CONTENT INTRODUCTION FUNCTION OF FOOD PACKAGING MAIN PACKAGING MATERIALS DESINGING OF FOOD PACKAGING PACKAGING SYSTEMS FOR BETTER FOOD QUALITY CLASSIFICATION OF PACKAGING
INTRODUCTION Packaging is indispensable in the modern foodindustry. It act as a barrier to oxygen, moisture, lightor smells depending upon the sensitivity of aparticular food to the prevailing environment. Thus ithelps to retain the sensory characteristics of foodproducts.
FUNCTION OF FOODPACKAGING: Containment of the product in convenient unit qualities. Maintenance of a product under clean/hygienic conditions. Conservation of the product/extension of shelf life. Protection of product from extrem physical or chemical influences.
MAIN PACKAGINGMATERIALS:Plastics are used extensively as packaging material in a food industry. These are used in the form of laminates and multiplayer co extruded films, plastics have preferred because the desired characteristics can be attained by proper selection of different type of layers of composite structure, smaller unit packs can be ensured to prevent chances of adulteration and provide easy access to weaker section of the society.
The main plastic packaging materials commonly used in food industry are:Polyolefin are popular in food packaging. There are often used as internal linings in flexible pouches or box- type container for beverages due to better sealing characterstics . A variety of polyolefin popularly used for packaging of food are : 1 Polyethylenes (PE) are most widely used polyolefins. They are easy to process , economically priced and are also used in combination with other polymers to met specific requirements . They are used in single layer or multi layer films .
Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) is hard, stiff and clear, with excellent resistance to moisture, low gas permeability and high impact strength. These films are best suited for packaging fresh meat due to its good oxygen permeability, excellent elastic memory (packages stay tight). Entylene Vinyl Alcohol (EVOH) is an excellent gas barrier and suitable for the retention of fragrance and aroma. Polyester resins exist in many forms. The most widely used polyester is polyethelene.
DESINGING OF FOODPACKAGINGFood packages are designed according to the food materials perishability/quality, and designed to match the product quality and its marketing. The package should be attractive and informative.The following factors are to be considered for the selection of a packaging materials: Barrier properties- permeability to various gases and water vapour. Machine capability- capasity for trouble free operation.
Sealing reliability- ability to sealed to itself and to the container. Anti-fog properties- good product visibility. Special characteristics- Temperature sensitive, quality and freshness indicator. Attractive merchandising is a key factor in achieving sales. One of the most important “tools” of merchandising in an eye-catching, well- designed packaging for creating a successful display at the point-of-sale. Especially for the food industry a superb, high quality photograph is a key ingredients of good food packaging.
The packaging should carry variable information. This information might relate to time or batch of production, customer or product identity or a host of other data types. Coding and marking can be used for a wide range of specific application on food including the following: Product reference by name and code. Batch number and lots of reference. Data or time code. Shift production data.
PACKAGING SYSTEMS FORBETTER FOOD QUALITY There has been remarkable development in packaging materials and packaging techniques. Many of the new packaging materials have been developed to compliment progress in the new preservation techniques such as modified atmosphere packaging (MAP), Controlled Atmospheric packaging (CAP). Different packaging system e.g. active packaging, antimicrobial packaging, intelligent packaging, aseptic packaging etc. can help in the longer and better quality.
INTELLIGENT PACKAGING Smart or intelligent or active packaging system improves food safety during packaging and storage has been classified depending upon the influence of food on packaging materials.
COMPONENTS OFINTELLIGENT PACKAGING: Counterfeiting Holograms Optically variable and other specially designed films Photochromic inks Quality indicators Silica coated films.
PACKED PRODUCT CAN BEADULTRATED BY DIFFERENTMEAN:1. GRAZING: is a practice of shoppers sampling a product prior to purchase. The main motives for this types of tampering are fairly innocent, but of course it does carry a risk of product contamination or premature spoilage.2. PILFERING: This is the removal or substitution of part or all of the product cotamination or adulteration.
3. MALICIOUS TAMPERING: These are although more serious act; people wanting to take revenge upon a company, to make a political point, or to obtain money by extortion, usually motivate these crime. The official US FDA (Food and Drugs Administration) definition of a temper- resistant package is a package “having an indicator to barrier to entry which, if breached or missing, can reasonably be expected to provide visible evidence to consumers that tempering has occured”.
ACTIVE PACKAGINGActive packaging systems involve an interactionbetween the packaging material itself, the internalatmosphere and the food. In order to extend thekeeping quality of foods, new technologies has beendevelop which combine active packaging withmodified atmosphere packaging (MAP).
PACKAGING FORIRRADIATED FOODS Irradiation preservation of food requires appropriate packaging. Packaging for irradiated food must meet the same technical and regulatory requirement as packaging for nonirradiated foods. In addition packaging for irradiated food must have regulatory approval for the incidental radiation that the packaging receives during food irradiation.
PACKAGING MATERIAL FORIRRADIATED FOOD: QUANTITY PACKAGING MATERIAL Nitrocellulose coated cellophane (kGy) Vinylidene chloride copolymer 10 Polyolefin films 10 Kraft paper 10 Rubber hydrochloride films 10 Ethylene- vinyl1 acetate 10 copolymers 30 Nylon 6 60
Aseptic packaging has been defined as aprocedure consisting of sterilization consisting ofpackaging materials or container, filling ofcommercially sterile product in a sterileenvironment, and producing container which aretight enough to prevent recontamination, i.e.which are hermetically sealed.
FUNCTION OF ASEPTICPACKAGING: Sterilization of the packaging material food contact surface. Creating and maintaining a sterile surrounding while forming and filling the containers. The production of units, which are tight enough to prevent recontamination.
1. POUCHES: The end seal must not peel or separate without visible damage and the pouch must be cut or torn to gain access.
2. TAPE SEALS: These are only acceptable if they incorporate some unique features that makes it apparent that they have been removed and reapplied. If used on cartons they must be apply over all flaps.
4. AEROSOLS: These are considered to be inherently tamper resistance. Direct printing on the container is preferable to a paper label.
5. CANS AND COMPOSITE CONTAINER: Top and bottom of a composite must be joined to the walls so that they cannot be pulled apart and replaced. Again direct printing, not labeling is required.
6. FILM WRAPPER: Must be transparent with distinctive design or print for each product; must be cut or torn to gain access and be a tight fit (eg. by heat shrinking); sealed overlapping end flaps are only acceptable if they cannot be open and resealed without leaving visible evidence.