Int. Roundtable on Transboundary Waters Management, 15-16.12.2011, Angela Klauschen
Transboundary Water ResourcesMaking hydropowersustainable in theWestern BalkansAngela KlauschenWWF MediterraneanInternational Roundtableon Transboundary WaterManagement – Zagreb, Croatia15-16 December 2011
Contents Shorter title Secondary information can go here– Why is WWF concerned about dams and hydropower? XX-XX Month, Year– What is WWFs position on dams? • Additional information can run– What is WWF doing with regard to hydropower in the region? • Underneath if necessary
1. Why is WWF concerned about dams and hydropower?Energy, water demand and ecosystems Increased incentives to the development of hydropower globally Growing pressure and impacts of water allocation (agriculture food / biofuels, cooling water for energy production, urban demand, industry, etc.) Both non-consumptive and consumptive use with significant impacts: economic, social and environmental Massive losses in freshwater biodiversity and ecosystem services
1. Why is WWF concerned about dams and hydropower? Implications of climate change Climate change is a fact Climate change increases the pressure and the uncertainty Climate change has its most severe effects on freshwater systems: runoff, extreme events, water supply, fresh- water ecosystems Climate-energy-water nexus extremely complex...
1. Why is WWF concerned about dams and hydropower?Renewable and sustainable energy? Hydropower is powerful as a renewable energy as a potentially sustainable energy as a threat to freshwater ecosystems
1. Why is WWF concerned about dams and hydropower?In the Western Balkans... Rising energy demand for development purposes Some countries’ energy supply relies for up to 80% on hydropower (i.e. Albania) Hydropower potential of rivers not yet ‘exhausted’ Strong investor interest/ activity in the region (i.e. WB, EBRD) supporting dam construction
1. Why is WWF concerned about dams and hydropower?In the Western Balkans...Hydropower again fashionableas a «clean» energy solutionand as water storage + floodretention infrastructureHydropower seen as a viableoption for energy security andeven to increase incomethrough energy exports toneighbouring countries
1. Why is WWF concerned about dams and hydropower?In the Western Balkans... On the other side... very pristine, biodiverse freshwater ecosystems but fragile and complex due to karstic nature of the area highly sensitive to climate change
2. What is WWFs position on dams?Energy, climate and sustainability - Energy can be sustainable by 2050 - Mix of renewables and energy efficiency - Hydropower part of mix, limited increase - Renewable not sustainable per se - Need to look at real needs, consumption patterns and change habits
2. What is WWFs position on dams?Hydropower sustainability principlesHydropower projects should be authorized, financed and built if: they don‘t destroy critical natural assets, and a representative sample of free-flowing rivers (no-go areas) and their ecosystem services is maintained (Precautionary principle, WFD); credible information is publicly available to show that they are the best option, and that the best possible locations, designs & operating rules have been chosen (WFD, WCD, SEAs, Aarhus Convention) all parts of society, including downstream users of ecosystem services, are better off with than without the project (cost/ benefit analysis, SEAs, EIAs, etc.) in a transboundary context, countries sharing water basins in which new infrastructure is planned comply with the Espoo Conv., Kiev Prot., Aarhus Conv., UNECE Water Conv.
2. What is WWFs position on dams?Hydropower sustainability principles (contd)Moreover: Priority should be given to rehabilitation and refurbishing of old/existing infrastructure for increased energy output and improved environmental standards Mitigation measures taken to minimize environmental impacts should include: environmental flow provisions, fishladders, special intake towers, etc IFIs and donors should apply internationally recognised environmental standards (e.g. EU, WB, Equator Principles) before approving loans or other funding to new dams
3. What is WWF doing with regard to hydropower in the region?The Dinaric Arc Sustainable Hydropower InitiativeWWFs Mediterranean Programme works: in cooperation with its network, local NGOs, regional partner organisations (Transparency Intl, GWP) and other stakeholders (EU, farmers, fishermen), independent experts to influence key decision-makers among water and energy utilities, international hydropower sector, IFIs, to adopt a sustainable approach to hydropower in the region by providing scientific information and capacity building, reminding commitments and legal requirements, allowing discussion and trust building, etc. to ultimately reach common understanding on sustainable hydropower in the region that works for people and nature
3. What is WWF doing with regard to hydropower in the region?WWF’s Freshwater priority areas in the Dinaric Arc Livansko Polje Hutovo Blato Skadar Lake