Konayuma [globalisation and TVET in Africa]


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One of the main challenges of globalisation for TVET in Africa is the tension it has created between developing skills for poverty eradication and skills for global economic competitiveness......

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  • Introduction to the presentation of the paper
  • Focus of paper presentation
  • To show the place of Africa in the global arena
  • South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA)
  • 1. We need also to use experts in the Diaspora from our nations. 4. Zambia & Botswana Joint study on HIV & AIDS
  • Konayuma [globalisation and TVET in Africa]

    1. 1. Globalisation and TVET in Africa: Challenges and Opportunities Implications of Globalisation for TVET Curriculum Design Gabriel S. Konayuma Ministry of Science, Technology & Vocational Training, Zambia.
    2. 2. Outline of Presentation <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Background Information on Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Definitions of Key terms </li></ul><ul><li>Curriculum Design in TVET in Zambia </li></ul><ul><li>Implications of Globalisation for TVET Curriculum Design </li></ul><ul><li>Recommendations </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul>CAPA Conference 2007 G S Konayuma
    3. 3. Introduction <ul><li>Globalisation: system of economic forces of change that are driving the future. </li></ul><ul><li>Nations cannot afford to ignore effects of globalisation or increasing integration and inter-dependence of national economies. </li></ul><ul><li>Globalisation is driven by ease of information exchange, capital flow, and migration of people, labour, goods and services across national boundaries. </li></ul><ul><li>One of the main challenges of globalisation for TVET in Africa is the tension it has created between developing skills for poverty eradication and skills for global economic competitiveness (CAPA, 2007:1). </li></ul>CAPA Conference 2007 G S Konayuma
    4. 4. Introduction <ul><li>African countries are facing the challenges of globalisation that have significant implications on the delivery of TVET. </li></ul><ul><li>Implications of globalisation for TVET include the areas of curriculum design, training methodologies, pedagogical innovations and resource mobilisation. </li></ul><ul><li>This paper focuses on the implications of globalisation for TVET curriculum design and training methodologies. It draws lessons from the experiences of TVET curriculum design in Zambia and countries in the region. </li></ul>CAPA Conference 2007 G S Konayuma
    5. 5. Background Information on Africa <ul><li>Second largest continent on earth, occupying 20% of the Earth's land area. </li></ul><ul><li>Africa's land area is approx. 30.3657 million sq. km. The Nile River is the world’s longest river. Other long rivers in Africa are the Congo, Niger, Zambezi, and Orange rivers. </li></ul>CAPA Conference 2007 G S Konayuma
    6. 6. Background Information on Africa <ul><li>Key sectors in the African economy are: </li></ul><ul><li>Agriculture, </li></ul><ul><li>Mining, </li></ul><ul><li>Manufacturing, </li></ul><ul><li>Financial and </li></ul><ul><li>Information and Communication Technology </li></ul>CAPA Conference 2007 G S Konayuma
    7. 7. Definition of Globalisation <ul><li>Growing interdependence, increased movement of goods, services, capital and information and the diffusion of democracy and agreements on environmental and human rights standards (Regan, 2002:224). </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing interconnection of people and places as a result of advances in transport, communication, and information technologies that causes political, economic, and cultural convergence (Wikipedia, 2007:1). </li></ul>CAPA Conference 2007 G S Konayuma
    8. 8. Definition of Technical and Vocational Education <ul><li>a comprehensive term referring to those aspects of the educational process involving, in addition to general education, the study of technologies and related sciences, and the acquisition of practical skills, attitudes, understanding and knowledge relating to occupations in various sectors of economic and social life (UNESCO, 2001:1-2). </li></ul>CAPA Conference 2007 G S Konayuma
    9. 9. Definition of Curriculum <ul><li>Curriculum refers to the teaching and learning activities and experiences which are provided by schools. It is also defined as all aspects of teaching and learning such as the intended outcomes of learning, learning programmes, assessment, methodology (SAQA, 2000:5). </li></ul>CAPA Conference 2007 G S Konayuma
    10. 10. Curriculum Design in TVET in Zambia <ul><li>Curriculum design in TVET in Zambia is done using: </li></ul><ul><li>TVET trainers, </li></ul><ul><li>staff from industry, </li></ul><ul><li>professional associations and </li></ul><ul><li>staff from Technical Education, Vocational and Entrepreneurship Training Authority (TEVETA) and government ministries. </li></ul>CAPA Conference 2007 G S Konayuma
    11. 11. Curriculum Design in TVET in Zambia <ul><li>Curriculum is designed for various programmes ranging from: </li></ul><ul><li>Construction, Tailoring & Design, ICT, Carpentry & Joinery, Hospitality & Tourism etc. </li></ul><ul><li>New & existing programmes are developed when a training need is identified by training institutions, communities or industry. </li></ul><ul><li>TEVETA manages the curriculum design and review process by supervising the curriculum development teams and providing guidance. </li></ul><ul><li>Curriculum is developed by developing occupational profiles for various skills levels which are used to develop curricula indicating the learning outcomes expected of trainees at the end of each learning programme. </li></ul>CAPA Conference 2007 G S Konayuma
    12. 12. Curriculum Design in TVET in Zambia <ul><li>The curriculum is developed using a combination of DACUM (Develop A Curriculum) and SCID (Systematic Curricula Instructional Design). </li></ul><ul><li>Curriculum is developed at two levels: National and Local levels. </li></ul><ul><li>National Curricula is used by trainees from various provinces in Zambia while local curricula are used by trainees in local communities to address their training needs. </li></ul><ul><li>The former is developed under the guidance of TEVETA and involves industry and staff from different parts of Zambia while the latter involves mostly local staff. </li></ul>CAPA Conference 2007 G S Konayuma
    13. 13. Curriculum Design in TVET in Zambia <ul><li>For national curricula, efforts are made to ensure that the national vision and plans are incorporated: ensuring priority economic sectors like mining, agriculture and tourism have their curricula reviewed regularly. </li></ul><ul><li>Apart from national curricula, TVET institutions also use international curricula developed mostly in UK. </li></ul><ul><li>Debates on suitability of some of the programmes for the development needs of Zambia. At one time, the Zambia Institute of Marketing advised Zambians to ensure they obtained local Marketing qualifications e.g. marketing degree programme offered by the Copperbelt University and the Diploma and Certificate Marketing programmes examined by the Examinations Council of Zambia offered in TEVET institutions. </li></ul><ul><li>Their argument in was that the local programmes offered addressed the marketing needs of Zambians. The professional marketing programmes they advised were suitable as an added advantage to students that already the marketing programmes. </li></ul>CAPA Conference 2007 G S Konayuma
    14. 14. Curriculum Design in TVET in Zambia <ul><li>This case illustrates how a number of Zambians/Africans get attracted to studying foreign programmes without looking at whether they address local needs. Indeed institutions offer these programmes because they are popular and they sound “nice” to teach and have without looking at the consequence of whether the trainees will get employed and contribute to national development. </li></ul><ul><li>However not all foreign programmes are in conflict with the needs of African nations. It is important that ministries in charge of vocational education and training devise measures to ensure that curricula that is used in TVET institutions (local or foreign) is relevant to the national needs. </li></ul><ul><li>A number of nations in the region: South Africa, Namibia, Botswana and Mauritius have developed qualifications frameworks to ensure that qualifications offered are relevant and meet quality measures. Zambia too is in the process of developing a TEVET Qualification Framework (TQF) and National Qualification Framework (NQF). </li></ul>CAPA Conference 2007 G S Konayuma
    15. 15. Implications Of Globalisation For TVET Curriculum Design <ul><li>TVET Curriculum design should incorporate interdependence in today’s global arena. </li></ul><ul><li>Development of high levels skills in TVET trainees: skills for global economic competitiveness. </li></ul><ul><li>TVET Curriculum design should be flexible: greater emphasis on RPL. </li></ul><ul><li>Cross-cutting issues such as HIV & AIDS, gender, disability and the environment need to be part and parcel of TVET curriculum design. </li></ul>CAPA Conference 2007 G S Konayuma
    16. 16. Implications Of Globalisation For TVET Curriculum Design <ul><li>Disability: In Zambia, ICT curricula for the Visually Impaired was developed in 2004 </li></ul><ul><li>Gender: Some vocational training programmes like dressmaking, hairdressing, and cookery are associated with girls – very often girls who are less gifted academically. In Benin, for example, such girls are derogatorily referred to as following the “c” option of the secondary school curriculum: la serie “c” – couture, coiffure, cuisine!” (African Union, 2007:34). </li></ul>CAPA Conference 2007 G S Konayuma
    17. 17. Implications Of Globalisation For TVET Curriculum Design <ul><li>Environment: Sustainable development in TVET is becoming a key topic at many international TVET fora. Recently UNESCO hosted a Virtual Conference on Education for Sustainable Development. </li></ul><ul><li>5. TVET Curriculum design should incorporate ICT enabled education. E-learning has become a major theme in TVET fora in Africa. E-learning Africa has recently held two conferences i.e. in Ethiopia in 2006 and in Kenya this year. </li></ul>CAPA Conference 2007 G S Konayuma
    18. 18. Implications Of Globalisation For TVET Curriculum Design <ul><li>Curricula needs to address the flooding of markets in Africa with cheap products. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: An African TVET graduate who was taught Carpentry and Joinery would face a great challenge in selling their wooden furniture when it competes with international products made from plastic. What of using alternatives like bamboo which is plenty in a number of African nations? </li></ul>CAPA Conference 2007 G S Konayuma
    19. 19. Recommendations <ul><li>1. Policy Makers and Governments </li></ul><ul><li>Introduce sustainable funding schemes for TVET. </li></ul><ul><li>Increase funding support to the sector. </li></ul><ul><li>Set up venture capital and provide tools and equipment to support TVET graduates start their own enterprises which will lead to job and wealth creation. </li></ul><ul><li>Support R & D in the TVET sector to ensure that national TVET systems can cope with the effects of globalisation. </li></ul><ul><li>Constantly monitor and evaluate the TVET system to ensure improved quality, relevance and access. </li></ul><ul><li>Incorporate generic skills in curriculum such as: </li></ul>CAPA Conference 2007 G S Konayuma
    20. 20. Recommendations <ul><li>collecting, analysing and organising information; </li></ul><ul><li>communicating ideas and information; </li></ul><ul><li>planning and organising activities; </li></ul><ul><li>working with others and in teams; </li></ul><ul><li>using mathematical ideas and techniques; </li></ul><ul><li>solving problems; and </li></ul><ul><li>using technology (Bhuwanee, 20005:1) </li></ul>CAPA Conference 2007 G S Konayuma
    21. 21. Recommendations <ul><li>2. Training Providers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Establish strong linkages and collaboration with employers and industry. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mainstream cross cutting issues such as entrepreneurship, HIV & AIDS, gender into training programmes and activities. Joint studies such as the one undertaken by Botswana and Zambia in 2006 (TVET sector) with the support of UNESCO-UNEVOC and their respective governments are commendable. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Benchmarking against best practices in TVET nationally, in Africa and outside Africa. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>3. Co-operating Partners </li></ul><ul><li>Need to partner in funding research and advocacy for TVET </li></ul>CAPA Conference 2007 G S Konayuma
    22. 22. Conclusion <ul><li>The above recommendations are meant to ensure that curriculum design in Africa is relevant, accessible and of high quality so as to remain globally competitive. This in keeping with the vision of the African Union of “an integrated, peaceful, prosperous Africa, driven by its own people to take its rightful place in the global community and the knowledge economy.” </li></ul>CAPA Conference 2007 G S Konayuma
    23. 23. Conclusion <ul><li>Thank you for your globally competitive listening and participatory skills. </li></ul>CAPA Conference 2007 G S Konayuma