Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
006b NCWRM 2011 Papadakis_AgrUoA
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×

Saving this for later?

Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime - even offline.

Text the download link to your phone

Standard text messaging rates apply

006b NCWRM 2011 Papadakis_AgrUoA

329
views

Published on

Regional Conference on Advancing Non Conventional Water Resources Management in the Mediterranean, 14-15 September 2011, Athens, Greece

Regional Conference on Advancing Non Conventional Water Resources Management in the Mediterranean, 14-15 September 2011, Athens, Greece

Published in: Technology, Business

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
329
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
6
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. Advances in Renewable Energy Driven Desalination George Papadakis, Professor Agricultural University of Athens www.renewables.aua.grAdvancing Non-Conventional Water Resources Management in the Mediterranean, Hilton, 14-15 Σεπτεµβρίου 2011
  • 2. Presentation Structure1. Desalination in the world2. Desalination technologies3. Renewable energies and desalination4. Wind, solar PV, solar thermal5. Conclusions Agricultural University of Athens
  • 3. Desalination production capacity in the Mediterranean countries in 2006 values in m3 per day Portugal; 2,325 Morocco; 36,070 Algeria; 1,430,892 Spain ; 2,069,191 Tunisia; 54,564France; 150,787 Libya; 415,919 Italy; 152,718 Egypt; 158,243 Israel; 551,474 Slovenia; 1,102 Jordan; 90,935 Croatia; 432 Lebanon; 350 Malta; 93,676 Syria; 5,640 Cyprus; 103,325 Greece; 24,140 Turkey; 3,601Source: MEDRC, Quteishat 2008, ADIRAworkshop Athens Agricultural University of Athens
  • 4. Global installed capacity since 1966Source: MEDRC Quteishat 2008,ADIRA workshop Athens Agricultural University of Athens
  • 5. Agricultural University of Athens
  • 6. Desalination processesDesalination Processes Thermal – needs thermal and electrical energy Membranes – needs electrical energy onlyBoth are energy intensive, accounting for40-75% of the operating cost Agricultural University of Athens
  • 7. Energy requirementsEnergy is needed to get fresh water fromsaline water Depends on the technology (specific energyconsumption kWh/m3) Increases as salinity increases Agricultural University of Athens
  • 8. Membrane processesThermal processes involve phase change(evaporation) high energy requirementsNeed to produce water without involvingphase change to reduce energy consumptionTwo processes emerged: Reverse Osmosis(RO) and Electrodialysis. RO is predominant Agricultural University of Athens
  • 9. Reverse osmosisSource: Zaara 2008, ADIRA workshop Athens Agricultural University of Athens
  • 10. Typical RO designSource: Mokhlisse 2008, ADIRA workshop Athens Agricultural University of Athens
  • 11. Reverse osmosisEnergy consumption initially high, 12 kWh/m3Major method to reduce energy consumption isto recover energy from reject brine withenergy recovery devices Agricultural University of Athens
  • 12. Energy recoveryTurbo-machine systems, e.g. Reversible Pumps Pelton TurbinesVolumetric Systems, e.g. ERI (Pressure Exchanger) Axial Piston Pressure Exchanger Pump (LATEST) Agricultural University of Athens
  • 13. Energy recovery - turbine Permeate 45% E ∼ 3.5 kWh/m3 HP pump 100% Turbine Reject 55%Source: Zaara 2008, ADIRA workshop Athens Agricultural University of Athens
  • 14. Energy recovery – pressure exchangeBooster-Pump 60% Permeate 45% E ∼ 2.4 - 2,8 kWh/m3 HP-Pump 45% Pressure exchanger brine 55% 100% Source: Zaara 2008, ADIRA workshop Athens Agricultural University of Athens
  • 15. Hydraulic energy recoverySource: Spectrawater Agricultural University of Athens
  • 16. Desalination and renewablesAttractive to reduce dependence on fossilfuels and CO2 emissionsCapital costs still highOperating costs very low Solar thermal systems, photovoltaic, wind, wave, and geothermal can provide thermal, electrical or mechanical energy Can be used in remote and rural areas for small scale applications Can be used for medium scale plants True but commercialization is forthcoming Agricultural University of Athens
  • 17. Desalination and renewablesMost attractive renewable energy sources Wind energy Solar energy (PV and solar thermal collectors) Geothermal energy Agricultural University of Athens
  • 18. Desalination and renewables Source: Mathioulakis et al. 2007 Agricultural University of Athens
  • 19. Desalination and renewables Source: Mathioulakis et al. 2007 Agricultural University of Athens
  • 20. Solar-driven RO desalination systems: geographicaldistribution and type in Mediterranean and MENA countries, and worldwideSource: Ghermandi & Messalem, DWT 2009 Agricultural University of Athens
  • 21. Desalination and renewablesWind energy Electricity production to power reverse osmosis Problems with the variation of the wind power production – need for storage and power regulation Agricultural University of Athens
  • 22. Desalination and wind energy Example of a commercial technology Source: ENERCON Agricultural University of Athens
  • 23. Desalination and wind energyPressure exchangerSource: ENERCON Agricultural University of Athens
  • 24. Solar Energy and RO Electricity Mechanical work PV Membranes Solar Rankine Product (fresh Energy engine water) Collectors Evaporation HeatSource: Manolakos 2007 Agricultural University of Athens
  • 25. PV and ROSource: Mokhlisse 2008, ADIRA workshop Athens Agricultural University of Athens
  • 26. PV & wind driven ROSource: Mohamed 2009 Agricultural University of Athens
  • 27. The ADIRA HANDBOOKThe ADIRA HANDBOOK: A guide to AutonomousDesalination ConceptsA guide to decision makers, project developers andinterested end users for the implementation ofrenewable energy driven desalination systemsDesigned for the non-specialist / non-engineerProvides instructions for planning, installing andmaintaining of ADS and ready made material fortraining local users Agricultural University of Athens
  • 28. AUDESSY Decision Support Tool AUDESSY is a comprehensive DST for sizing and cost analysis of ADS Data base & handbook for operators & installers AUDESSY was developed by AUA, within the ADIRA project, www.adira.gr Agricultural University of Athens
  • 29. Autonomous PV-RO (Msaim Morocco) System type: BWRO PV power: 3 kWp Water production Capacity: 1 m3/d Source: ADIRA project Agricultural University of Athens
  • 30. ADIRA project (MEDA)Country System type UseCyprus Humidification/Dehumidification Eco-tourismTurkey PV-RO SchoolTurkey PV-RO TourismJordan PV-RO SchoolMorocco 6 PV-RO systems Rural villages Agricultural University of Athens
  • 31. Solar Energy and RO Electricity Mechanical work PV Membranes Solar Rankine Product (fresh Energy engine water) Collectors Evaporation HeatSource: Manolakos 2007 Agricultural University of Athens
  • 32. Solar organic Rankine ROSource: Manolakos 2007 Agricultural University of Athens
  • 33. Two stage solar organic Rankine RO Agricultural University of Athens
  • 34. Desalinated water as energy storage in mini-gridsRO desalination is an attractive technology ofstoring energy in the form of waterIt offers possibilities of increasing renewablepower penetration in weak autonomous grids(mini-grids) such as those of the GreekislandsExcess electricity produced from renewablescan be used to desalinate water Agricultural University of Athens
  • 35. Hybrid system (PV+wind+FC) and microgrid with RO Source: Mohamed 2009 Agricultural University of Athens
  • 36. A microgrid system in EgyptSource: HYRESS project 2009 Agricultural University of Athens
  • 37. Storage: Batteries and waterSource: HYRESS project 2009 Agricultural University of Athens
  • 38. What about the costs ?Wind powered RO desalination can becompetitive at good wind potentialEven PV driven RO desalination is competitiveto transported water in the Greek islandsGeothermal energy fits well to thermaldesalination methods Agricultural University of Athens
  • 39. Are there any environmental effects ?Yes Energy use Brine disposal Agricultural University of Athens
  • 40. ConclusionsDesalination increases at dramatic rates due to freshwater demand and decreasing production costCarbon foot print of desalination will increase. Needfor measures to be introduced for RE applicationCommercialization of renewable energy drivendesalination has just startedEnvironmental problems can become significantespecially in closed seas – research is necessaryResearch is necessary for developing further thecombination of renewable energy technologies withdesalination technologies and reduce costs Agricultural University of Athens
  • 41. Thank you for your interest George Papadakis: gpap@aua.gr www.renewables.aua.gr, Agricultural University of Athens