Circulatory Disorders


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This is a presentation regarding the Circulatory System. From the heart, to the blood, to the blood vessels diseases, and the treatment and prevention, it's all here!

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Circulatory Disorders

  1. 1. A. What are the common ailments of the Circulatory system? Describe them. B. How can we prevent having Circulatory Disorders? C. How are disorders treated or cured? Contents
  2. 2. Diseases of the Circulatory System • Heart Diseases • Blood Vessel Diseases • Blood Diseases
  3. 3. Heart Diseases
  4. 4. Congenital Heart Disease -It is also known as the “Blue Baby Syndrome” • It can be caused by heart valve defects and problems with the heart muscles. • Congenital Heart Disease is the disease in newly born infants.
  5. 5. Congenital Heart Disease • It occurs when the opening between the right and left atria or between right and left ventricles remain open. • These openings should close soon after the birth. • The malformation of the heart allows the mixing of oxygen-rich and oxygen-poor blood. • This condition is indicated by the bluish tinge of the skin due to insufficient supply of oxygen.
  6. 6. Congenital Heart Disease • This may be due to genetic disorders. • Others may be caused by viral infections or pressure to certain chemicals during the early stages of pregnancy.
  7. 7. • Narrowing of the Artery (Atherosclerosis) that leads to Angina Pectoris • Is due to insufficient oxygen reaching the heart muscle caused by the narrowing or the obstruction of the coronary artery. • This occurs in middle-aged or older people. • A person experiences chest pains resulting in the feeling of tightness of breathing.
  8. 8. • Can also be caused by emotional stress, but are more likely due to physical activities that require an increased supply of blood to the heart. • Narrowing of the Artery (Atherosclerosis) that leads to Angina Pectoris
  9. 9. • The final stage in almost any type of heart stage is heart failure or “congestive heart failure”. • The heart muscles weaken and are unable to pump enough blood to the body. Heart Failure
  10. 10. • If the left side of the heart is affected, the victim will develop weakness, breathlessness, and a cough with much sputum (a mixture of saliva and mucus) • If the right side of the heart is affected, there will be pain and pulsation in the liver and the large veins, and other symptoms are mistaken for appendicitis or gall bladder problem. Heart Failure Early symptoms: • Weakness and lack of endurance • Dull pain in the legs • Soreness in the region of the liver or over the heart. • Palpitations & swelling in the ankles
  11. 11. Blood Vessel Diseases
  12. 12. • It is a condition wherein the aorta of the heart and the artery within the skull bulge during an increase in blood pressure. • Bulging occurs due to the weakening of the arterial walls. • The bulging of the arterial walls may be caused by injuries, infection, persistent high blood pressure and syphilis. Aneurysm
  13. 13. Symptoms: • Slight shortness of breath • Pain on exertion If it is located on the arch of the aorta, the symptoms include: • Cough • Hoarseness of voice • Chest pain • Difficulty in breathing • Swelling in one arm or the face and the neck. Aneurysm
  14. 14. • It is also known as “High Blood Pressure”. • It is because, when measured, it is higher than normal. • The systolic pressure is higher than 120, and the diastole is higher than 80. • Hypertension develops when the body’s blood vessels narrow, causing the heart to pump harder than normal to push blood through the narrowed openings. Hypertension
  15. 15. Systolic (mmHg) Upper number Diastolic (mmHg) Lower Number Optimal <120 <80 Normal <130 <85 High-Normal 130-139 85-89 Stage 1 Hypertension (mild) 140-159 90-99 Stage 2 Hypertension (moderate) 160-179 100-109 Stage 3 Hypertension (severe) > or = 180 > or = 110 Demonstration
  16. 16. Common Symptoms: • Dizziness • Headache • Ringing in sensation in the ears If hypertension is untreated, it can lead to: • Heart failure • Brain stroke • Kidney Impairment Hypertension
  17. 17. • It is the hardening of the arteries. • It is the fundamental cause of coronary heart diseases and the interruption of blood flow through arteries of the brain, which results to stroke. • Hardening of the arteries occurs in most people as they become older. Arteriosclerosis
  18. 18. • Hardening of the artery walls may be caused by fibrous tissue in the blood vessel and by calcium or cholesterol deposits. • Cholesterol deposits weaken the arterial wall, causing it to rupture easily. Arteriosclerosis Causes of the hardening of the artery: • Diabetes • Overeating of eggs, cream, butter, animal fats • Infectious diseases • Being overweight • Excessive nerve strain
  19. 19. • Also known as cerebrovascular damage. • It is caused by a lack of blood flow to the part of the brain. • It maybe caused by blood clot in one of the arteries, or the rupture of an artery wall in the brain with accompanying escape of the blood into the brain tissue. Stroke
  20. 20. • A stroke results in sudden death or permanent damage to the brain tissue. • A patient who had a stroke, may develop paralysis on one or both sides of the body. • He or she may have difficulty with walking, eating, or doing other daily activities and the ability to speak clearly. Stroke Symptoms: • Numbness of the face, limbs, and some parts of the body. • Unexplained dizziness • Sudden collapsing
  21. 21. • It is the formation of a blood clot, or thrombus inside a blood vessel, completely blocking the flow of blood through it. • The chief causes of thrombosis are injuries to the inner lining of a blood vessel. Thrombosis
  22. 22. • Thrombophlebitis occurs when a vein develops a clot and becomes inflamed. • This occurs in the thighs and legs. • This condition is common in women. Thrombosis It is characterized by pain just below the groin, by tenderness, swelling of the muscles, and rise in the body temperature.
  23. 23. Blood Diseases
  24. 24. • Iron-Deficiency Anemia • Aplastic Anemia • Sickle-cell Anemia Types of Anemia
  25. 25. • Iron is necessary for the body to make red blood cells. • Low iron intake and loss of blood due to menstruation are the most common causes of iron- deficiency anemia. Iron-Deficiency Anemia
  26. 26. • It is a rare form of anemia that occurs when the body stops making enough red blood cells. • Common causes include: -viral infections - exposure to toxic chemicals, drugs, and autoimmune diseases. • Idiopathic aplastic anemia is the term used when the reason for low red blood cell production is not known. Aplastic Anemia
  27. 27. • It is an inherited hemolytic anemia in which the hemoglobin protein is abnormal, causing the red blood cells to be rigid and clog the circulation because they are unable to flow through small blood vessels. Sickle-cell Anemia
  28. 28. • Hemolytic anemia may be due to mechanical causes (leaky heart valves or aneurysms), infections, autoimmune disorders, or congenital abnormalities in the red blood cell. Inherited abnormalities may affect the hemoglobin or the red blood cell structure or function. • Examples of inherited hemolytic anemias include: some types of thalassemia and low levels of enzymes such as glucose-6 phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency. Hemolytic Anemia This occurs when red blood cells are broken up in the bloodstream or in the spleen.
  29. 29. • may result from low levels of vitamin B12 or folate (folic acid), usually due to poor dietary intake. • Pernicious anemia is a condition in which vitamin B12 cannot be absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract. Vitamin-Deficiency Anemia
  30. 30. • Blood cancer affect the production and function of your blood cells. • Most of these cancers start in your bone marrow where blood is produced. • Stem cells in your bone marrow mature and develop into three types of blood cells: red blood cells, white blood cells, or platelets. Blood Cancer
  31. 31. • a type of cancer found in your blood and bone marrow, is caused by the rapid production of abnormal white blood cells. • The high number of abnormal white blood cells are not able to fight infection, and they impair the ability of the bone marrow to produce red blood cells and platelets. • There are four broad classifications of leukemia: Acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) Acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) Leukemia
  32. 32. Symptoms vary depending on the type and stage of leukemia, but they can include the following: • Fever, chills, night sweats and other flu-like symptoms • Weakness and fatigue • Swollen or bleeding gums • Headaches • Enlarged liver and spleen • Swollen tonsils • Bone pain • Paleness • Pinhead-size red spots on the skin • Weight loss Leukemia
  33. 33. • is a type of blood cancer that affects the lymphatic system, which removes excess fluids from your body and produces immune cells. • Lymphocytes are a type of white blood cell that fight infection. • Abnormal lymphocytes become lymphoma cells, which multiply and collect in your lymph nodes and other tissues. • Over time, these cancerous cells impair your immune system. Lymphoma
  34. 34. • Symptoms of lymphoma include the following: • Swollen lymph nodes in the neck, armpits, or groin • Fever • Weakness and fatigue • Weight loss • Sweating • Difficulty breathing or chest pain • Itchy skin • Rash Lymphoma
  35. 35. • is a type of blood cancer that specifically targets your plasma cells. Plasma cells are white blood cells that produce disease- and infection- fighting antibodies in your body. • Myeloma cells prevent the normal production of antibodies, leaving your body’s immune system weakened and susceptible to infection. Myeloma
  36. 36. • Signs and symptoms of myeloma include the following: • Hypercalcemia (excessive calcium in the blood) • Anemia (shortage or reduced function of red blood cells) • Renal damage (kidney failure) • Susceptibility to infection • Osteoporosis, bone pain, bone swelling or fracture • High protein levels in the blood and/or urine • Weight loss Myeloma
  37. 37. • A condition wherein the blood contains an abnormal large number of red blood cells. • The symptoms of polycythemia are headache, dizziness, fainting spells, unusual itchiness after taking a bath, a feeling of fullness in the head, frequent nosebleeds, and, sometimes, ankle swelling. Polycythemia
  38. 38. • Is a hereditary blood disease characterized by the inability of the blood to clot leading to hemorrhage, or excessive bleeding, even from minor injuries. • Insufficiency or lack of blood proteins, called clotting factors that participate in blood clotting, causes the disease.
  39. 39. • A condition wherein there are numerous small patchy hemorrhages on the skin. • Petechiae are tiny pinpoint hemorrhages occurring around the hair follicle. • Purpura and petechiae result from toxic or chemical injury to blood vessels due to a low platelet count. • Certain drugs may also cause these disorders. Purpura and Petechiae
  40. 40. How can we prevent having Circulatory Disorders?
  41. 41. 1. Exercise regularly - Exercise improves blood circulation of the blood throughout the body. It makes the individual less susceptible to heart attack. 2. Eat a well balanced and low fat diet - avoid eating fatty foods. A high fat diet increases the risk of heart disease. Eat plenty of fruit, vegetables, and fiber rich crops. How can we prevent having Circulatory Disorders?
  42. 42. 3. Live in a clean environment - do not play with chemicals and avoid staying in a place with high radiation. Do not stay outside the sun's rays are intense. 4. Avoid smoking cigarettes or staying with smokers - smoking increases the risk of stroke and coronary heart disease. stay away from smokers ; second hand smoke inhalation is more dangerous. 5. Have a positive outlook in life. - be happy and live peacefully with others. Stress and tension may cause heart failure and stroke. How can we prevent having Circulatory Disorders?
  43. 43. Treatments and Cure for Common Circulatory Disorders
  44. 44. Congenital Heart Disease • This heart defect can be treated successfully with surgery, sometimes, performed within a few weeks or months from birth.
  45. 45. Angina Pectoris Rest and relaxation can offer relief from emotional stress.
  46. 46. A change in lifestyle: • Low-salt diet • A diet rich in fruits, vegetables and plant fibers • Maintenance of ideal weight • Exercise Hypertension
  47. 47. Other Treatments and Cures -Drugs -Angioplasty- is the technique of mechanically widening narrowed or obstructed arteries, the latter typically being a result of atherosclerosis.
  48. 48. Other Treatments and Cures Angioplasty with stents • A stent is a small, expandable tube. It is permanently inserted into the artery during angioplasty. The stent keeps the artery open.
  49. 49. Coronary Bypass Grafting Coronary artery bypass surgery, also coronary artery bypass graft (CABG, pronounced "cabbage") surgery, and colloquially heart bypass or bypass surgery is a surgical procedure performed to relieve angina and reduce the risk of death from coronary artery disease.