Workshop on Flood management in a transboundary context, 13-14.12.2011,Erjon Kalaja
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Workshop on Flood management in a transboundary context, 13-14.12.2011,Erjon Kalaja

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Hydropower vs Flood Control in Dam and Basin Management Levels

Hydropower vs Flood Control in Dam and Basin Management Levels
Workshop on “Flood management in a transboundary context”, 13-14.12.2011, Zagreb, Croatia

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    Workshop on Flood management in a transboundary context, 13-14.12.2011,Erjon Kalaja Workshop on Flood management in a transboundary context, 13-14.12.2011,Erjon Kalaja Presentation Transcript

    • HYDROPOWER VS Flood CONTROL inDAM and BASIN MANAGEMENT LEVELS Shkoder, ALBANIA Jan.2010 Flooding
    • 20 DECEMBER 2009 the inundation of the Shkodra valleystarted because of the heavy rain.29 DECEMBER 2009 HPP spillways started to operate withshort intervals Hydropower versus Flood control in dam and basin management levels
    • The inundation in ShkoderIn early December heavy rainfall in the catchments of the Drini Riverand Shkodra Lake led to flooding of an estimated 14,500 ha of farmlandand settled areas including the city of Shkodra, within ShkodraPrefecture.It has been reported that 4,600 houses have been directly affected bythe flooding, causing the evacuation of some 12,145 people. A further14,646 livestock were also evacuated during the peak period offlooding.No deaths or casualties directly related to the flooding have beenreported Hydropower versus Flood control in dam and basin management levels
    • The inundation in ShkoderHydropower versus Flood control in dam and basin management levels
    • The inundation in ShkoderSchool was suspendedMain Infrastructure damaged Water Supply National and Rural Roads Bridges Agriculture Infrastructure Agriculture Products
    • The inundation in ShkoderHydropower versus Flood control in dam and basin management levels
    • Flooding in the Drini/Buna basinJanuary 2010 - 3.600 m3/sec on Buna River• 3.000 m3/sec on Drin• 600 m3/sec on Buna• 1,500 m3/sec, transport capacity on the Buna river (after merging with Drin) of on the first 9.5 km which are not protected by dikes.• 32 km of Buna River is dikeed and has a capacity of 2,200 m3/secEven with a fully operational flood management and drainagesystem, the rainfall would have resulted in flooding of parts ofthe area. Hydropower versus Flood control in dam and basin management levels
    • SOME HISTORY3.100 m3/sec Maximum inflow registered in Fierza5.550 m3/sec Maximum inflow registered in Vau i Dejes1.800 m3/sec Maximum discharge from Vau I DejesMaximum inflow with probability 1:10.000 years Fierza 9.600 m3/sec Vau i Dejes 12.600 m3/sec Hydropower versus Flood control in dam and basin management levels
    • The inundation in ShkoderHydropower versus Flood control in dam and basin management levels
    • The inundation in ShkoderArea flooded in Montenegrofrom the increased level ofShkodra LakeArea flooded in Montenegrofrom increase of level onBuna River
    • The inundation in ShkoderHydropower versus Flood control in dam and basin management levels
    • Drini & Buna River BasinThe Drini/Buna River Basin is one single ecosystemIt extends across national boundaries shared by: Albania FYROM Kosovo MontenegroDrini River Basin has a catchment area of 14,173 km2Since 1851 Drini River joined with Buna River which flows out of theShkodra Lake. Hydropower versus Flood control in dam and basin management levels
    • Drin RiverHydropower versus Flood control in dam and basin management levels
    • Drini & Buna River BasinBuna 41 km longMean annual flow 680 m3/sek From Shkodra lake 320 m3/sek From Drin 360 m3/sekFloods are natural phenomena in theDrini/Buna basin Excessive snow melt in the Drini River headwaters (which occurs in January-March months); High rainfall in lower reach of Drini Basin causing to Drini River to have high flows; and/or High rainfalls in Drini and over the Lake Shkodra Basin can cause combined flows of Drini and Buna Rivers to have high flows which over top the Buna River Banks
    • Drini & Buna River Basin• Drin is the biggest river in Albania with a total length of about 450 km• Drin 160 km ▫ White Drin 170km ▫ Black Drin 120 km• Black Drin sources from Ohrid Lake which soruces from Prespa Lake• Perennial average water flow of Drin River Fierza HPP is about 230 m3/sec and at Vau i Dejes 330 m3/sec Hydropower versus Flood control in dam and basin management levels
    • Drini & Buna River BasinHydropower versus Flood control in dam and basin management levels
    • Drini & Buna River Basin5 HPP constructed in Drin White Drin no HPP Black Drin Globocica / Spilje Skavica suggested in the feasibility study Drin Fierza / Koman / Vau I Dejes Ashta in process Hydropower versus Flood control in dam and basin management levels
    • Drini & Buna River BasinFIERZA HPP Dam/rockfilled/claycore/Height 167 m Total water volume of Fierza Lake 2.7 billion m3 Max water level 296 a.s.l. 297 a.s.l. agreement with ex Yugoslav government Combined max. discharge capacity from the Tunnels and Turbines 3.225 m3/sec Hydropower versus Flood control in dam and basin management levels
    • Drini & Buna River Basin KOMAN HPP• Dam/rockfilled/Concrete faced/Height 115 m• Total water volume of Koman Lake 500 millon m3• Max. Water level 175 m a.s.l.• Combined discharge capacity from the Tunnels and Turbines 3.600 m3/sec at 171 m a.s.l. Hydropower versus Flood control in dam and basin management levels
    • KOMANI DAMKOMANIPOWER HOUSE
    • Drini & Buna River Basin VAU I DEJES HPP• Distance from city of Shkodra 18 km• Dams ▫ Zadeje / rock filled / clay core 60 m ▫ Qyrsaq / gravity concrete & rock filled/clay core 46 &47 m ▫ Ragam/ rock filed 29 m• Total water volume of Vau i Dejes Lake 580 millon m3• Max. Water level 76 m a.s.l.• Combined discharge capacity from the Spillway and Turbines 6.900 m3/sec Hydropower versus Flood control in dam and basin management levels
    • Drini & Buna River BasinSPILJEGLOBOCICA
    • DRIN DISCHAGRGE REGUALTIONS Safety Factor 1% 0.1% 0.01 % October – March 4.570 m3/sec 6.100 m3/sec 9.600 m3/sec April – May 1.600 m3/sec 2.050 m3/sec 2.500 m3/secIf the water level at Koman Dam downstream of Fierze is more than 170 ma.s.l. the water from Fierza dam can be discharged only by full operation of theturbines, about 550 m3/secAccording to the discharge regulation for the three dams in Drin River, inwinter discharge tunnels should be opened at 290m a.s.l. at Fierza dam andthe water level must not be increased at 296 m a.s.l.Because of possible landslides. Fierza dam has a 15 m freeboard to resist thepossible increase of the volume and height of wave to be created. Hydropower versus Flood control in dam and basin management levels
    • Drini & Buna River Basin• There were some ten or more major floods since 1851: 1854: 1905: 1962-63:1970-71: 1979: 1992: 2003: 2010 January 2010 Nov-Dec Hydropower versus Flood control in dam and basin management levels
    • Flooding in the Drini/Buna basin7 January 2010 - 3.600 m3/sec on Buna River• 3.000 m3/sec on Drin • 2.400 m3/sec max discharge from HPP (as reported from the media) • Gjader and Kir torrent, after the Vau i Dejes HPP, contributed to the increase of flow• 600 m3/sec on Buna (from Shkodra lake)• 1,500 m3/sec, transport capacity on the Buna river (after merging with Drin) of on the first 9.5 km which are not protected by dikes.• 32 km of Buna River is dikeed and has a capacity of 2,200 m3/secEven with a fully operational flood management and drainagesystem, the rainfall would have resulted in flooding of parts ofthe area. Hydropower versus Flood control in dam and basin management levels
    • Flood ManagementMedia tried to blame Albania Power Corporation about the FloodThe graph below shows in brown the natural flow on Vau I Dejesand in Green the real discharge from Turbines and Spillways Fierze Shkarkimi nga porta(m3/s) Koman Shkarkimi nga porta(m3/s) V. Dejes Shkarkimi nga porta(m3/s) Prurja Natyrale ne Vaun e Dejes Hydropower versus Flood control in dam and basin management levels
    • Flood ManagementCouncil of Ministers declared "state of civilemergency" and founded an Inter-ministerialCommittee with the Chairmanship ofDeputyPrimeMinisterInstitutions Involved on Flood Management Emergency Directorate – Acting as coordinator Ministry of : Interior Affairs / Defense / Health / Economy / Public Works & Transport / Shkodra Prefecture/ several Communes, etc.
    • Flood ManagementAlbania officially requested for internationalassistance on 7 January 2010 UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) UN Children’s Fund (UNICEF) UN Development Program (UNDP) CARITAS RED CROSS / RED CRESCENT Governments of : USA, Italy, UK, Norway, Netherland, Germany, Kosovo, Greece, Montenegro, FYROM, etc.
    • Flood ManagementAID CAME AS transportation boats for shallow water, transport helicopters, high capacity water pumps, mobile power generators, fuel, food, medicine
    • Flood ManagementIn addition around 1,200 individuals from the army, police, fire fighters and other state departments were deployed to assist the evacuation of people and their animals and provide health support, land protection, and to protect dams to reduce further flooding Several engineers, hydrologists, geologists, and other technicians, assisted as international consultants
    • Flood ManagementGREAT EVERYTHING DONE ACCORDING TO THE BOOKthanWHY DID IT HAPPENED AGAIN IN ?????!!!!!!!!!!! FEBRUARY MAY NOVEMBER DECEMBER
    • Flood ManagementBuna River and Shkodra Lake are considered asInternational waters. Nothing was done by the twocountries, for the last 20 years, to increase themanagement of this vital water sources Since the January 2010 flood, Albanian and Montenegro Governments have intensified their collaboration in finding solutions in benefit of both countries and the population affected The two countries are seeing the possibility of deepening the Buna River bed and cleaning the sea outfall
    • Flood ManagementThere was no advertising from measures onWhite Drin or Black Drin outside of Albaniansborder on increase on rainfall, following in fewdays an increase of flow.There was no advertising from Spile HPP ondischarging schedules (to my knowledge) Problem to be solved on preparing an integrated management system on the hole Drin system
    • Flood ManagementPrespa LakeOhrid LakeBlack DrinDrinBunaARE ONE SINGEL ECOSYSTEM AN INTEGRATED BASIN MANAGEMENT BETWEEN GREECE, FYROM, KOSOVA AND ALBANIA MUST BE PUT IN PLACE
    • Flood ManagementConstruction of Ashta HPP, downstream ofVau I Dejes is very different from Bushatistudy with a dam and a small reservoir Nothing can be done at this stage
    • Flood ManagementConstruction of Skavica HPP, up stream ofFierza with a big reservoir would not onlyincrease by about 30% the production ofDrin cascade (within Albanian border) butwill also do perennial regulation of Drinflow This is one of the priorities of Albanian Government in the field of Safety and Power Production
    • Flood ManagementAlbania Power Corporation (KESH) wasproducing at the maximum possible duringthe flood, but the system couldn’t supportedall the energy produced by KESH Problem solved during this year a new interconnection line with Montenegro integrates better Albania with Regional Network.
    • Flood ManagementBuna River has 31 km of dikes which didn’tperformed according to their purpose. Albanian Government has invested just during 2011, about 10 million USD on dikes and drainage system rehabilitation/improvement(reference from Ministry of Agriculture officials) Albanian Government in collaboration with World Bank is in process of a study to analyze the hydraulic characteristic of Shkodra Valley to determine the best long term solution on floods