach focuses on the functions that a leader has to perform in his or her leadership duties. The approach maintains that to be effective a leader has to satisfy three categories of needs in the workgroup. 1. Task need – need to achieve common tasks. 2. Team needs- need for team maintenance . 3. Individual needs –needs of the individual15 Copyright member. © 2012
  • 16. Class Discussion Questions 1st Leg16 Copyright © 2012
  • 17. Question No. 1 Having been introduced to leadership and theories of leadership styles.Appreciating your competence (experience and Knowledge). What do you consider as some of the appropriate leadership17 strategies in the 21st century in Copyright © 2012
  • 18. Suggested Answers – Question No.1 1. Enforcing legality – Registration and compliance. 2. Limiting the terms in the office and age for aspirants. 3. Institutionalizing succession management – “ abolish till I die mentality”. 4. Embracing inclusivity of all – minority and marginalized groups, age and gender. “Banish the winner takes it all” 5. Observing Meritocracy when appointing or promoting officers both from within and from18 outside. Copyright © 2012
  • 19. Question No. 2 How do we Overcome the leadership obstacles?19 Copyright © 2012
  • 20. Suggested Answers – Question No.2 1. Champion issues critical 2. Support policies and programmes for the public sector 3. Initiate debate on campaign reforms 4. Promote targeted policies and legislation to empower 5. Network with the private sector ( Corporate and Civil Society 6. Nurture constituency based on records of performance and service 7. Collaborate with elected leaders20 Copyright © 2012
  • 21. Qualities of Good Leaders according to Jahan Rounaq of Columbia University A. Vision and B. Institutional Commitment Behavior 1. Equality 1. Participatory 2. Equity 2. Egalitarian 3. Empowerment 3. Responsive 4. Human rights 4. Transparent 5. Peace 5. Accountable 6. Sustainability 6. Non-corrupt 7. Shared 7. Consensus-oriented power, responsibility, 8. Empowering well-being21 Copyright © 2012
  • 22. Qualities of Good Leaders according to Management Science for Health (MSH) 1. Integrity 2. Respect for others 3. Health Risk taking 4. Committed to long-time Learning.22 Copyright © 2012
  • 23. Qualities of Good Leaders according to Department of Personnel Management (DPM) 1. Integrity 2. Respect for National Diversity and Gender Diversity 3. Meritocracy (the Best) 4. Fairness (Natural Law of Justice) 5. Confidentiality (Secrecy)23 Copyright © 2012
  • 24. Class Discussion Questions 2nd Leg24 Copyright © 2012
  • 25. Questions No. 3 Identify some of the factors influencing leadership in the Civil Service in Kenya?25 Copyright © 2012
  • 26. Suggested Answers Questions No. 3 1. Family / Clan legacy. 2. Proximity to urban centers. 3. Proximity to Religious Cradles stations – Church, Mosques and other shrines. 4. Education. 5. Wealth or Poverty.26 Copyright © 2012
  • 27. Questions and Comments27 Copyright © 2012