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Workshop "Groundwater, towards adaptative and sustainable management" (Lima, Peru-9 August 2013"

Workshop "Groundwater, towards adaptative and sustainable management" (Lima, Peru-9 August 2013"

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  • = multiple sources, time gap, contaminant attenuation by subsoil profiles + underlying strata

Presentation Stephen Foster, GWP Senior Adviser Presentation Stephen Foster, GWP Senior Adviser Presentation Transcript

  • LAS AGUAS SUBTERRANEASLAS AGUAS SUBTERRANEAS pasos hacia unapasos hacia una gestigestióón adaptiva y sosteniblen adaptiva y sostenible Prof Dr Stephen FosterProf Dr Stephen Foster Global Water Partnership–Senior AdviserGlobal Water Partnership–Senior Adviser IAH–Past President 2004-08IAH–Past President 2004-08 GLOBAL WATER PARTNERSHIP Global Water Partnership
  • GW•MATE Activities in World Bank Projects : 2001- 11Morocco (Min/BO) Argentina (SG) Brasil (ANA/SG) Thailand (DGR/LO) China (MWR/CWRB) India (MWR/SG) Mexico (CNA/SG) Peru (ANA/RO) Tanzania (MWR/BO) Ethiopia (MWR/RO) ‘groundwater only’ areas conjunctive use areas
  • GW•MATE Intervention Philosophy : 2001-11 desde ‘un circulo vicioso’ a ‘un circulo virtuoso’
  • LAS AGUAS SUBTERRANEAS • Los Sistemas Acuiferos – Caracterización y Riesgos • Retos de Gestión en Zonas Agricolas Bajo Riego • Bases para una Gestion Integrada y Adaptiva • Politicas del Uso para Zonas Urbanas
  • GROUNDWATER RESOURCE MANAGEMENT like playing soccer – need to vary strategylike playing soccer – need to vary strategy with the pitch you’re playing onwith the pitch you’re playing on hydrogeological setting of aquifer both frames the resource problem and
  • GROUNDWATER STORAGE & FLOW REGIMES size matters – for groundwater management approachsize matters – for groundwater management approach
  • mainly via decadal rainfall events GROUNDWATER RECHARGE – RAINFALL CORRELATION composite research data from Southern Africacomposite research data from Southern Africa NATURAL VEGETATION, ROUGH GRAZING & UNIRRIGATED FARMLAND
  • GROUNDWATER RESOURCES & IRRIGATED AGRICULTUREGROUNDWATER RESOURCES & IRRIGATED AGRICULTURE recharge quality & rate greatly influenced by water management quality cannotquality cannot be divorced frombe divorced from quantityquantity permeable soil profiles
  • NON-RENEWABLE GROUNDWATER RESOURCESNON-RENEWABLE GROUNDWATER RESOURCES strategic reserve – resilient to climate changestrategic reserve – resilient to climate change
  • STAGES OF GROUNDWATER DEVELOPMENTSTAGES OF GROUNDWATER DEVELOPMENT and their consequencesand their consequences • environmental sustainability • social equity • economic efficiency
  • NEGATIVE EXTERNALITIES OF GROUNDWATER DEPLETIONNEGATIVE EXTERNALITIES OF GROUNDWATER DEPLETION onset and impact varies widely with aquifer typeonset and impact varies widely with aquifer type • energy consumption • carbon footprint • contribution SL rise
  • PROCESSES OF GROUNDWATERPROCESSES OF GROUNDWATER SALINISATIONSALINISATION require careful diagnosis and managementrequire careful diagnosis and management
  • GROUNDWATER POLLUTION PROTECTIONGROUNDWATER POLLUTION PROTECTION a more complex challengea more complex challenge
  • GROUNDWATER SUPPLY SPECIAL PROTECTION ZONES focus for land-use controls • possible in most legal codes • but requires community/farmer cooperation • may need financial compensation (who pays)
  • LAS AGUAS SUBTERRANEAS • Los Sistemas Acuiferos – Caracterización y Riesgos • Retos de Gestión en Zonas Agricolas Bajo Riego • Bases para una Gestion Integrada y Adaptiva • Politicas del Uso para Zonas Urbanas
  • Poços Sumidouros NORTHEASTERN BRASIL – TROPICAL FRUIT PRODUCTION excessive waterwell drawdowns and groundwater polltion hazard
  • rh5 Carrizal Valley Mendoza- Argentina ANDEAN OUTWASH PLAIN – GRAPE & CHERRY PRODUCTION threatened by rising groundwater salinity
  • MENDOZA CARRIZAL AQUIFERMENDOZA CARRIZAL AQUIFER groundwater flow and salinity regimegroundwater flow and salinity regime 2006
  • PERU-ICA VALLEY – ASPARAGUS PRODUCTION changes in agricultural water management and amplification of irrigation area
  • LAS AGUAS SUBTERRANEAS • Los Sistemas Acuiferos – Caracterización y Riesgos • Retos de Gestión en Zonas Agricolas Bajo Riego • Bases para una Gestion Integrada y Adaptiva • Politicas del Uso para Zonas Urbanas
  • GROUNDWATER MANAGEMENT PLANNINGGROUNDWATER MANAGEMENT PLANNING pragmatic framework for heavily-exploited aquiferspragmatic framework for heavily-exploited aquifers
  • DEMAND-SIDE MEASURES • improving ‘irrigation efficiency’ alone does not necessarily mean real water- resource saving – concomitant need to constrain/reduce irrigated area, reduce consumptive groundwater use and increase irrigation water productivity • SUPPLY-SIDE MEASURES aquifer recharge enhancement is valuable for community mobilisation and for specific water-supply problems – but in isolation is never a panacea for resource imbalance GROUNDWATER MANAGEMENT INTERVENTIONSGROUNDWATER MANAGEMENT INTERVENTIONS local demand/supply side measures – no simple pancealocal demand/supply side measures – no simple pancea
  • LOCAL GROUNDWATER MANAGEMENT PROVISIONSLOCAL GROUNDWATER MANAGEMENT PROVISIONS appropriate balanceappropriate balance between communitybetween community participation and publicparticipation and public administrationadministration (facilitation, use rights,(facilitation, use rights, charging ,etc)charging ,etc) move social behaviour from ‘destructive competition for dwindling storage’ to ‘productive use of available recharge’
  • CONJUNCTIVE USE IN IRRIGATED AGRICULTURECONJUNCTIVE USE IN IRRIGATED AGRICULTURE evolution from spontaneous to plannedevolution from spontaneous to planned developmentdevelopment
  • CONJUNCTIVE USE IN IRRIGATED AGRICULTURECONJUNCTIVE USE IN IRRIGATED AGRICULTURE use of integrated water-use numerical modelsuse of integrated water-use numerical models
  • • uncertain water-futures due to effects of land-use and climate change, and varying economic drivers • groundwater use rights should be subject to periodic review – with ‘restriction zones’ established as needed • user participation essential – with full information dissemination/transparency to counteract corruption • much improved measurement/monitoring required to refine resource evaluation and provide evidence for management decision-making • finance of agreed programme of management measures (demand management, supply augmentation and crop changes as appropriate) GROUNDWATER RESOURCESGROUNDWATER RESOURCES key instruments and tools for adaptive managementkey instruments and tools for adaptive management
  • GROUNDWATER RESOURCE GOVERNANCEGROUNDWATER RESOURCE GOVERNANCE vertical integration and horizontal coordinationvertical integration and horizontal coordination
  • LAS AGUAS SUBTERRANEAS • Los Sistemas Acuiferos – Caracterización y Riesgos • Retos de Gestión en Zonas Agricolas Bajo Riego • Bases para una Gestion Integrada y Adaptiva • Politicas del Uso para Zonas Urbanas
  • GROUNDWATER AND THE CITY an intimate but often unrecognised relationship SIGNIFICANT VARIATION WITHSIGNIFICANT VARIATION WITH • HYDROGEOLOGIC SETTING –HYDROGEOLOGIC SETTING – especially aquifer yield potential, accessibility, and physical confinement/oxidation status • UTILITY WATER-SERVICE ARRANGEMENTS –UTILITY WATER-SERVICE ARRANGEMENTS – evolution,
  • GROUNDWATER AND THE CITYGROUNDWATER AND THE CITY ‘‘urbanisation impacts on groundwater’ andurbanisation impacts on groundwater’ and ‘groundwater impacts the urban infrastructure’‘groundwater impacts the urban infrastructure’ ‘‘predictable’ but ‘rarely predicted’predictable’ but ‘rarely predicted’ without planning – “one person’s solution becomes the anotherwithout planning – “one person’s solution becomes the another person’s problem”person’s problem” The Integrating Element
  • • groundwater use much more significant in overall water-supply than generally appreciated, and it forms ‘invisible link’ between various facets of infrastructure • much water use/effluent disposal is unregulated or ‘illegal’ – thus little discussed by infrastructure sector • urban groundwater affects ‘everybody’ but often responsibility of no ‘body’ – institutional vacuum • broad stakeholder involvement needed through ‘standing review panel’ or ‘stakeholder consortium’ - but who should take management lead ? (municipal authority, water resource regulatory agency, public health ministry, water utility, chamber of commerce, etc) URBAN GROUNDWATER MANAGEMENT filling the ‘institutional vacuum’
  • LAS AGUAS SUBTERRANEASLAS AGUAS SUBTERRANEAS pasos hacia unapasos hacia una gestigestióón adaptiva y sosteniblen adaptiva y sostenible GLOBAL WATER PARTNERSHIP Global Water Partnership www.worldbank.org/gwmatewww.worldbank.org/gwmate www.gwpforum.orgwww.gwpforum.org