006a NCWRM 2011 Qadir_ICARDA


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Regional Conference on Advancing Non Conventional Water Resources Management in the Mediterranean, 14-15 September 2011, Athens, Greece

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006a NCWRM 2011 Qadir_ICARDA

  1. 1. Trade-offs of Wastewater Reuse in the Southern and Eastern Mediterranean Manzoor QadirInternational Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA) Regional Conference on Advancing Non-conventional Water Resources Management in the Mediterranean, 14-15 September, Athens, Greece
  2. 2. Key issues and challenges in SEM Several countries in the Southern and Eastern Mediterranean (SEM) have yet to reach full- capacity wastewater treatment Policies and regulatory measures that encourage wastewater treatment and reuse of treated wastewater are lacking Wastewater is available to the farmers in untreated or inadequately treated forms
  3. 3. Farmers Perspectives in SEM Farmers irrigate with treated, untreated or inadequately treated wastewater because of Freshwater scarcity Year-round availability of wastewater Greater cropping intensity Savings on fertilizer applications Low pumping cost if alternate source is deep groundwater
  4. 4. Tradeoffs of Untreated Wastewater Reuse Economic incentives and other benefits for the farmers Health Implications and medical treatment costs Natural resource and environmental degradation Climate change – untreated wastewater irrigation nexus
  5. 5. Economic Benefits
  6. 6. Health Implications and Treatment CostsTarget Group: Children within 8-12 yearsWastewater versus groundwater irrigated areaWaterborne and non-waterborne diseases
  7. 7. Non-waterborne Diseases
  8. 8. Waterborne Diseases
  9. 9. Medical Treatment Costs
  10. 10. Natural Resource and Environmental Degradation
  11. 11. Salinity and Sodicity Interaction
  12. 12. Nitrogen in Groundwater
  13. 13. Heavy Metals in Groundwater
  14. 14. Climate Change – Wastewater Irrigation NexusHigh-intensity rainfall events leading to surface runoff andtransport of salts and contaminants from soils irrigated withuntreated or inadequately treated wastewater to nearby goodsoils irrigated with freshwater or rain-fed
  15. 15. Salinity Build-up in Adjacent Area
  16. 16. Conclusions Urban wastewater in water scarce SEM countries is a valuable resource that needs: Implementation of adequate wastewater treatment and its regulated reuse Monitoring systems and implementation of standards and guidelines Skilled human resources and supportive institutions Pertinent and flexible policy frameworks Regulated reuse of treated wastewater in SEM countries offers great promise for environment and health protection as well as livelihoods resilience
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