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Dick careyisd model_gi

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Overview of Dick and Carey ISD model

Overview of Dick and Carey ISD model

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    Dick careyisd model_gi Dick careyisd model_gi Presentation Transcript

    • The Dick and Carey Systems Approach Model For Designing Instruction Conduct Revise Instructional Instruction Analysis Design and Identify Write Develop Develop Develop and ConductInstructional Performance Assessment Instructional Select Formative Goals Objectives Instruments Strategy Instructional Evaluation of Materials Instruction Analyze Design and (Adapted from Dick, Carey & Carey, 2009) Learners and Conduct Contexts Summative Evaluation G.I. A2_6507
    • Instructional Systems and Development An instructional system is:  “The planned interaction of people, materials, and techniques, which has the goal of improved performance as measured by established criteria.” (Hays, 2006) Instructional Systems Development (ISD):  “A controlled process for designing instructional systems and evaluating their effectiveness.” (Hays, 2006)
    • ISD Models - Categories Orientation Output Goal Category Classroom One or a few hours of Improve piece of instruction content Product Instructional Make production Package more efficient Systems Course or Create complete Curriculum instructional system (Adapted from The Herridge Group, 2004)
    • Systems Approach Distinctives (Gustafson & Branch, 2002) System-oriented models typically develop entire course or curriculum May include a development team that is highly-skilled Front-end analysis is more extensive than other orientations Emphasis placed on analyzing goals of organization before committing to development Design, Development, and Evaluation phases generally more extensive than other orientations
    • Dick and Carey Systems Approach Model Conduct Revise Instructional Instruction Analysis Design and Identify Write Develop Develop Develop and Conduct Instructional Performance Assessment Instructional Select Formative Goals Objectives Instruments Strategy Instructional Evaluation of Materials Instruction Analyze Design and Learners and Conduct Contexts Summative Evaluation Individual components based on theory and in many cases research that demonstrates effectiveness of model (Dick, Carey & Carey, 2009) Incorporates concepts like performance objectives, criterion-referenced testing, and instructional strategy Model greatly influenced by Robert Gagne, Conditions of Learning and cognitive-information processing views of learning Model includes elements of behaviorist, cognitivist, and constructivist approaches “The Dick, Carey and Carey model (2001) has become the standard to which all other ID models (and alternative approaches to design and development of instruction) are compared.” (Gustafson & Branch, 2002)
    • Components of Dick and Carey Model (Dick, Carey & Carey, 2009) Identify Instructional Goals  Develop Instructional Strategy Conduct Instructional Analysis  Develop and Select Instructional Materials Analyze Learners and Contexts  Design and Conduct Formative Write Performance Objectives Evaluation of Instruction  Revise Instruction Develop Assessment Instruments  Design and Conduct Summative Evaluation
    • Identify Instructional Goals Conduct Revise Instructional Instruction Analysis Design and Identify Write Develop Develop Develop and ConductInstructional Performance Assessment Instructional Select Formative Goals Objectives Instruments Strategy Instructional Evaluation of Materials Instruction Analyze Design and Learners and Conduct Contexts Summative Evaluation
    • Identify Instructional Goals Determine what new information and skills you want learners to master  Express as goals Instructional goals may come from:  List of goals  Performance analysis  Needs assessment  Practical experience with students with learning difficulties  From analysis of people who do the actual job  Other requirements given for new instruction
    • Conduct Instructional Analysis Conduct Revise Instructional Instruction Analysis Design and Identify Write Develop Develop Develop and ConductInstructional Performance Assessment Instructional Select Formative Goals Objectives Instruments Strategy Instructional Evaluation of Materials Instruction Analyze Design and Learners and Conduct Contexts Summative Evaluation
    • Conduct Instructional Analysis Determine step-by-step what people are doing when they are performing the instructional goal  Look at subskills that are needed for mastery of goal Final step in instructional analysis process is to determine entry skills needed to be successful in new instruction  Knowledge, skills, and attitudes
    • Analyze Learners and Contexts Conduct Revise Instructional Instruction Analysis Design and Identify Write Develop Develop Develop and ConductInstructional Performance Assessment Instructional Select Formative Goals Objectives Instruments Strategy Instructional Evaluation of Materials Instruction Analyze Design and Learners and Conduct Contexts Summative Evaluation
    • Analyze Learners and Contexts While analyzing the Instructional goal, perform parallel analysis of the learner:  Context in which they will learn the skills  Context in which learners will use the skills Determine learners’ current skills, preferences, and attitudes…along with… Characteristics of the instructional setting and the setting in which the skills will eventually be used This information is crucial and influences number of steps to follow in the model (especially instructional strategy)
    • Write Performance Objectives Conduct Revise Instructional Instruction Analysis Design and Identify Write Develop Develop Develop and ConductInstructional Performance Assessment Instructional Select Formative Goals Objectives Instruments Strategy Instructional Evaluation of Materials Instruction Analyze Design and Learners and Conduct Contexts Summative Evaluation
    • Write Performance Objectives Write specific statements of what learners will be able to do when they complete the instruction  Based on the instructional analysis and entry skills Statements identify:  Skills to be learned  Conditions under which skills will be determined  Criteria for successful performance
    • Develop Assessment Instruments Conduct Revise Instructional Instruction Analysis Design and Identify Write Develop Develop Develop and ConductInstructional Performance Assessment Instructional Select Formative Goals Objectives Instruments Strategy Instructional Evaluation of Materials Instruction Analyze Design and Learners and Conduct Contexts Summative Evaluation
    • Develop Assessment Instruments Develop assessments that are parallel to and measure learners’ ability to perform what you described in objectives Emphasize the relationship between the kind of skills described in the objectives to the assessment requirements Possible assessments for judging learners’ achievement of critical skills across time include:  Objective tests  Live performances  Measures of attitude formation  Portfolios that are collections of objective and alternative assessments
    • Develop Instructional Strategy Conduct Revise Instructional Instruction Analysis Design and Identify Write Develop Develop Develop and ConductInstructional Performance Assessment Instructional Select Formative Goals Objectives Instruments Strategy Instructional Evaluation of Materials Instruction Analyze Design and Learners and Conduct Contexts Summative Evaluation
    • Develop Instructional Strategy Identify the strategy to use in your instruction to achieve your goal  Based on info from five preceding steps Strategy should emphasize elements to foster student learning including pre-instructional activities like:  Stimulating motivation  Focusing attention  Presentation of new content with examples and demos  Active learner participation and assessment  Follow-through activities that relate newly learned skills to real-world applications Base strategy on current theories of learning and:  Results of learning research  Characteristics of media used to engage learners  Content to be taught  Characteristics of learners who will participate in instruction Use these features to select or develop materials and plan instructional activities
    • Develop and Select Instructional Materials Conduct Revise Instructional Instruction Analysis Design and Identify Write Develop Develop Develop and ConductInstructional Performance Assessment Instructional Select Formative Goals Objectives Instruments Strategy Instructional Evaluation of Materials Instruction Analyze Design and Learners and Conduct Contexts Summative Evaluation
    • Develop and Select Instructional Materials Use the instructional strategy to produce the instruction in this step. This includes:  Guidance for learners’  Instructional materials  (i.e., guides, reading lists, powerpoint, case studies, videos, podcasts, computer-based multimedia formats, web pages for distance learning)  Assessments Original materials might be developed depending on types of:  Learning outcomes  Availability of existing relevant material  Developmental resources available to you
    • Design and Conduct Formative Evaluation of Instruction Conduct Revise Instructional Instruction Analysis Design and Identify Write Develop Develop Develop and ConductInstructional Performance Assessment Instructional Select Formative Goals Objectives Instruments Strategy Instructional Evaluation of Materials Instruction Analyze Design and Learners and Conduct Contexts Summative Evaluation
    • Design and Conduct Formative Evaluation of Instruction After completing draft of instruction, conduct series of evaluations to collect data in order to:  Identify problems with the instruction  Find opportunities to make instruction better Formative Evaluation: helps create and improve instructional system Three types of formative evaluation:  One-to-one evaluation  Small group evaluation  Field trial evaluation Each evaluation provides ID with useful info to improve instruction
    • Revise Instruction Conduct Revise Instructional Instruction Analysis Design and Identify Write Develop Develop Develop and ConductInstructional Performance Assessment Instructional Select Formative Goals Objectives Instruments Strategy Instructional Evaluation of Materials Instruction Analyze Design and Learners and Conduct Contexts Summative Evaluation
    • Revise Instruction Final step (and first in repeat cycle) in design and development process is to revise the instruction Summarize and interpret data from formative evaluation to:  Identify difficulties experienced by learners achieving the objectives  Relate these difficulties to specific deficiencies in the instruction  Re-examine the validity of instructional analysis and assumptions about the entry skills and characteristics of learners Data collected may indicate that it is necessary to re-examine statements of performance objectives and test items Review instructional strategy and incorporate all of considerations into a revision of instruction to make it more effective “Revision is not a discrete event that occurs at the end of the ID process, but an ongoing process of using information to reassess assumptions and decisions” (Dick, Carey & Carey, 2009, p. 8)
    • Design and Conduct Summative Evaluation Conduct Revise Instructional Instruction Analysis Design and Identify Write Develop Develop Develop and ConductInstructional Performance Assessment Instructional Select Formative Goals Objectives Instruments Strategy Instructional Evaluation of Materials Instruction Analyze Design and Learners and Conduct Contexts Summative Evaluation
    • Design and Conduct Summative Evaluation Summative evaluation helps determine the value of the instruction Takes place after the instruction has been formatively evaluated and revised to designers’ standard Summative evaluation generally not conducted by instructional designer, but independent evaluator Increased interest in summative evaluation due to interest in effectiveness of web-based instruction across organizations, states and countries  (e.g., is instruction designed in Nebraska effective for students in Caribbean or China?)
    • Summary Remarks Steps of Dick, Carey & Cary model work together to design systems orientation to instruction Components of model work together to elicit instruction that meets the expressed goals System is evaluated and data is produced Final system can be revised and improved to the desired effectiveness and quality level
    • Application of Model Gustafson & Branch (2002) state that the Dick and Carey model “…reflects the fundamental design process used in many business, industry, government, and military training settings, as well as the influence of performance technology and the application of computers to instruction” (p. 62). Conduct Revise Instructional Instruction Analysis Design and Identify Write Develop Develop Develop and Conduct Instructional Performance Assessment Instructional Select Formative Goals Objectives Instruments Strategy Instructional Evaluation of Materials Instruction Analyze Design and Learners and Conduct Contexts Summative Evaluation
    • ReferencesDick, W., Carey, L. & Carey, J.O. (2009). The Systematic Design of Instruction. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson PressGustafson, K.L., Branch, R.M. (2002). Survey of instructional development models. Retrieved April 26, 2010 from http://eric.ed.gov/ERICDocs/data/ericdocs2sql/content_storage_01/0000019b/80/2b/6e/ 12.pdfHays, R.T. (2006). The Science of Learning: A Systems Theory Approach. Boca Raton, Florida: BrownWalker PressThe Herridge Group (2004). The Use of Traditional Instructional Systems Design Models for eLearning. Retrieved March 19, 2010 from http://www.herridgegroup.com/pdfs/The%20use%20of%20Traditional%20 ISD%20for%20eLearning.pdf