Towards Tomorrow's Sustainable Workplace:
Imagineering a Sustainable Workplace Future
In Partnership with:
Authors
Profess...
Contents: Executive summary by Dom Sherry,
VP Strategy & Innovation, Johnson Controls
Keynote by Dr. Marie Puybaraud,
Dire...
The Hive
The Eco-Office
Gattaca
Now
2007 2030
Jazz
Wise Counsels
Dantesque
Growth
Stability
Decline
-
2
© 2008 Copyright J...
Executive summary
Dom Sherry, VP Strategy &
Innovation, Johnson Controls
Johnson Controls hosted the second in a series of...
Keynote
Dr. Marie Puybaraud,
Director Global WorkPlace
Innovation, Johnson Controls
Having a set of common value and a com...
90% of our clients agreed that to measure and report environmental performance will be a
requirement, combined with active...
Background The changes now being experienced in the Workplace, driven by market pressures,
changing demographics, employee...
Exordium
Professor John Ratcliffe
Everything, we know now, affects
everything else, and small changes
somewhere can have l...
This politics takes concrete form at the intersection of investment and innovation, with the
continued emergence of the ne...
Setting the scene
Sustainability is an
intergenerational long-term
concept, and in order to
successfully propel towards th...
The sustainable
workplace
Corporations can no longer ignore the
sustainability discourse. Changing public
behaviour toward...
Throughout the spheres of influence, such as the United States (US) and Asia, the
sustainable Workplace trajectory is gain...
They include:
It is becoming increasingly accepted that the above-mentioned elements of a sustainable
Workplace are highly...
13
© 2008 Copyright Johnson Controls Global WorkPlace Innovation
This report is for sale. No information can be reproduced...
The futures
methodology &
process
The concept of ‘futures’ is
encapsulated in the idea of trying
to make things happen, ra...
‘Prospective Through Scenarios’
Set the Strategic Question
Determine the Driving Forces
Categorise Trends and Issues –
Cas...
The sustainable
workplace
prospective
These scenarios have been nested from
the first set of global Workplace scenarios
av...
Professor Chris Francis, University of Surrey, UK
17
© 2008 Copyright Johnson Controls Global WorkPlace Innovation
This re...
The strategic
question
Resulting from the workshop, and supported by a number of strategic interviews, the
strategic quest...
Demographic drivers, issues and trends
“We cannot confront the massive challenges of poverty, hunger, disease and environm...
Economic drivers, issues and trends
“The planet should not be used as a warehouse of resources to serve humanity's selfish...
Governance drivers, issues and trends
“As once government's objectives were economic growth and social cohesion, now they ...
Environmental drivers, issues and trends
“In Nature’s infinite book of secrecy, A little I can read”
William Shakespeare, ...
Societal drivers, issues and trends
Any regeneration project that fails to put environmental and social benefits at its ve...
Technological drivers, issues and trends
“Our new technologies, combined with our numbers, have made us, collectively, a f...
Scenario logics
In this report, the following scenario logics
were adopted to create three possible
scenarios:
 Economy 2...
Nested scenario one:
The Hive
The Hive was developed from the first
global Scenario Jazz
As major disasters strikes our so...
One knock-on effect from this development is that the facilities management sector
becomes the key actor in this environme...
Professor Taj Oreszczyn, UCL, UK
28
© 2008 Copyright Johnson Controls Global WorkPlace Innovation
This report is for sale....
Nested scenario two:
The Eco-Office
The Eco-Office was developed from the
second global scenario Wise Counsels.
As a radic...
Within this eco-office environment, the facilities management sector plays a key role.
While this work environment materia...
Niki Bey M.Sc. (Mech.Eng.), Ph.D
IPU Product Development
31
© 2008 Copyright Johnson Controls Global WorkPlace Innovation
...
32
© 2008 Copyright Johnson Controls Global WorkPlace Innovation
This report is for sale. No information can be reproduced...
Nested scenario
three: Gattaca
Gattaca was developed from the global
scenario three Dantesque.
As the corporate society be...
By 2020, the corporation is established and advertised as a fully integrated, self-managed
real estate and personnel inves...
Professor Michael Pitt, John Moore University, UK
35
© 2008 Copyright Johnson Controls Global WorkPlace Innovation
This re...
The 10 big questions
facing the sustainable
workplace
Once the scenarios were presented, the next stage of the process was...
Theme one:
Responsibility,
accountability & blame
The world is undergoing dramatic
changes at the beginning of the 21st
Ce...
Towards Tomorrow's Sustainable Workplace: Imagineering a Sustainable Workplace Future
Towards Tomorrow's Sustainable Workplace: Imagineering a Sustainable Workplace Future
Towards Tomorrow's Sustainable Workplace: Imagineering a Sustainable Workplace Future
Towards Tomorrow's Sustainable Workplace: Imagineering a Sustainable Workplace Future
Towards Tomorrow's Sustainable Workplace: Imagineering a Sustainable Workplace Future
Towards Tomorrow's Sustainable Workplace: Imagineering a Sustainable Workplace Future
Towards Tomorrow's Sustainable Workplace: Imagineering a Sustainable Workplace Future
Towards Tomorrow's Sustainable Workplace: Imagineering a Sustainable Workplace Future
Towards Tomorrow's Sustainable Workplace: Imagineering a Sustainable Workplace Future
Towards Tomorrow's Sustainable Workplace: Imagineering a Sustainable Workplace Future
Towards Tomorrow's Sustainable Workplace: Imagineering a Sustainable Workplace Future
Towards Tomorrow's Sustainable Workplace: Imagineering a Sustainable Workplace Future
Towards Tomorrow's Sustainable Workplace: Imagineering a Sustainable Workplace Future
Towards Tomorrow's Sustainable Workplace: Imagineering a Sustainable Workplace Future
Towards Tomorrow's Sustainable Workplace: Imagineering a Sustainable Workplace Future
Towards Tomorrow's Sustainable Workplace: Imagineering a Sustainable Workplace Future
Towards Tomorrow's Sustainable Workplace: Imagineering a Sustainable Workplace Future
Towards Tomorrow's Sustainable Workplace: Imagineering a Sustainable Workplace Future
Towards Tomorrow's Sustainable Workplace: Imagineering a Sustainable Workplace Future
Towards Tomorrow's Sustainable Workplace: Imagineering a Sustainable Workplace Future
Towards Tomorrow's Sustainable Workplace: Imagineering a Sustainable Workplace Future
Towards Tomorrow's Sustainable Workplace: Imagineering a Sustainable Workplace Future
Towards Tomorrow's Sustainable Workplace: Imagineering a Sustainable Workplace Future
Towards Tomorrow's Sustainable Workplace: Imagineering a Sustainable Workplace Future
Towards Tomorrow's Sustainable Workplace: Imagineering a Sustainable Workplace Future
Towards Tomorrow's Sustainable Workplace: Imagineering a Sustainable Workplace Future
Towards Tomorrow's Sustainable Workplace: Imagineering a Sustainable Workplace Future
Towards Tomorrow's Sustainable Workplace: Imagineering a Sustainable Workplace Future
Towards Tomorrow's Sustainable Workplace: Imagineering a Sustainable Workplace Future
Towards Tomorrow's Sustainable Workplace: Imagineering a Sustainable Workplace Future
Towards Tomorrow's Sustainable Workplace: Imagineering a Sustainable Workplace Future
Towards Tomorrow's Sustainable Workplace: Imagineering a Sustainable Workplace Future
Towards Tomorrow's Sustainable Workplace: Imagineering a Sustainable Workplace Future
Towards Tomorrow's Sustainable Workplace: Imagineering a Sustainable Workplace Future
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A Global Workplace Innovation report by
Professor John Ratcliffe
Ruth Saurin

Project Coordinator
Dr Marie Puybaraud

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  1. 1. Towards Tomorrow's Sustainable Workplace: Imagineering a Sustainable Workplace Future In Partnership with: Authors Professor John Ratcliffe Ruth Saurin Project Coordinator Dr Marie Puybaraud
  2. 2. Contents: Executive summary by Dom Sherry, VP Strategy & Innovation, Johnson Controls Keynote by Dr. Marie Puybaraud, Director Global WorkPlace Innovation, Johnson Control Background Exordium by Professor John Ratcliffe, Dublin Institute of Technology Setting the scene The sustainable workplace The futures methodology & process The sustainable workplace prospective The strategic question Drivers, issues and trends Demographic drivers, issues and trends Economic drivers, issues and trends Governance drivers, issues and trends Environmental drivers, issues and trends Societal drivers, issues and trends Technological drivers, issues and trends Scenario logics Nested scenarios The Hive The Eco-Office Gattaca The 10 big questions facing the sustainable workplace The 10 possible answers facing the sustainable workplace Propositum by Professor John Ratcliffe, Dublin Institute of Technology Appendices Participants The global workplace scenarios Partners Research Team References 1 © 2008 Copyright Johnson Controls Global WorkPlace Innovation This report is for sale. No information can be reproduced without the authorisation of Johnson Controls
  3. 3. The Hive The Eco-Office Gattaca Now 2007 2030 Jazz Wise Counsels Dantesque Growth Stability Decline - 2 © 2008 Copyright Johnson Controls Global WorkPlace Innovation This report is for sale. No information can be reproduced without the authorisation of Johnson Controls
  4. 4. Executive summary Dom Sherry, VP Strategy & Innovation, Johnson Controls Johnson Controls hosted the second in a series of futures workshops aimed at anticipating the possible long term implications of the current global trends on the sustainability of our Workplaces and workstyles. A diverse group of academics and Workplace practitioners spent a day looking at these global trends from a Workplace perspective. Following some provocative, scene-setting presentations, the drivers and issues were brainstormed. Ten themes were identified by the group and each considered against three very different 2030 scenarios discussed at the first workshop:  Hive (within Jazz) – where economic growth rapidly accelerates, driven by technological advances and deregulation. Major disasters cause knowledge workers to take refuge in home-working and the corporate office no longer exists.  Eco-Office (within Wise Counsels) – a stable, knowledge based, global economy based on collaboration and consensus, and focused on environmental balance and social progress. Eco-offices, similar to hotels, emerge, providing good services to improve quality of life and work and to attract the top talent.  Gattacca (within Dantesque) – a fragmented, disjointed and insecure world in which economic stagnation emphasises cultural and racial differences. The corporate hierarchical structure is now more prominent and the Workplace is similar to a production line in a manufacturing plant. Debate around these scenarios led to consensus that some aspects of the future Workplace are more probable:  Individuals will be increasingly networked, connecting virtually and more loosely connected to corporate organisations  Formal working environments will need to be highly collaborative to facilitate the virtual networks  Workplaces must be:  highly technology enabled  environmentally friendly  offer a sense of community  balance physical security with a feeling of openness  Corporates will be socially and environmentally responsible  The Futures ‘imagineering’ process, pioneered by the Dublin Institute of Technology, is not intended to give answers but to open one’s mind to the opportunities – the journey is more important than the destination. The report takes you through the thought processes of the participants 3 © 2008 Copyright Johnson Controls Global WorkPlace Innovation This report is for sale. No information can be reproduced without the authorisation of Johnson Controls
  5. 5. Keynote Dr. Marie Puybaraud, Director Global WorkPlace Innovation, Johnson Controls Having a set of common value and a common objective is key to drive sustainability in our organisation and make our workplaces more sustainable. The last three decades of policy making and regulatory changes were only the first step towards the implementation of a sustainable approach to the way we make business, but the role we play as human is core to making our businesses more sustainable. Another long term strategic vision, spanning over several decades, is what is facing us in relation to sustainability. Prior to the preparation of this report, we engaged 37 of our global client corporations to give us their opinion about sustaining tomorrow’s workplace, 50% agreed that today their workplace reinforces the sustainability aspirations of their business while less than 40% are still not able to demonstrate any current investment in next generation energy efficiency solutions. More than 75% agreed that the environment and services have a positive impact on employee productivity and that the workplace represents the desired values and culture of the business. We know our corporate clients will also put more pressure on us, service providers, to deliver more sustainable business practices. Like us, 3/4er are actively investing in research into future trends and scenarios and nearly 70% are people focused rather than building focus when looking at service delivery. It is reassuring to know that a large majority (89%) are actively promoting environmental policies across their business operations, but that cost maybe a barrier to living the true values of sustainability. Actually less than 40% of the respondents positively encourage a comprehensive green travel plan in their workplace. Can we continue to ignore the sustainability discourse? We have to accept we cannot anymore ignore climate change. Environmental issues are high on the corporate agenda. Workplace is playing such a big part in the consumption of energy worldwide, it reinforces the need to address sustainability at a corporate level. It is clear that changes in social demographics and cultural diversity will be a challenge in tomorrow’s workplace. The multi-generation layers will be more important, the Yers (Generation Y – 18-25years old) expecting a different working environment from the ageing employees (+50 years old) looking for more freedom and flexibility in the way of working. The Eco-Office scenario addresses this view. The fierce competition for talent will be more predominant on our organisation (85.7% agreed). Talent management combined with the growth of mobility and collaborative working is extremely well reflected in our results. The Hive is an excellent description of a very dynamic working environment made out of knowledge entrepreneurs, spread across a network. How will sustainability play an important part in this search for talent and retention of talent? Our corporate clients are already planning for change and starting to embrace sustainability in their working environment. While the future of our workplace is still uncertain, 77% agree that multi-use office complexes will be commonplace and for 83% that flexible working will lead to the most significant value return. Our clients tell us that technology will not be a barrier to mobility and 66% agreed increased technology costs will not restrict the drive for mobility. Employees engagement emerges as potentially a solution to cope with what the future holds. 83.3% agreed that engaging employees with future workplace planning, strategies and solution development could provide an answer to sustain tomorrow’s workplace. Organisation are also realising that training and education for new working practices were lacking and that in the future the provision of these may be crucial. Environmental legislation and governance will be more important than they are now and our corporate social responsibility will be more central to our business activities (89% agreed). 97.1% of our respondents agreed the challenging prospect of lacking energy supply and most likely increasing cost of supply will be one of the major challenges facing our workplaces in the future. A theme well developed by Professor Taj Oreszczyn when he describes the future as a Fuel Paradise: where energy replaces money. 4 © 2008 Copyright Johnson Controls Global WorkPlace Innovation This report is for sale. No information can be reproduced without the authorisation of Johnson Controls
  6. 6. 90% of our clients agreed that to measure and report environmental performance will be a requirement, combined with actively pursuing alternative energy sources/solutions. In the context of an uncertain, more complex future for our workplaces, with an asset of employees asking for a different way of working, and more pressure to be greener, more environmentally sustainable, how do we sustain the workplace of Tomorrow?  By making it achieve the goals it was designed for - both today and in the future  By ensuring it adapts to continue to meet the changing goals of the organisation  By making it environmentally sustainable This workplace ecosystem we talk about in this report brings together all the essential ingredients of facilities management, we know so well and manage so efficiently: corporate, social and ethical responsibility (CSER), human behaviour, physical infrastructure and solutions. Our corporate responsibilities for making our workplaces sustainable are crucial in creating and maintaining this workplace ecosystem. I understand and welcome the approach the three scenarios explore towards tomorrow’s sustainable workplace: investing in the future is all about making use of the technology and innovative solutions we already have to reach our objectives. It may not be the most “organic” way of looking at workplace sustainability, but let’s face the reality: we have already been too far in the way we deliver our business services and it is probably not possible to step back into time. But it is possible to optimise our current service delivery to drive our clients towards an energy neutral facility and a green, but agile, way of working and operating their facilities and managing their employees. John and Ruth are right to say that the solution lies within a ‘sustainable corporate development’. Frank Duffy is correct when he says that “conventional Taylorist office buildings are no longer a stable building type” and that such offices are more than likely to cause environmental degradation because they are the product of a supply chain which is uni-directional, feedback free, and antiquated in fashion.” We require a radical change in the way we manage our facilities and operate Workplaces for our clients. And our clients must change their mind set and move towards this corporate, social and ethical responsibility (CSER) we are all searching for. Will the 21st century be a new type of economics, with a new kind of global economy, like John is predicting? The three nested scenarios are an exploration of all these possibilities and are leading our imagination to think about the best and the worse that can happen to our world of work. But more importantly it is leading you as the reader to consider the future the workplace and the role sustainability plays into it. I invite you to explore the scenarios, explore the 10 big questions we are facing and discover the 10 answers to these problems. Marie Puybaraud marie.c.puybaraud@jci.com 5 © 2008 Copyright Johnson Controls Global WorkPlace Innovation This report is for sale. No information can be reproduced without the authorisation of Johnson Controls
  7. 7. Background The changes now being experienced in the Workplace, driven by market pressures, changing demographics, employee expectations and new technologies, are impacting, be it negatively or positively, upon people, organisations and the environment. In order to react and respond to the outcomes of these changes, empirically, it has been noted that the Workplace needs to learn how to become more sustainable. The impetus for delivering action on sustainability is accelerating worldwide. It has taken over 30 years for governments to actually set out clear strategies for what can be achieved and delivered. However, throughout successive documents, reports and consultations on sustainability, there is no clear strategy to deliver sustainable working environments and sustainable operations and services. Nevertheless, an opportunity appears in the midst of this neglect. With few regulations governing sustainable practices, companies have great discretion and more importantly, opportunity, in choosing what issues to emphasize and act upon. Consequently, there is no stereotypical approach to designing a sustainability programme in a Workplace because the issues confronting each company can vary enormously. So, how can major corporations and government agencies begin to discover the strategic value of the sustainable Workplace? And can it be used as a tool for maintaining a competitive edge, achieving strategic goals and meeting environmental and socioeconomic goals more effectively? In 2007, the report “Workplace Futures: A Prospective Through Scenarios” was completed and from this, an important research priority emerged. A re-occurring theme was highlighted throughout the document, whereby the need to develop a sustainable Workplace strategy has become critical in developing the sustainability concept. Furthermore, the Global Workplace scenarios were used as a foundation to develop three different, but possible sustainable Workplace scenarios with each world of Jazz, Wise Counsel and Dantesque. Subsequently, The Futures Academy in collaboration with Johnson Controls has prepared this report. This document aims to:  Set out a contextual background of the driving forces, issues, and trends shaping the evolution of the sustainable Workplace over the next 25 years  Provide a framework to stimulate thinking and encourage informed discussions concerning the direction of sustainable Workplace development  Highlight what are the major questions facing the development of the sustainable Workplace  Incorporate the findings of a Sustainable Workplace 2030 questionnaire, a number of selective strategic interviews, and the output of the futures workshop held at the RIBA, London, in November 2007 6 © 2008 Copyright Johnson Controls Global WorkPlace Innovation This report is for sale. No information can be reproduced without the authorisation of Johnson Controls
  8. 8. Exordium Professor John Ratcliffe Everything, we know now, affects everything else, and small changes somewhere can have large impacts elsewhere. Those of us who qualified in the real estate business over 40 years ago, however, still have difficulty in seeing the ‘wholeness’ and understanding the ‘interconnections’ of the world. We were not trained to appreciate and capture the nature of systems and the dynamic of relationships, let alone express such thinking in terms of corporate policy, property markets and occupational production. Though familiar with market cycles, their movements and corrections, we are less well- versed in comprehending the character and consequences of cardinal change. The spirit of this study is to explore the driving forces of change that will affect tomorrows Workplace, and imagine how peoples perceptions are being transformed by the imperative of sustainability. Sustainability is not just part of a market cycle, nor simply a significant event, it is a structural shift in how we think about and do things. Arguably, as part of this shift, we are moving from an ‘old economy’ to a ‘new economy’, and thus from old markets, means of production and methods of measurement to new ones. The old economy, for example, has been one based on cheap energy, high levels of mobility and the concept of closed systems. The new economy will most likely be based on contentious costly and capricious energy, with lower levels of physical mobility, greater degrees of connectivity and much higher standards of accountability. At the macro-economic scale, the past century has seen capitalist economics deviate from its original ethical and social purpose, mutating into an amoral quest for financial gain at any cost. There is now a growing awareness that the relentless pursuit of profits and a preoccupation with the ‘single bottom-line’ poses a constant and burgeoning threat to civil society and the natural environment. As averred in Workplace Futures, the precursor publication to this, economics is complex. The challenge is to perceive the economy not as deterministic, predictable and mechanistic, but as a complex, process- dependent, organic and continually evolving system. Therefore, although I am not sure quite what form it will take, I confidently believe this century will witness the emergence of a new type of economics, with a new kind of global economy. One hopefully that places greater emphasis on systems thinking and a more holistic approach as a way of breaking out of the narrow prism of GDP and market pricing that presently dominates conventional economic policy and practice. ‘Triple bottom-line’ accounting, for instance, is one small step in the right direction. Over the past few years, one driver above all others has emerged in successive ‘futures’ exercises we have undertaken in The Futures Academy at DIT, including this one, and that is the force of changing global values. Even in the facilities management field we are having to grapple, perhaps very superficially at first, with spheres hitherto considered alien or ancillary to the built environment – human motivation, cultural change, democratic values, civic virtues, individualism, self-expression, intergenerational perspectives, modernisation, natural capitalism and the like. This can be extremely taxing. But having at least an awareness of the broader driving forces of change – demographic, economic, governance, environmental, societal and technological – all of which contribute to a changing values system, I believe is increasingly essential in attaining sustainable development and, to echo the title and theme of this text in creating tomorrow’s sustainable Workplace. On top of this, I am becoming hugely influenced by a growing movement towards a new kind of politics – one which breaks with several widely accepted, though largely unconscious, distinctions; such as those between humans and nature, the community and the individual, and the government and the market. It is best expressed as the ‘politics of possibility’ as opposed to the ‘politics of limits’. Such a politics of possibility is founded firmly on an explicitly pro-growth agenda which defines the kind of prosperity that is necessary to improve the quality of human life and tackle the ecological and environmental crises ahead. 7 © 2008 Copyright Johnson Controls Global WorkPlace Innovation This report is for sale. No information can be reproduced without the authorisation of Johnson Controls
  9. 9. This politics takes concrete form at the intersection of investment and innovation, with the continued emergence of the new creative class and the growth of new high tech businesses, both of whom, as professionals, we help house. It is a politics, moreover, that joins the individuals self-interest with the common good. What then is the dream? For this study is part of a dream. Put very simply, it is the notion or ideal that we should unleash human power, not constrain it. We should focus firmly on invention, investment and imagination more than we do on limitation, regulation and control. The dream not the nightmare. Indeed, the dream I share is one where the world becomes more concentrated upon creating a new form of development with a new value system. One where economic growth is seen as a solution to the environmental hazards we face and not a problem. And one, where before answering “What is to be done?”, we must first ask “Who are we? Where are we going? What can we become?” In this context, and above all else, therefore, this study poses some pertinent questions for the future for those involved in the facilities management field, in achieving tomorrow’s sustainable Workplace. 8 © 2008 Copyright Johnson Controls Global WorkPlace Innovation This report is for sale. No information can be reproduced without the authorisation of Johnson Controls
  10. 10. Setting the scene Sustainability is an intergenerational long-term concept, and in order to successfully propel towards this future it is necessary to incorporate long-term strategic vision. Consequently, visioning processes drawn from the futures field represent the main way in which inherent short-termism of traditional policy-making frameworks (which often impede organisations in their efforts to conceptualise and formulate long- term strategies for sustained corporate growth) might be overcome. Sustainable development is emerging as a driving force underpinning how organisations operate in the 21st Century. It can be defined as being “multidimensional in that it incorporates many different aspects of living, from pursuing environmental protection and maintaining natural capital, to achieving economic prosperity and equity for current and future generations” (Kelly et al, 2005). However, the concept itself exemplifies complexity, subjectivity, ambiguity, and the norm. So, in order to deal effectively with this multifaceted notion, the main characteristics that are central to the understanding of sustainable development have been identified as follows (Martens, 2006): 1. Intergenerational attributes – Sustainable development occurs between generations, thus leading to a longer time-frame for sustainability policies, practices, and processes to specifically have an impact on the world. Consequently, it is a long- term phenomenon of between 25 and 50 years. 2. Different spatial levels – Sustainability plays out at different levels, ranging from the global to the regional to the local level. What happens at one spatial level might play out differently at another. 3. Multiple spheres of policy areas – Sustainable development encompasses three general policy areas of economic development, environmental protection and social equity. 4. Multiple interpretations – There are an increasing number of different definitions of sustainability which leads to diverse interpretations of the concept. Thus, it is currently an extremely contested policy and research area. From this perspective, policy makers have begun to realise the value in embracing the sustainability ethic. And yet, in some areas, the concept continues to be advanced by political rhetoric which fuels, somewhat pejoratively, the continued debate surrounding the sustainability paradigm. Advocates of sustainable development believe it offers a way of responding to the conflicts between economic objectives and social and environmental imperatives, thereby becoming a catalyst for change towards the successful development of sustainable business activities (Tilley and Fuller, 2000). And yet, critics believe it sets limits on the developing world. Despite current industrialised countries polluting in large quantities during their period of development, they are now placing pressure on developing countries not to repeat the same mistake. Inevitably, this is seen as impeding growth as well as being somewhat hypocritical. Furthermore, it is contested that to consider the implementation of sustainable development as it is presently portrayed would mean a surrendering to pre-modern lifestyles. Nevertheless, regardless of what view one takes, at present contemporary society is still deemed to be unsustainable in nature. The symptoms of this flawed trajectory include energy crises, air and water pollution, environmental degradation, congestion, ill-health and poverty. If the consequences of these symptoms are examined, it is evident that current social structures, human activities and short-term strategy frameworks cannot continue this way. Sustainability, in its truest sense, is a horizon that may never be reached. Yet, out of necessity, it is the only way forward, and sustainable Workplaces are among the most important preconditions for guiding society in a sustainable direction. 9 © 2008 Copyright Johnson Controls Global WorkPlace Innovation This report is for sale. No information can be reproduced without the authorisation of Johnson Controls
  11. 11. The sustainable workplace Corporations can no longer ignore the sustainability discourse. Changing public behaviour towards the environment, an emerging political shift towards quality of life issues and increasing institutional support for sustainable development are impacting upon the way business activities unfold (Tilley and Fuller, 2000). Additionally, Workplace strategies are changing, whereby the focus is shifting from a place-centric to a people-centric strategy. This type of strategy centres on the nature of the work people do, and how Facilities Management can support it effectively. High performance Workplaces like this can make a significant contribution to boosting productivity, improving profitability and creating the competitive edge. Collaboration, knowledge and immediacy are primary focus points in this Workplace (Mitchell-Ketzes, 2003). What is more, they can also reflect some attributes of sustainability. Can, therefore, this Workplace encourage sustainability within the corporate network? What is the sustainable Workplace? It is a Workplace ecosystem that supports and integrates people, process and places while incorporating sustainability principles into an integrated Workplace strategy, such as:  Greater social responsibility  Greater ethical responsibility  Improving health and safety at work  Supporting an efficient organisation  Maximising human capital  Improving the natural working environment To achieve this level of change towards a sustainable Workplace or business milieu, innovation and perhaps incentive-based compensation is required. The adoption of these ideas can play an important role in an organisation’s ability to reorganise its places of work. Therefore, innovative Workplace strategies are needed to add both value to the organisation and adapt to current market conditions and the surrounding environment. According to Frank Duffy of DEGW, some major challenges, however, exist, that need to be overcome before the development of the sustainable Workplace is successful. As major ‘step changes’ occur, such as the emergence of ubiquitous ICT technology and the climate change issue, Frank states that “conventional Taylorist office buildings are no longer a stable building type. In fact, such offices are more than likely to cause environmental degradation because they are the product of a supply chain which is uni- directional, feedback free, and antiquated in fashion. An opportunity exists here to develop the supply chain as a user-friendly and important mechanism to promote the successful development of the sustainable Workplace”. Furthermore, he went on to state that “due to the increasing pressure surrounding the sustainability debate, fewer buildings, used intelligently and intensively will emerge as an important step change that will make a significant contribution to the long-term survival of the planet”. 10 © 2008 Copyright Johnson Controls Global WorkPlace Innovation This report is for sale. No information can be reproduced without the authorisation of Johnson Controls
  12. 12. Throughout the spheres of influence, such as the United States (US) and Asia, the sustainable Workplace trajectory is gaining momentum in both of these regions. In the US, sustainability is moving from corporate real estate towards a commercial real estate phase. And a major trend emerging is the demand for green buildings, particularly in New York, Chicago and Los Angeles. Businesses, in particular are demanding these types of efficient office because they can achieve class A status, which is necessary to gain competitive advantage. Major challenges, however, are primarily seen in the private sector. The financial pay back takes longer for building owners with lease agreements. Leases can be short-term, between 3-5years and if energy efficiency in buildings is invested in and the start-up costs are high, the owners rarely benefit since they no longer hold the lease on the premises and don’t see the economic and long-term benefits of the investment. There is a mismatch of commercial incentives. In Asia, sustainability is driven by corporations and governments. It is in response to the positive publicity on the issue in the European and American regions which is filtering into the Orient. Corporate social responsibility is a key driver that reinforces the Asian sustainability agenda. Tax incentives, however, must be developed for corporations so as the organisations can step up to the challenge of sustainability. A major challenge, however, is the hybrid push-pull model that is used here. If one takes the emerging markets of India and China, there is a conflict between economic expansion and success and achieving this at a sustainable level. Which is more important? Or can both be done? Also, so as to achieve sustainability on a major scale, an increasing level of innovation is needed, in order to cater for the ever increasing population in the region. Otherwise the infrastructures in different countries will not be able to control the demand for such products, like energy and water. In terms of the sustainable Workplace, there are think tanks being formed, but not a lot of actions have been taken in order to harness the sustainable Workplace. Businesses are a critical part of the solution towards sustainability. However, businesses cannot bring about changes themselves; government action is required to regulate them and financiers are needed to reward moves towards sustainability. Therefore, to engage in sustainability effectively, it is necessary to move beyond the ‘business as usual’ model, since there is nothing usual about the situation the planet and humankind is in (IUCN, 2006). At the organisational level, it is important to be aware of the different key elements that make up sustainable Workplaces which, in the end, can help guide society towards reaching its goal towards sustainability. 11 © 2008 Copyright Johnson Controls Global WorkPlace Innovation This report is for sale. No information can be reproduced without the authorisation of Johnson Controls
  13. 13. They include: It is becoming increasingly accepted that the above-mentioned elements of a sustainable Workplace are highly interrelated at each and every scale of an organisation. Ultimately, these processes will become increasingly intertwined in corporations, and management will become an even more complex undertaking. This awareness has secured the need for ‘sustainable corporate development’ to be placed high on the business agenda. However, the paradigm of sustainability itself embodies new sources of complexity and uncertainty into the process. By recognising that the Workplace is a complex adaptive system subject to dynamic change, conventional planning and management approaches are beginning to give way to, or at least be supplemented by, alternative approaches which encourage vision, creativity, strategy and democracy. In addition, sustainable development can be complemented by the use of a futures approach in order to address the threats and opportunities that fall under the long-term scope of sustainability. 12 © 2008 Copyright Johnson Controls Global WorkPlace Innovation This report is for sale. No information can be reproduced without the authorisation of Johnson Controls
  14. 14. 13 © 2008 Copyright Johnson Controls Global WorkPlace Innovation This report is for sale. No information can be reproduced without the authorisation of Johnson Controls
  15. 15. The futures methodology & process The concept of ‘futures’ is encapsulated in the idea of trying to make things happen, rather than guessing what might happen. Using this concept, and the business of discovery, organisations and individuals have to embrace uncertainty, and continually review a wide range of policy options. There is a growing realisation, in all areas of life, that the future is not fixed. The notion that the future can be ‘shaped’ or ‘created’ has gained currency over the past decade, and is increasingly the basis upon which organisations of all kinds make their plans. A Futures Approach The futures approach using scenarios offers links between the future people want with the present people now have. When individuals are given the opportunity to look ahead, new concepts like sustainability become less of a threat and a distraction from the present and more like a doorway into a new world. Corporate visioning is an attempt to generate momentum for change, and a core element for success is to develop a widespread culture of leadership to promote continual self-improvement. In this way, it is suggested that visioning becomes a change agent, which has to manage public participation, generate flagship ideas, and establish benchmarks for success and trigger goal-setting. Key to this is the development of scenarios. In this report, so as to achieve the long-term vision towards a sustainable Workplace and raise the issues of common concern that are often over-looked in the conventional short term view, a causal layered analysis (CLA) futures technique was adopted and adapted by The Futures Academy. A better understanding of the sustainable Workplace was generated by exploring the problem spaces within sustainability using a layered analysis for the creation of alternative futures. The layers explored were as follows:  Empirical Unpack the Sustainable Workplace and Cluster Themes  Interpretative Identify underlying forces and reasons, using the DEGEST classification (Demography, Economy, Governance, Environment, Social, Technology)  Exploratory Analysis of Worldviews, Cultures and Values Once the critical driving forces and emerging issues and trends on the subject of the sustainable Workplace were identified, three possible and plausible scenarios were produced, with the purpose of preparing for the future. Additionally, these sustainable Workplace scenarios were nested from the original global Workplace scenarios, whereby the global scenario frameworks were used to create three different types of Workplaces in each world. And finally, ten questions were identified that the development of the sustainable Workplace faces over the next 25 years. 14 © 2008 Copyright Johnson Controls Global WorkPlace Innovation This report is for sale. No information can be reproduced without the authorisation of Johnson Controls
  16. 16. ‘Prospective Through Scenarios’ Set the Strategic Question Determine the Driving Forces Categorise Trends and Issues – Casual Layered Analysis Establish Scenario Logics Create Alternative Nested Scenarios Answer 10 Big Questions Facing the Sustainable Workplace Divergence Emergence Convergence Prescription Prognosis Diagnosis Source: Ratcliffe and Sirr (2003) The Futures Academy Once the critical driving forces and emerging issues and trends on the subject of the sustainable Workplace were identified, three possible and plausible scenarios were produced, with the purpose of preparing for the future. And finally, ten questions were identified that the development of the sustainable Workplace faces within the next 25 years. Though there are many variations of any theme, the stages in Figure 1 are typical of a prospective through scenarios process. The ‘Prospective Through Scenarios’ process is becoming more popularly applied across Europe in a variety of strategic settings:  It requires organisations to perceive creatively what is going on in their environments.  It requires them to think through, in an imaginative way, what their environment means for them, and then demonstrate the readiness to act decisively upon this new knowledge.  Most of all, however, it demands them to determine what they wish their preferred future to be. 15 © 2008 Copyright Johnson Controls Global WorkPlace Innovation This report is for sale. No information can be reproduced without the authorisation of Johnson Controls
  17. 17. The sustainable workplace prospective These scenarios have been nested from the first set of global Workplace scenarios available in Appendix. Global Workplace scenario One: Jazz THE HIVE: Agility, anonymity and access “the networked hive Workplace structure” Global Workplace scenario Two: Wise Counsels THE ECO-OFFICE: A radical form of industrial democracy and corporate re-engineering “a new work style, from a knowledge revolution to a wisdom revolution” Global Workplace scenario Three: Dantesque GATTACA: The rise of the corporate office " a ‘swarm’ society, grouped together on the basis of shared interests and commercial affinities” WARNING: This is not an authoritative document. It represents the findings largely from the participants of the Futures Workshop. The information is believed to be correct, but cannot be guaranteed, and the opinions expressed constitute our judgement as of this date and are subject to change. 16 © 2008 Copyright Johnson Controls Global WorkPlace Innovation This report is for sale. No information can be reproduced without the authorisation of Johnson Controls
  18. 18. Professor Chris Francis, University of Surrey, UK 17 © 2008 Copyright Johnson Controls Global WorkPlace Innovation This report is for sale. No information can be reproduced without the authorisation of Johnson Controls
  19. 19. The strategic question Resulting from the workshop, and supported by a number of strategic interviews, the strategic question is set as: What might the future of the sustainable Workplace be like by 2030? Drivers, issues and trends Although there exists an endless list of important drivers of change impacting on the global Workplace, it is essential to identify what the most influential of these might be, and how they might interact to propel change in different ways. In doing this, an understanding is required of the various forces that are driving change. These are characterised under the ‘six-sector approach’ (DEGEST) and include: 1. Demography 2. Economy 3. Governance 4. Environment 5. Society 6. Technology Sequentially, these forces will then propel the storylines described in a particular plot for our nested scenarios: The Hive, the Eco-Office and Gattaca. Once these driving forces of change have been identified, a number of issues and trends are considered using different spatial levels: Empirical, Interpretative and Exploratory. They will impact considerably on the sustainable Workplace environment and will affect the strategic question in some shape or form. It is readily recognised that there is interconnectivity between sectors and between spatial levels in a complex world where “everything affects everything else”. 18 © 2008 Copyright Johnson Controls Global WorkPlace Innovation This report is for sale. No information can be reproduced without the authorisation of Johnson Controls
  20. 20. Demographic drivers, issues and trends “We cannot confront the massive challenges of poverty, hunger, disease and environmental destruction unless we address issues of population and reproductive health.” Thoraya Ahmed Obaid, Executive Director, UN Population Fund (UNFPA) Demographic sustainability has become a key dimension underpinning a sustained and concerted development effort in order for the Workplace to adapt and survive in the 21st Century. In order to achieve this, Workplaces must become inclusive, sustainable, and promote a more flexible and adaptable working environment. However, shifting demographic patterns are also posing major challenges that the sustainable Workplace will face over the next twenty five years or so, in terms of economic growth, social exclusion and national identity. Behind this rationale toward demographic sustainability a number of drivers, issues and trends have been considered. EMPIRICAL  Lack of focus on people;  Support the health and well being of employees;  Encourage knowledge interactions between the diverse generations;  People in Asia want the same lifestyle as the USA and Western Europe- not enough resources to support this, how do we resolve this?  The future of sustainability is the hands of our children;  Distributed Workplaces are becoming increasingly popular in order to gain access to the top talent across the world;  Facilities Management will become ‘facilitators of work’ management;  How many products do we need to own, are there other ways to facilitate this?  The engagement of the family can make a difference in creating the sustainable Workplace;  Employees working from home when young families reside there. INTERPRETATIVE  Demographic challenges producing significant economic pressures such as income inequality;  Education of the younger generations in whole systems of sustainability and behavioural changes emerging;  Availability of water is going to have a huge impact on sustaining global demographics;  The population is changing due largely to immigration and higher fertility rates among minority ethnicities;  Expectations of working environments is changing and to attract and retain talented staff, Workplaces need to offer flexible working arrangements and work/life benefits;  Employee participation at work is necessary to avoid both physical and psycho-social working environments at work;  With increasing competition, industries and corporations will need to continue to show their value-added;  Poor countries are losing out on family planning benefits, effecting economic growth and a sustainable population growth. EXPLORATORY  Fear of Individualism and difference;  Lack of understanding on how you impact the environment you work in – people need to take responsibility;  The future is uncertain, people need reassurance to trust the actions that will be taken now;  How does industry and individuals begin to shift mental models?  Lack of women’s power in under- developed countries where they have the capacity to direct their own lives?  The population/consumption debate – “the world has enough for everyone’s needs, but not for everyone’s greed”, (Ghandi);  Is consumption in industrialised countries the villain, or is it population growth in developing countries impacting on the sustainable issue the most? 19 © 2008 Copyright Johnson Controls Global WorkPlace Innovation This report is for sale. No information can be reproduced without the authorisation of Johnson Controls
  21. 21. Economic drivers, issues and trends “The planet should not be used as a warehouse of resources to serve humanity's selfishness” Dr Rowan Williams, Archbishop of Canterbury, 2007 The current economic system is defective and inconsistent because it is based on the notion of perpetual economic expansion on a finite planet. Assessing economic progress towards sustainability involves the analysis of the current availability of goods and services, but also the long term capacity to provide for human needs. The forces of globalisation and the entry of new investors and new capital into the market have led to significant changes in economic activity, particularly the Workplace. Can the Workplace be sustainable if the economic system is based on the premise of profit? A number of economic drivers, issues and trends have been identified that will either hinder or develop the sustainable concept: EMPIRICAL  There is a challenge between cost of sustainability and payback, the cost of doing it;  Short term financial performance corporate strategy;  Rapid change in business environment leaving Workplace unable to keep up with this pace;  Slow adoption by companies of balanced performance management models such as the triple bottom line or the balanced scorecard – financials still rule;  Path dependency theory says that businesses often do not want to adapt because they are already too committed to a particular course of action; this sort of inertia might be problematic, even though the need for flexible adaptation to creating a sustainable Workplace might be critical;  Can a strategy for economic change support sustainable change?  Investment in green issues should become a valid business case;  Equate sustainability to profit;  Business will only value energy and carbon when it pays the REAL price, (i.e. with externalities accounted for);  Number of foreign and indigenous jobs lost and created. INTERPRETATIVE  Emergence of China and India onto the Global marketplace becoming massive consumer markets;  An extreme boost in environmental efficiency needed if classic product selling approach continues within ‘Chindian’ markets;  greater demand for and limited supply of energy, water, other vital resources such as intellectual resources;  Introduction of sustainability measures into the procurement of facilities;  Pressure from markets and consumers to meet guidelines, legislation and best practice standards;  There is a pressing demand for governments to initiate ‘green’ legislation;  Stakeholders and clients are becoming more educated in the area of sustainability;  FM will be increasingly about: (1) maintaining business continuity (individual as well as company), and (2) carbon accounting and reduction;  Credit market turmoil and rising oil prices could spur an increase in global unemployment by an estimated 5 million persons in 2008*  Growing amounts of new or additional funding for sustainable development  Employee exploitation, child labour and sweatshops, particularly in developing countries;  Triple bottom line approach quite the contentious issue;  Financial markets lag behind the steady integration of sustainability factors in economic life due to financial markets being institutionally programmed to deliver short-term maximization of financial returns; EXPLORATORY  Lack of proper accounting, where social and environmental costs are often not incorporated into current economic systems;  Questioned levels of commitment, will organisations invest in being green?  The dominant model in economics promotes growth in the physical scale of economic activity which is traditional neoclassical economics;  Alternative worldview is ecological economics which focuses on the “dynamic and spatial interdependence between human economies and natural ecosystems”;  Are you a neo-classical or an ecological economist?  The economic or energy primacy debate will have a huge impact on which way the economic system will develop over the coming years;  Businesses have a social contract with society and the environment, and in effect a fiduciary responsibility;  The concept of socially responsible business and shareholder democracy can be models for successful business;  Economics and sustainability: Conflict or Convergence? Note: * http://www.sustainableeconomics.org 20 © 2008 Copyright Johnson Controls Global WorkPlace Innovation This report is for sale. No information can be reproduced without the authorisation of Johnson Controls
  22. 22. Governance drivers, issues and trends “As once government's objectives were economic growth and social cohesion, now they are prosperity, fairness and environmental care Prime Minister Gordon Brown addressing WWF (19 November 2007) A well–designed system of Workplace governance can provide an effective platform to deal with issues, initiatives and questions raised within the framework of the sustainable development imperative. However, today it is not as easy as that because, today, agents of governance have more things to manage, with more constraints; more levels and connections in the decision process and more voices and expertise to capture. The following are a number of drivers, issues and trends that have been identified to capture the essence of sustainable Workplace governance: EMPIRICAL  Inertia to change;  The continued ‘middle management blackout’ – middle managers not being given the support or training to enable change;  Self interest;  Lack of political backing for sustainable initiatives;  Conflict between the day-to-day and continual awareness of strategic imperative;  Need for providing political leadership that will be prepared to treat the environment as seriously as going to war;  Leap from legislation to behaviour - can it be done? Process alone will not make a difference;  Political systems need to take the long term view required for environmental sustainability;  Learn lessons from the past that centrally-led, social and economic models rarely, if ever, work;  Short time frame requires urgent action;  Need to talk across different functions or factions or supply chain. IT/HR/FM = different languages but common measures. INTERPRETATIVE  Increase in the representation of traditionally under-represented groups in trade union membership;  Leadership suggests the existence of more inclusive organising strategies and democratic structures;  Political influence and/or political involvement of companies;  Companies are still not involving the workforce in sustainability issues;  Strategy should be ‘kit of parts’ not dictated;  Sustainability not only imperative, but it is needed for creativity/innovation - how do we bring them together in a common agenda?  Movement towards socially responsible business leadership;  Transnational corporations will grow in power and become subject to increasing scrutiny;  Companies are still finding it difficult to drive sustainability throughout their organisations;  Organisationally, sustainability has moved up the corporate hierarchy in many European firms;  Discrimination and inequality still exists in the Workplace  Disclosure on corporate responsibility reporting has gained momentum during the last couple of years. EXPLORATORY  Good governance is required for development and to address difficult issues of environmental degradation, poverty reduction and social cohesion – it has become a mantra for sustainable development professionals;  Global governance is influenced by five overarching metatrends converging to reshape society: cultural modernisation; economic globalisation; universal connectivity; transactional transparency, and social adaptation;  The changing nature of positions and directions of power – passing upwards to supra-national bodies, downwards to subsidiaries and sideways to networks;  The threat of widespread theocracies through widespread fundamentalist thinking will be ever present;  People and businesses will increasingly exhibit the behavioural characteristics of a ‘swarm society’, grouping together on the basis of elective affinities and shared interests;  Power shifts resulting from the explosive growth in influence of China and India are now tipping the power of the West on its hinges as the global governance structure of the G8 summit is being reformed or more, abolished. 21 © 2008 Copyright Johnson Controls Global WorkPlace Innovation This report is for sale. No information can be reproduced without the authorisation of Johnson Controls
  23. 23. Environmental drivers, issues and trends “In Nature’s infinite book of secrecy, A little I can read” William Shakespeare, Antony and Cleopatra. The ecological impact of global and national policies and activities across industries and sectors is damaging the natural ecosystem. Additionally, the serious imbalance in productivity and in the distribution of goods and services is furthering the destruction of the global environment. The Workplace needs to adopt and promote principles of sustainability to combat these issues; however, in order to do so, drivers, issues and trends need to be considered to prevent environmental stewardship from lagging behind economic and social development: EMPIRICAL  Unsustainable transport systems;  Current perception is to be sustainable will cost more;  It is necessary to retro-fit;  Emphasis needs to be put on management controls in order to contribute to green savings in buildings;  Carbon neutral footprints for businesses;  Does the sustainable Workplace need a sophisticated waste disposal system?  There will need to be a series of disasters before any real change in energy consumption becomes politically possible, (Which will be too late…);  People need to get involved and concerned about their carbon footprint;  Discord between what we do (particularly considering green practices at home) and what we say we do;  Being green should not disrupt the balance of profit, design and business – or will it always?  A sustainable Workplace has a very low energy use;  Make the right decisions for the right reasons, don’t follow the crowd;  Create a more health focused way of working;  Climate change affects the poorest people in the most affected parts of the world. INTERPRETATIVE  Exploitation of water resources;  Increased cost and decreasing availability of urban space is leading to more high rise buildings;  Landfill, recycling and taxation is being placed higher on national political agendas;  ‘Peak oil’ will have a huge economic and environmental impact;  Increasing fear of climate change;  Kyoto protocol sanctions being imposed against countries who don’t meet their commitments – or are they?  Increased travel costs will provide financial incentives for step changes in ‘videoconferencing’;  Environmental education of individual actions equals the sum of the whole, mosquito scenario;  The global wind energy market is projected to continue expanding in 2008;  Impact of tourism and recreation;  Green office programs can improve air quality, reduce amount of waste to landfill and reduce resource consumption / conservation of resources and save businesses money;  Lack of sustainable transport infrastructure and funding;  Increasing urbanisation caused by influx of migrant workers;  Increasing consumer and peer group pressure for businesses to become more sustainable. EXPLORATORY  What is the accepted truth about the environmental status of our planet?  Lack of clarity around the term of sustainability;  Collective action or individual action necessary to achieve balance between economic, social and environmental development?  Incentivisation versus Legislation  The model of industrial growth in the west has aggravated the impact on the earth’s ecosystem;  The challenge of environmental ethics;  Instrumental/Utilitarian values (a value we place on something because they are useful to us) versus Intrinsic/ Inherent values (the value something has just because it exists regardless of whether it has any instrumental value to us). Which is it, a car or a bird?  Do we live in a No-Problem world where we believe that there is no environmental problem that cannot be resolved by more economic growth, better management and technology? Or are we striving towards the view that a mixture of market-based competition, better technology and some government intervention can promote sustainable forms of development? 22 © 2008 Copyright Johnson Controls Global WorkPlace Innovation This report is for sale. No information can be reproduced without the authorisation of Johnson Controls
  24. 24. Societal drivers, issues and trends Any regeneration project that fails to put environmental and social benefits at its very heart is unlikely to achieve anything more than a very short-lived spasm of spurious prosperity Jonathon Porritt (2007) To date, many people have focused on sustainable development from a predominantly economic or environmental perspective. Particularly in the Workplace, the social dimension of sustainability has been somewhat overlooked, and many strategists and decision-makers have failed to adequately integrate this consideration into formal analysis. A number of drivers, issues and trends have been identified to demonstrate how this occurred and how it has been changing: EMPIRICAL  Selfishness of individuals and societies is dominating behaviour (worldwide);  Can we force a change in behaviour through carbon accounting and/or carbon cards with energy quotas?  There is still a big need for social interaction;  Smokers have the most diverse social network;  Young families now living in a Workplace environments, such as the home, can make it difficult for the employee;  Teaching people different ways of formal communication;  Interaction and the coffee machine culture will be missed if smart offices increase alongside flexible working and distributed Workplaces;  Encourage users from different cultures to think and act as one company;  Time for equality at work;  Ethical issues including human-rights, community involvement, well-being safety, public health issues are critical;  Facilitate Workplace design, making the Workplace more open to encourage staff to change their values;  Be wary of trying to engineer social/Workplace interactions, enable but do not dictate;  Encouraging each individual to do their bit now and provide guidelines. INTERPRETATIVE  Increase in longevity;  Health awareness (levels of heart disease, cancer, stress-related illnesses);  Increased emphasis on quality of life, there is a shift away from materialism and an awakening of spirituality;  Global challenge requires global solution at an individual level;  Awareness of value of personal contribution and reward systems to encourage individuals is developing  Management styles are not changing as the Workplace changes, promoting poor leadership and management skills  The age of retirement is increasing and more people are of the older generation are staying longer in the Workplace – positively, wisdom, knowledge and experience is being passed on while negatively, a clash of ideas is inevitable between how it has always been done and how the younger generation want things done  Consumer power is forcing vendors to go green;  Increased social pressure to reduce commuting costs;  Corporate culture is constantly evolving companies are changing to an adaptive culture that is aligned to their business goals;  Employment opportunities are shifting towards jobs that require higher education;  Getting the best working together – using the knowledge network;  Corporations are buying specific talent from different locations, making stand alone corporations get smaller;  There is a need for greater personal/data security. EXPLORATORY  Purpose of work – why did people go to work and what are we going to work for now?  Can democratic societies deal with the fundamental challenges of energy policies and reducing standards of living?  The bond and belonging social concept is demonstrating that, as the new economy emerges, it is undermining our ability to form attachments with people, places and companies;  Loyalty to an organisation is increasingly determined by social and place attachment;  Engagement of the community and the workforce;  Acceleration of urbanisation is changing the way people work all the time;  Younger generations need to understand more about the function of work, preparing them and getting the mindset right;  Attitudes of staff can have an impact on people’s experience of public transport;  Long-term relationships at work versus the disposable workforce which can ultimately undermine financial performance. 23 © 2008 Copyright Johnson Controls Global WorkPlace Innovation This report is for sale. No information can be reproduced without the authorisation of Johnson Controls
  25. 25. Technological drivers, issues and trends “Our new technologies, combined with our numbers, have made us, collectively, a force of nature - Al Gore, 45th Vice President of the United States, 'An Inconvenient Truth' (2006) Technological advances in the Workplace have been so aggressive during the past decades, that they have changed the way people work and communicate. Consequently, employees no longer require the need to be in a physical office setting; however, this is resulting in employees loosing out on face-to-face interpersonal skills and a deterioration of relationships in the Workplace. To achieve a sustainable Workplace goal it is necessary to balance social and interactive progression as well as technological development, to achieve environmental and economic goals. A number of drivers, issues and trends have been examined in order to raise awareness of the negative and positive aspects of this sector. EMPIRICAL  Sustainable technology is having a positive impact on the decline of business travel;  Embrace technological innovation in home/office/mobile;  Introduction of energy efficient technology in a complex system;  Get affordable high-quality technology for the office and Workplace that people will use;  Publish technical feedback from robust processes with clear measures, costs and values;  Think of the workspace as a resource that you use on a ‘pay as you need’ basis - the shared office;  Awareness and knowledge sharing uses technology in the right way;  Visual displays of carbon footprint in real time needed;  Monitoring technology is a priority  Reasonable return on investment of technological investments;  Disseminate the effects of building and facilities in order to reduce costs, carbon output and energy consumption;  The need for an appropriate performance measurement system, in order to avoid the notion that you can’t manage what you can’t measure. INTERPRETATIVE  Newly advanced holographic technology is being developed that will power a new generation of pocket- sized digital video projectors;  Improved technological advances are encouraging flexible working;  Technology is driving higher productivity and efficiency;  Research and development of new alternative forms of energy;  Access to real-time data using web 2.0 and web 3.0 is progressing;  FM is becoming a business enabler by providing communication tools;  The call for ‘smart’ thinking, design and development is particularly relevant to the technology sector;  Is technology used as a way to get more work out of people?  Intergenerational differences in technological use, e.g.: conventional technology, no longer fits the bill for younger generations; the mobile phone is now a texting device, not a speaking device, and businesses are accommodating their use in order to survive;  The penetration of the internet in many businesses is not yet fully developed, yet, the internet is near maturity and advances are made every day. EXPLORATORY  Technology is an enabler and educator;  Fighting the ‘fear’ of technology will improve our sustainability;  Growth in the power and influence of the media;  Building block for international business and empowering non-state actors;  Rethink the existing values and structures of Workplaces as they are not compatible with new technologies;  Technology breeds crime, in terms of terrorism, drug-traffickers, hackers and cyber-attackers;  The manifestation of the information explosion term which describes the abundance of published information and the effects of this profusion of data;  Technology has changed the way business and living is done, in terms of creating a globalised business communication together with Internet shopping, healthcare, education, culture and entertainment;  The continued lack of co-ordination between facilities, technology and human resources. 24 © 2008 Copyright Johnson Controls Global WorkPlace Innovation This report is for sale. No information can be reproduced without the authorisation of Johnson Controls
  26. 26. Scenario logics In this report, the following scenario logics were adopted to create three possible scenarios:  Economy 2: High Growth versus Low Growth  Work/Life Balance: The Individual versus The Corporation Establishing scenario logics is crucial to the development of scenarios. Scenario logic or themes are the organising principles upon which the scenarios are structured. They connect the present to a specific scenario end-state or outcome, for any ‘future history’ must make sense ‘today’. From the insights and expertise of facilities management specialists (gathered from key players and clients of Johnson Controls) the following logics were identified:  Political Culture: Dictatorial versus Democratic  The emerging workforce: Skilled versus Unskilled  Governance: Bureaucracy versus Creativity  Success in the Workplace: Collaboration versus Competition  Workplace Identity: Independent versus Branded  Economy 1: Management Economy versus Service Economy  Economy 2: High Growth versus Low Growth  Work/Life Balance: Individual versus the Corporation Additionally, three possible plausible scenarios were nested from the original global Workplace scenarios, whereby the scenario frameworks that produced the Global Scenarios Jazz, Wise Counsels and Dantesque were used to create three different types of Workplaces within each of the global worlds, namely:  The Hive  The Eco-office  Gattaca Figure 2: Scenario Logics for Sustainable Workplace Futures Low Economic Growth High Economic Growth The individual The Corporation Hive Eco-Office Gattaca 25 © 2008 Copyright Johnson Controls Global WorkPlace Innovation This report is for sale. No information can be reproduced without the authorisation of Johnson Controls
  27. 27. Nested scenario one: The Hive The Hive was developed from the first global Scenario Jazz As major disasters strikes our society, homeworking became a welcoming refuge arranged as bubbles to form building blocks for international commerce which empower a new era of entrepreuneurialship. With a revolutionary technological advance in neuro technologies, a new working environment provides the knowledge worker with the ability of controlling the workspace from a neuro-headset. By 2025, climate change had turned on its heels, and upon the emergence of the networked hive Workplace structure, transport use went into decline as this type of distributed Workplace encouraged all actions to occur under one roof. The work/life balance debate is now resolved and what emerges from this is a more committed and productive workforce. Summary of global scenario one Jazz: “Complexity managed by ‘marketising’ decision processes” The Jazz scenario assumed an unprecedented acceleration of economic growth, relentless pressure for short-term gains and fierce competition on a global scale, driven by rapid technological advances and further market integration. It is a world where entrepreneurship, innovation and individual responsibility are favoured. Give and take is keenly attuned to the opportunities of the moment and at the same time alert to ways of incorporating long term values into strategies for commercial success. Free market reforms have moved governments everywhere to downsize, deregulate and privatise. The Hive During the past two decades, fundamental shifts in the advances of information and communication technologies and further global market integration have spearheaded the drive towards a dynamic, inclusive and knowledge-based economy and society. However, the outbreak of the global pandemic of avian flu between 2007 and 2010 left a legacy, a new Workplace structure, called ‘the hive’ and by 2030 the corporate office no longer exists. By responding and adapting to the dangers of the pandemic, and the changing competitive world environment, corporations have become more agile and responsive in their operations. The option of telecommunicating work from mobile devices becomes the norm when the first outbreak occurs. Home working offices on-line become extensive, as there is a resonating sense of sheer panic taking place, which in turn creates the networked hive, with high connectivity and interactivity between members. Knowledge workers begin to work in areas, known as bubbles, which integrate home, work and social life together which becomes an exchange of thoughts, ideas, innovation, and work/life balance, and is protected by a protective shell called the hive. Agility, anonymity and access become the emerging themes in this workspace, which impacts hugely on the work/life balance, environmental protection and societal inequity. During the 2010s, ‘smart’ thinking, design and development became particularly relevant to the technology sector as the demand for customised accommodation and facilities increased which changed the dynamics of the hive over time. Consequently, virtual reality tools began to play an integral role in corporate planning and development. This trend formed building blocks for international commerce and empowered a new era of entrepreneurialship. By 2020, the bubble Workplace environment had become a permanent setting for knowledge workers. Consequently, it was possible for corporations to focus on efficiency and Workplace innovation as a new alliance between facilities and strategic management emerged. Shifting management structures within corporations changed radically while a declining number of low-skilled jobs, due to growth of IT in the Workplace, led to the demise of the corporate office, whereby facilities had become synonymous with the home. In 2008, a milestone marking a revolutionary technological advance occurred, with the unveiling of a neuro-headset that enables the wearer to play games simply by thinking. By 2015, microchips were being implanted into everyone in the hive, including babies. As a result, the Workplace materialized into a place where the mind and thoughts of people had become much more attuned with technology. This gave rise to the knowledge worker controlling the workspace from a neuro-headset in this environment. Everything is faster and more reactive. The traditional Workplace thus becomes a memory, whereby furniture is not now essential for work because it is made of devices such as screens, i-pods and televisions. Furniture is only necessary for employees and families to sit and sleep. 26 © 2008 Copyright Johnson Controls Global WorkPlace Innovation This report is for sale. No information can be reproduced without the authorisation of Johnson Controls
  28. 28. One knock-on effect from this development is that the facilities management sector becomes the key actor in this environment. FM becomes the hive queen. The queen is the entire heart of the hive operation, and being mechanical in nature, allows all the data that is controlled, stored and disseminated through the medium of a support desk. FM gives instructions on how processes and places work within this environment. The notorious IT militia group, Terror One, emerged as a major threat with the onset of this technological revolution. Organised crime of international dimensions finds a relatively safe haven for conducting its global operation in the permissive and technology rich environment of the hive. In 2018, a series of IT terrorist attacks by Terror One were launched on hives across the world, harming competitive advantage gained by electronic data interchange and e-commerce. These attacks disrupted the daily lives of the knowledge workers as electronic black-outs affected all types of complex technological systems. These hives were under attack, but responded by behaving in an infinitely adaptable manner. Furthermore, the chaos and damage was minimised through good change management and persistence, thus continuing the progress of globalisation of trade, markets and business operations. Since the shift from a globalised industrialisation trajectory to an emerging knowledge society at the beginning of the 21st Century, climate change had turned on its heels. By 2025, the impact of this new Workplace structure encouraged people to realise that climate change is harmful and that through awareness and positive action this massive threat against humanity could be diverted. Upon the emergence of the networked hive Workplace structure, transport use went into decline as this type of distributed Workplace encouraged all actions to occur under one roof. This gave rise to a new level of corporate social responsibility, which would, moreover, raise the level and degree of self regulation and accountability in the market and eventually lead to the right balance in productivity and in the distribution of goods and services. Furthermore, by 2030 a strong movement towards a ‘marketisation’ of the environment emerged, as external costs of emissions, waste management and environmental damage are quantified in order to protect the planet and the people that live on it. As environmental stewardship takes off, and people reflect upon and appreciate their natural environment, so too begins the true understanding of the work/life balance. The hive is now the vessel in which working arrangements are incorporated into people’s daily lives. The work/life balance debate is now resolved and what emerges from this is a more committed and productive workforce. Despite this, by 2030, a new social debate becomes apparent. The social inclusion debate. On the one hand, the role of the family has gained importance again in the developed world as the nuclear family regains recognition as an important social value. Divorce rates drop as people spend more and more time with their families. Yet, on the other hand, physical and social interaction and activity begins to deteriorate because people become too attached to technology and form small gated communities, forgetting the fundamental purpose of survival - physical social interaction, and ‘bridging and bonding’. As a result of this, community spirit is weak and families continue to feel isolated, now, more than ever. To add to this, the creed of individualism, coupled with a lack of social spirit has led to a rise in crime of quite alarming proportions. 27 © 2008 Copyright Johnson Controls Global WorkPlace Innovation This report is for sale. No information can be reproduced without the authorisation of Johnson Controls
  29. 29. Professor Taj Oreszczyn, UCL, UK 28 © 2008 Copyright Johnson Controls Global WorkPlace Innovation This report is for sale. No information can be reproduced without the authorisation of Johnson Controls
  30. 30. Nested scenario two: The Eco-Office The Eco-Office was developed from the second global scenario Wise Counsels. As a radical form of industrial democracy and corporate re-engineering took place, a new work style emerged, wherewith the employees were given a greater voice in how to improve business outcomes through hard times. By 2012, the eco- office emerged as the primary workspace and work style across the globe. Sophisticated and innovative ICT appeared, which enabled more employees to have the option of telecommunicating their work from outside the office. Eco-offices, similar to hotels were created, that provided good services to improve quality of life and work and to attract the top talent. The emergence of new Workplace structures, life-long learning and corporate culture appear to lead the direction from a knowledge revolution to a wisdom revolution Summary of Global Scenario Two: Wise Counsels “Harnessing the knowledge economy for sustainable development” The Wise Counsels scenario assumed global economic stability and an effort to attain environmental balance and social progress. Institutional improvements worldwide facilitate sustainable development. It is a world where collective, collaborative and consensual action is favoured. Negotiation is the name of the game and policy making and decision making has become increasingly delegated and expert. Knowledge has become the key resource. The most important property is now intellectual property, not physical property. It is the hearts and minds of people, rather than traditional labour that are essential to growth and prosperity. The Eco-Office Since the beginning of the 21st Century, the process of sustainable development has rapidly gained momentum, driven by a stable global economy and a strong international political agenda for change with increased emphasis on consultation, partnership, local and regional governance and environmental justice. This development trajectory towards sustainability in it truest form transpired as a result of the significant rise in global greenhouse gas emissions between 2010 and 2030 which led to ice cap melting and a significant rise in sea levels, which saw widespread flooding in coastal areas along the Atlantic and Pacific seaboard in 2023. Subsequently, global concerns for sustainability began to focus on two main objectives:  To make cities and other human settlements healthy and liveable places for their inhabitants; and  To control trans-boundary effects of pollution and to stop the degradation of the global ecosystem. With this awareness and understanding trickling down into Workplace management and the downturn of the global economy in 2009, companies, threatened with the possibility of bankruptcy, realised that in order to survive it was necessary to rethink, relearn, redirect and remanage themselves. From this, a radical form of industrial democracy and corporate re-engineering took place. Employees agreed wage cuts in return for increased profit share, management salaries were cut, employees were given more control, encouraged to self manage and discourage uniformity. As a result of this, a new work style emerged, wherewith the employees were given a greater voice in how to improve business outcomes through hard times in addition to performing multiple roles during the crisis, which gave rise to a greater knowledge of the operations of the business. Collective, collaborative and consensual action was favoured. Long gone were the days of traditional autocratic style management. These successful management structures began forging broader, outward-looking strategies, with the launch of the ‘profit with principle’ campaign in 2011, in which promoting a healthy work/life balance and encouraging environmental actions in order to create the sustainable company was possible. By 2012, the eco-office emerged as the primary workspace and work style across the globe. 29 © 2008 Copyright Johnson Controls Global WorkPlace Innovation This report is for sale. No information can be reproduced without the authorisation of Johnson Controls
  31. 31. Within this eco-office environment, the facilities management sector plays a key role. While this work environment materialised, sophisticated and innovative ICT appeared, which enabled more employees to have the option of telecommunicating their work from outside the office, bringing with it, both benefits and issues. Following this shift, one issue the FM struggled to deal with was the transition towards a virtual business world. The move to virtual business was gearing towards a decentralisation of a company’s operations, and hence facilities. The difficulty here was individually, the staff still required space, and their dispersal meant that many of the support functions that a single building normally provides had to be duplicated for each individual or delivered at distance. This was not feasible, particularly where collaborative and creative work became critical for high performance business success. Consequently, in order to attract the top talent back to this centralised environment, in 2014 Workplace design was developed to cater for all the employees needs, and eco- offices, similar to hotels were created, that provided good services to improve quality of life and work. This new approach to Workplace development had begun to embody smart growth principles, driven by a primary need to think globally and act locally in preservation and conservation of the environment, cultural and historical heritage, development of the economy, social cohesion, equity and quality of life. By 2016, a digital company card was developed for workers who travelled frequently. It allows employees to go into local communities and check into office spaces as well as encourage them to use the amenities there, such as hairdressers, coffee shops, child care facilities, and the outdoor open space. This led to the development of employee villages, made up of eco-office blocks that promote sustainable transport initiatives, integrate biodiversity plans in design, and create an awareness of the importance of work/life balance by focusing on three main goals, namely: Accessibility, Adaptability and Alliances. Subsequently, the facilities manager became increasingly competent in managing complex organisations Following the World Summit on Corporate Accountability in 2015, these corporate communities began to incorporate and integrate environmental and social considerations into their Workplace practices. The main target areas of the programme included travel, energy, water, general resources, self-sustainability, waste, procurement and education. However by 2025, with the exponential growth of the Chindian Economies, some renegade corporations, lost sight of the long-term benefits of sustainable Workplace design and the ‘profit with principle’ campaign. They relocated to Asia as a new hub of industrial activity, driven by the availability of a rapidly increasing low-wage labour force, unregulated environmental standards, negligible corporation tax rates and pliable political regimes. Despite this and the climate change catastrophe of flooding across the globe, the Chinese and Indian governments, driven by heads of state across the world, were soon encouraged to re-evaluate their policies on sustainability, and Workplace sustainability in particular. A wave of transformations had begun to take place, slowly but surely, and the eco-office employee community concept developed in that region. Freedom and knowledge emerge as key priorities in this society, and by encouraging people to take risks and be comfortable with change, a transformation is realised, not only in the way people work, but also the way people live. In addition, the emergence of new Workplace structures, life-long learning and corporate culture appear to lead the direction from a knowledge revolution to a wisdom revolution. 30 © 2008 Copyright Johnson Controls Global WorkPlace Innovation This report is for sale. No information can be reproduced without the authorisation of Johnson Controls
  32. 32. Niki Bey M.Sc. (Mech.Eng.), Ph.D IPU Product Development 31 © 2008 Copyright Johnson Controls Global WorkPlace Innovation This report is for sale. No information can be reproduced without the authorisation of Johnson Controls
  33. 33. 32 © 2008 Copyright Johnson Controls Global WorkPlace Innovation This report is for sale. No information can be reproduced without the authorisation of Johnson Controls
  34. 34. Nested scenario three: Gattaca Gattaca was developed from the global scenario three Dantesque. As the corporate society became a power to be reckoned with, corporations emerged as an all fearing entity. Businesses and people start to exhibit characteristics of a ‘swarm’ society, grouping together on the basis of shared interests and commercial affinities. By 2020, the corporation is established and advertised as a fully integrated, self-managed real estate and personnel investment trust that focuses on the acquisition, development, ownership, and management of property, processes and people that inspire success in trade, the markets and business operations. FM primary focus is on access and information protection and not the Workplace as such, subsequently, resulting in a degradation of work ethics and health and safety procedures. Scenario Three: Dantesque "Social reaction over rapid change” The Dantesque scenario assumed global economic stagnation, cultural difference and insecurity. Emphasis on distrust, retrenchment and reaction leads to widespread social unrest, conflict and environmental degradation. Instability is rife across the globe as regions become increasingly disjointed from each other. Racism is on the rise and ‘each to their own’ is the attitude that dominates this world. Gattaca The twenty years or so from 2010 witnessed advances in information and communication technologies, and concentrated economic growth in prosperous regions have led to a global inequity, whereby poverty and frustration leaves the majority of nations feeling isolated and ignored. By 2030, driven by demographic imbalances and widespread social unrest, law and order becomes an issue of personal and corporate responsibility through the mass surveillance of society, called ‘Big Brother’ surveillance using various systems including ID cards, electronic tagging, DNA database monitoring, CCTV tracking and GPS tracking. From this heralds the rise of the corporate office, otherwise known as the corporate machine. It has become a dominant feature on the global commercial and social landscape. After the devastation of the 2010 terrorist attacks, which saw the devastation of the physical infrastructure of the Gattaca and Shell corporations, the corporate society became a power to be reckoned with. Using technology such as finger printing and retinal and genetic identification to control access and information, corporations emerged as an all-fearing entity. Long gone were the days of swiping ID cards and presenting ink signatures and illegal genetic discrimination. This mindset is driven by threat against capitalism and an ‘each to their own’ attitude begins to dominate the globe, driven by an increasing mistrust and disillusionment with failing political and governing structures. Individualism and the freedom of speech are long forgotten values, and technology has become the number one threat to human rights. People have no chance of careers in a society that now discriminates against genes instead of gender, race or religion. DNA now plays the primary role in determining social class. By 2014, transnational corporations become the engines of growth and the centres of political power. Businesses and people start to exhibit characteristics of a ‘swarm’ society, grouping together on the basis of shared interests and commercial affinities. The world is becoming localised and is further exacerbated with the introduction of high personal taxation and low corporate taxation to attract investment, causing further anger and resentment amongst the working public whilst intensifying the gap between rich and poor. As a result of this, by 2015 regional workforce strikes are rampant in an effort to create rights for workers. These strikes fall on deaf ears and, subsequently, it now becomes illegal for employees of corporations to join any trade union. These trade unions go underground and an undercurrent of revolt begins to emerge. Consequently, it placed greater power in the hands of the corporate machine while revealing their great influence upon their respective governments. Employees are not protected by external forces, and in the aftermath of the economic collapse of 2018, find themselves working 60+ hour weeks for minimum wage, which has been set by the Global Corporate Forum, in order for the economy of the corporation to survive and make a profit. 33 © 2008 Copyright Johnson Controls Global WorkPlace Innovation This report is for sale. No information can be reproduced without the authorisation of Johnson Controls
  35. 35. By 2020, the corporation is established and advertised as a fully integrated, self-managed real estate and personnel investment trust that focuses on the acquisition, development, ownership, and management of property, processes and people that inspire success in trade, the markets and business operations. The facilities management sector within a corporation of this magnitude has become the integral part of its operations. However, its primary focus is on access and information protection and not the Workplace as such, subsequently resulting in a degradation of work ethics and health and safety procedures. The facilities chief executive is now a member of the executive board, and is second in command in order to hold this position an educational background of science and property is a requirement in order to develop genetic expansion further, to protect the corporation entity. Within the workspace of the corporation, the hierarchical structure is now more prominent than ever and the Workplace is similar to a production line in a manufacturing plant. Ideas, thoughts, work collaboration and job satisfaction no longer exist in the vocabulary of those who work within the corporation, except in the executive suites of the facility. Another consequence of the ‘each to their own’ attitude is the shelving of the green agenda. Environmental degradation is at its highest and society and political institutions and the corporation have lost all belief in the sustainability agenda; short-termism prevails as people struggle and the ethos becomes ‘survival of the smartest’. 34 © 2008 Copyright Johnson Controls Global WorkPlace Innovation This report is for sale. No information can be reproduced without the authorisation of Johnson Controls
  36. 36. Professor Michael Pitt, John Moore University, UK 35 © 2008 Copyright Johnson Controls Global WorkPlace Innovation This report is for sale. No information can be reproduced without the authorisation of Johnson Controls
  37. 37. The 10 big questions facing the sustainable workplace Once the scenarios were presented, the next stage of the process was to identify any significant policy fields or themes that emerged throughout the workshop session. Subsequently, the participants were then asked to create 10 big questions facing the future development of a sustainable Workplace strategy. These questions would proactively address the range of uncertainties and certainties addressed in each of the scenarios. Following the workshop, further environmental scanning was completed and the ten questions were researched extensively and answered. In doing this, challenges, opportunities and threats have emerged in the present day which will inevitably have an impact on the successful development of the sustainable Workplace. The ten questions posed are as follows: 1. How can we move from a world of information, regulation and blame to one of awareness, responsibility and wisdom? 2. How can we promote a proper knowledge and awareness of the sustainable imperative by means of education through the different generation? 3. How best can legislation incorporate incentivisation towards adopting sustainability? 4. How can we create a collaborative leadership framework to initiate a sustainable strategic vision? 5. How do we create sustainable behavioural change, where people genuinely want to have a positive impact on the environment? 6. How will the concept of the sustainable Workplace be changed/shaped to accommodate emerging markets and the consequent cross cultural markets/ challenges? 7. Do we live to work or work to live? 8. Can sustainability be made financially viable? 9. How does the FM community make sure that the communication channels and processes are in place and working properly? 10. How can we implement sustainable technological innovation to provide an integrated work culture towards a positive impact on people, planet and profit? These ten big questions will be explored across ten themes and each leading towards providing an answer to these questions. 36 © 2008 Copyright Johnson Controls Global WorkPlace Innovation This report is for sale. No information can be reproduced without the authorisation of Johnson Controls
  38. 38. Theme one: Responsibility, accountability & blame The world is undergoing dramatic changes at the beginning of the 21st Century. Currently, it is a melting pot of change and complexity drastically affecting both humanity and the environmental system. Globalisation, new technology and changing demographics have been key driving forces underpinning this change and have, consequently, challenged corporations to consider responsibility in a new light. As a result of this, they are constantly relearning, redirecting and remanaging themselves. But how can we move from a world of information, regulation and blame to one of awareness, responsibility and wisdom? Arguably in the beginning, the power of large corporations has dominated and influenced how businesses and markets impact and affect, pejoratively, on social processes throughout the world. An indisputable example of this negative power is the emergence and success of markets that trade, invest, and use scarce resources within a complex global system, which has led to an ever-increasing social divide between the fortunate few and the deprived billions. However, paradoxically, corporations who want to succeed in today’s global market economy should realise that, in order to do so they should harness and develop the latent demand available in these poor countries. In effect, they have one of two choices: 1. They can take, exploit and oppress the people in these countries 2. They can act in their own self-interest and strategically view these people as future customers and by creating jobs and wealth assume responsibility for improving their education, health and general welfare Both of these scenarios are possible. Which one comes to pass will be determined primarily by one factor: the willingness of big multinational companies to enter and invest in the world’s poorest markets (Collier and Fuller, 2005). By way of market trends today, either option is a likely action. However, there is a gaining momentum surrounding the concept of corporate social responsibility (CSR). Two new empirical reports by IBM and the Economist Intelligence Unit, suggest that companies are improving their growth in value by way of taking CSR practices seriously and implementing them across their operations (World Business Council for Sustainable Development, 2008). CSR is a new phenomenon where “firms have an obligation to protect and improve welfare of the society and its organization, now as well as in the future, through its various business and social actions, and ensure that it generates equitable and sustainable benefits for he various stakeholders” (Sharma and Chahal, 2006). This theme emerged at the same time as environmental reporting systems were being developed. CSR and sustainable development thus became entwined. As research and action into sustainability moved from infancy and descriptive stage towards its implementation stage (Tilley and Fuller, 2007), so did CSR. Currently, the concept of CSR is growing more than ever and being driven by changing expectations and the concerns of stakeholders, employees, investors, customers and society at large; increased transparency of business activities through the media and ICT, as well as environmental degradation caused by commercial activities. It is emerging as a strategy whereby the combination of proactive short-term financial goals with long-term sustainable corporate brand building will produce the most successful organisations of the future. It is argued by Adams and Zutshi 2004) that substantial gains are produced by adopting a CSR approach within an organisation, namely: better recruitment and retention of employees, improved internal decision- making and cost-savings; improved corporate image and relationships with stakeholders, and improved financial returns. Behaving in a socially responsible manner is now being identified as an emerging requirement to protect the long-term survival of companies. Nevertheless, it has been reported that many developing countries have inadequate legislation to protect the environment, the workforce and local communities, when it comes to controlling the negative impacts of multinational corporations; thus reinforcing the fact that the 37 © 2008 Copyright Johnson Controls Global WorkPlace Innovation This report is for sale. No information can be reproduced without the authorisation of Johnson Controls

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