006a NCWRM 2011 Fixler_Israel

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Regional Conference on Advancing Non Conventional Water Resources Management in the Mediterranean, 14-15 September 2011, Athens, Greece

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006a NCWRM 2011 Fixler_Israel

  1. 1. STATE OF ISRAELTrends in the Development of the Water Sector in Israel Oded Fixler – Deputy Director General (Engineering) Israel Water AuthorityRegional Conference on Advancing Non-Conventional Water Resources Management in the Mediterranean Athens 14-15.9.2011 1
  2. 2. STATE OF ISRAELCHALLENGES
  3. 3. STATE OF ISRAELIn the Middle East it is a well known reality!
  4. 4. Sub-nationalAvailability: 2025 2003 Water Water Availability: Water Availability: 1975 2000 Extreme Scarcity Scarcity Stress Adequate Abundant Surplus Ocean/ No Data <500 500-1,000 1,000-1,700 1,700-4,000 4,000-10,000 >10,000 Inland Water©2005 Cola-Cola Company. All rights Reserved m3/person/year
  5. 5. The Water Crisis STATE OF ISRAEL 5
  6. 6. The Water Crisis STATE OF ISRAEL 6
  7. 7. Recharge from Rainfall along years: 1975-2011 STATE OF ISRAEL AVERGE: 1,336 MCM , MEDIAN: 1202, STD: 456 MCM Min. : 710 MCM Max. : 2,929 MCM 3500 3000 2500 2000MCM 1500 MEDIAN 1000 1,202 MCM 500 0
  8. 8. Amounts of precipitation relativeto average (from 09/2010 to 05/2011) 100% 105% 75% 80% 65% 100% 75% 80% 80% Amount above average Amount lower than average 8
  9. 9. STATE OF ISRAEL Israel goes "from Red to Black" Upper red level: -208.80October 4th 2010 : -213.70 Lower red level: -213.00 Black line: -214.87 The rate of water depletion from the Kinneret and underground water reservoirs is alarming :Red line = below this water level damage to the water sourceBlack line = below this water level irreparable damage 9
  10. 10. Lake Kinneret (See of Galilee) STATE OF ISRAEL Water level 2004 – 2011 -208.00 -208.50 -209.00 -209.50 -210.00Lake Water level (m) -210.50 -211.00 (‫מפלס )מטר‬ -211.50 -212.00 -212.50 -213.00 -213.50 -214.00 01.10.11 -214.50 - 213.65 -215.00 - 214.87 -215.50 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 ‫שנה‬ Year 10
  11. 11. Lake Kinneret (See of Galilee) STATE OF ISRAELLake Water level (m) Monthly Water level in the last four years Black level Month 11
  12. 12. STATE OF ISRAEL WATER WATER RESOURCES DEMANDAverage total natural enrichment – 1.170 billion m3/annumWater demand – more than 2 billion m3/annumCurrent potable water demand < 1.2 billion m3/annumForecast for water demand 2020 ~ 1.7 billion m3/annum 12
  13. 13. Water balance – 2010-2014 (MCM) 13
  14. 14. Water Consumption in Israel According to sectors STATE OF ISRAEL Estimated data for 2011 Industry 88 MCM ‫היישעת‬ ‫8.311מלמ"ק‬ 4.5 % )6%( Potable ‫יריפש‬ 557 MCM ‫3.915מלמ "ק‬ Domestic ‫תיב‬ 693 MCM ‫4.737מלמ "ק‬ Recycling ‫יילוש‬ ‫5.885מלמ "ק‬ )38%( 35.5 % 613 MCM AgricultureTotal: 1,966 MCM ‫תואלקח‬ ‫ 071,1"ק‬MCM ‫6.621,1מלמ‬(including 15 MCM for Nature) )58%( 60 %Supply to PA – 52 MCM; Supply to Jordan – 48 MCM 14
  15. 15. Domestic Water Consumption STATE OF ISRAEL Per capita / annum 115 750 110 700 105 650 M3/per capita/year 100 ‫מלמ"ק‬ 600 m^3/person/year MCM 95 95 550 500 90 90 450 85 85 400 80 2010 ‫הכרעה‬ 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Not ‫אל‬ 2011 final 2011 Estim. ‫יפוס‬‫תיבל הכירצ‬Domestic Con. 621 672 682 662 658 688 698 712 715 737 768 758 684 685 693% ‫ב הכירצ יוניש‬Change 8 2 -3 -1 5 1 2 0 3 4 -1 -10 0 1Per Capita‫שפנל הכירצ‬ 105 111 110 104 101 104 103 104 102 104 106 103 91 90 89 15
  16. 16. STATE OF ISRAELsOLUTIONS
  17. 17. Decisions STATE OF ISRAEL In order to prevent irreversible damage to the water Sources, the Government of Israel made several decisions for the short and long term :Water demand restraint : Comprehensive nation-wide media campaign calling citizens to save water, entitled “From Red to Black” and “Israel is drying”. Supervision & enforcement Graded water tariffs Water allocation and cutbacks for agricultural sector and public gardening 17
  18. 18. Decisions STATE OF ISRAELWater supply increase : Drilling (including water sources monitoring); Treatment of underground polluted water sources; Development of new water sources : desalinated seawater, desalinated brackish water, treatment of wastewater. 18
  19. 19. Main Water Supply System STATE OF ISRAEL Haifa Saphir stationEshkol reservoir Sea of Galilee (Kinneret) National carrier Tel Aviv 108” Jerusalem Eshkol reservoir National carrier - length section 108” Sea of Galilee 19
  20. 20. Sea Water Desalination STATE OF ISRAEL In accordance with the Government decisions since 2001 large scale seawater desalination facilities are being built: Production 12/09 127 Hadera Completed facilities Ashkelon -BOT 105 MCM/Y (VID) + 15 exp. Palmachim -BOO 30 MCM/Y (Via Maris) + 15 exp. Under Hadera- BOT 100 MCM/Y (H2ID) + 27 exp. Hadera- Construction ~2013 (150) Full production Under Construction Sorek Sorek – 150 MCM/Y (SDL) Since 9/07 45 Palmachim BiddingMekorot Develop. (100) Ashdod – 100 MCM/Y (TK Mekorot)Production ~2013 Ashdod Enlargement of production from the existing 120 plants (60-100 MCM/Y) – in bidding process. (60- Ashkelon Another 50 MCM facility in planning Full production Since 12/05 Overall until 2013 = 600 MCM/Y Until 2020 = 750 MCM/Y 20
  21. 21. Ashkelon SWRO STATE OF ISRAEL 21
  22. 22. Palmachim SWRO 22
  23. 23. Hadera SWRO 23
  24. 24. SWRO Costs STATE OF ISRAEL Ashkelon Palmachim Hadera SorekMCM/Year 120 45 127 150Salinity - PPM 20 30-40 20 20Total cost – $ 0.81 0.878 0.735 0.54(1 $ = 3.7 Shekel) 24
  25. 25. Exceptional Cost Efficiency of STATE OF ISRAELIsrael’s Desalination Facilities
  26. 26. SWRO facilities connection - Revolution in the National System operation Western Line Hadera Barkai Cule Sorek Western Hafetz Line Haim Ashdod The 5th Line to JerusalemAshkelon Horashim Neora 26
  27. 27. 27
  28. 28. Reuse of All STATE OF ISRAEL Sewage EffluentsReuse of 500 MCM/Y in 2014 (370 today).Sewage effluents for Agriculture – 50% of allocations in 2014.Tertiary treatment – unrestricted irrigation. New stringent standardsfor effluents quality (37 parameters).Nutrients and Salt Removal.Methods of agricultural cultivation in Israel are constantly modernizedand innovated.Israel became an international leader in developing water savingtechnology in agriculture. 28
  29. 29. ‫)‪Reuse of all sewage effluents in Dan Region (Greater Tel Aviv‬‬ ‫‪Wastewater Treatment plant (Shafdan) and the pipeline to NegevSTATE OF ISRAEL‬‬ ‫7 מליו קוב‬ ‫ברכת ר‬ ‫בניאס‬ ‫רמת הגול‬ ‫מאגר‬ ‫קרית שמונה‬ ‫יוס יפו‬ ‫כפר גלעדי‬ ‫מאגר עינ‬ ‫נהריה‬ ‫מפעל זמר‬ ‫תחנת‬ ‫ראש‬ ‫מאגר עינ‬ ‫עכו‬‫)0102( ‪Sewage from the Greater Tel Aviv area – 125 MCM/Y‬‬ ‫פינה‬ ‫מאגר דמו‬ ‫מאגר דלתו‬ ‫שפרע‬ ‫5.2 מיליו קוב‬ ‫ר‬ ‫צפת‬ ‫מת הגו ל‬ ‫חיפה‬ ‫קרי ות‬ ‫כרמיאל‬ ‫הגלי‬ ‫ת‬ ‫תעל‬ ‫המי‬ ‫תחנת‬ ‫תחנת כורסי‬ ‫מערכת המי‬ ‫‪National‬‬ ‫הפתוח ברכות שפרע‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ספיר‬ ‫כנ‬ ‫מאגר אשכ ול‬ ‫תחנת צלמו‬ ‫תחנת האו‬ ‫פרי‬‫‪Large-scale WWTP – secondary treatment quality‬‬ ‫רת‬ ‫רי א‬ ‫041 +‬ ‫טבריה‬ ‫נצרת‬ ‫הארצית‬ ‫‪Water‬‬ ‫תח שמשית אור חדרה‬ ‫ה‬ ‫כפר ב רו ר‬ ‫גולני‬ ‫סכר דגניה בר ידעיה‬ ‫תחנת‬ ‫דגניה‬ ‫מיצר‬ ‫בר ב ית זרע‬ ‫תחנת חו הכרמל‬ ‫ב‬ ‫‪Greed‬‬ ‫עפולה‬ ‫מי ל ירד‬ ‫מנ‬ ‫ית שא‬ ‫מפת מפעלי המי‬ ‫ה‬ ‫מפעל נחלי מנשה‬ ‫מאגר תשלובת‬ ‫רת‬ ‫לתפיסת מי‬ ‫הקישו 21 מלמ"ק‬ ‫שטפונות‬ ‫מנ‬‫‪Six infiltration fields‬‬ ‫והחדרת למי‬ ‫של חברת מקורות בישראל‬ ‫שה‬ ‫תהו‬ ‫מחולה‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ה‬ ‫מוביל‬ ‫ארצי‬ ‫נתניה‬ ‫האחז יות‬ ‫שומרו‬ ‫שומרו‬‫‪Over 150 production and monitoring wells (quality permitted for‬‬ ‫קולחי‬ ‫נתני‬ ‫תחנ‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ת‬ ‫חז ויות‬ ‫שומרו‬ ‫הא‬ ‫מחנה חו רו‬ ‫תחנת ראש‬ ‫נוה‬ ‫העי‬ ‫תחנת‬ ‫צומת תפוח‬ ‫תל אביב‬ ‫פ"ת‬ ‫ירק‬ ‫בק‬ ‫ויסות‬‫)‪“occasional drinking‬‬ ‫אריאל‬ ‫עת‬ ‫יפ חול ו‬ ‫ו‬ ‫‪T.T.A‬‬ ‫מעלה‬ ‫בת‬ ‫תחנת‬ ‫הי‬ ‫תח‬ ‫אפרי‬ ‫רד‬ ‫טל‬ ‫י ראשל"צ‬ ‫תח‬ ‫דניאל‬ ‫שילה‬ ‫קו י ר‬ ‫אחיס‬ ‫תח‬ ‫תח‬‫מ‬ ‫לטרו‬ ‫קו מ‬ ‫מפעל‬ ‫מאגר‬ ‫בר‬ ‫תח‬ ‫השפד"‬ ‫מאגר נשר‬ ‫תח‬ ‫קו‬ ‫ערבי‬ ‫לנגב מושבי‬ ‫תח‬ ‫מי‬ ‫הל ר‬ ‫שלישי‬ ‫פדיה‬‫‪90km pipeline to Negev‬‬ ‫איילו‬ ‫שואבה‬ ‫קו י‬ ‫חולדה‬ ‫"07‬ ‫תח‬ ‫ירושלי‬ ‫רקו‬ ‫בר ותח‬ ‫תח חול‬ ‫תח דוד תח‬ ‫קליה‬ ‫מז‬ ‫גרנות‬ ‫כ.אוריה‬ ‫בית‬ ‫דה‬ ‫כסלו‬ ‫רחי‬ ‫תח תח עגו ר 7‬ ‫לח‬ ‫אשקל ו‬ ‫גוש‬ ‫גבעו‬ ‫עציו‬ ‫גל או‬ ‫צומת זוהר‬ ‫ת‬‫‪32 pumping stations, operational storages (0.51MCM) and‬‬ ‫י‬ ‫בר נגה‬ ‫מאגר‬ ‫קרית גת‬ ‫תח אלמוג‬ ‫נהורה‬ ‫בר‬ ‫קרית‬ ‫המלח‬ ‫תח שמחה‬ ‫מחצבה‬ ‫מצפה‬ ‫אמציה‬ ‫ארבע‬ ‫של‬ ‫בר‬ ‫חב רו‬ ‫בר‬ ‫מאגר מפסח‬ ‫אחוזי‬‫)‪seasonal storages (17.2 MCM‬‬ ‫תקומה‬ ‫בר‬ ‫ספיח‬ ‫לוציפר‬ ‫א ב‬ ‫בר‬ ‫בר ותח‬ ‫בר באר‬ ‫תפוח‬ ‫שוקת‬ ‫חמי‬ ‫תח‬ ‫אברה‬ ‫שבע‬ ‫זוה ר בר‬ ‫ערד‬ ‫באר שבע‬ ‫מי שתיה ערד‬ ‫בר‬ ‫מאגר לב‬ ‫למלונות י בר ותח‬ ‫מבטחי‬ ‫בר‬ ‫מאגר‬‫הנגב‬ ‫בר‬ ‫המלח‬ ‫תח‬ ‫יעלי‬ ‫צאלי‬ ‫ערעור‬ ‫קד‬ ‫צאלי‬ ‫נבטי‬ ‫אפעה‬ ‫תח‬ ‫בר ותח‬ ‫תח‬ ‫חלוצה‬ ‫רביבי‬ ‫דימונה‬ ‫סדו‬ ‫קד ניצנה‬ ‫קד למי‬ ‫מליחי‬ ‫משאב‬ ‫ירוח‬ ‫נאות‬ ‫)מליח י (‬ ‫י שדה‬ ‫קד‬ ‫הכיכר‬ ‫מכתש‬ ‫בר‬ ‫בר שדה‬ ‫קט למי‬ ‫שבטה‬ ‫בוק ר‬ ‫שדה בוקר‬ ‫מליחי‬ ‫בר אורו‬ ‫עיד‬ ‫הנגב‬ ‫מצפה‬ ‫רמו‬ ‫עי יהב‬ ‫מקרא‬ ‫צופר‬ ‫המוביל הארצי‬ ‫הר ח רי‬ ‫קו מי‬ ‫פאר‬ ‫לשתיה‬ ‫מי להשקייה -‬ ‫קד פאר‬ ‫בר תח‬ ‫פאר‬ ‫קולחי‬ ‫מי מליחי‬ ‫בר‬ ‫ציחור‬ ‫בר ותח‬ ‫ישובי‬ ‫שיטה‬ ‫בר‬ ‫יהל‬ ‫שיזפו בר צוקי‬ ‫עובדה‬ ‫מאגר מי שפירי‬ ‫קטורה‬ ‫בריכות מי שפירי‬ ‫גרופית‬ ‫בר‬ ‫תחנת שאיבה מי‬ ‫שפירי מי מושבי‬ ‫תחנת‬ ‫מי‬ ‫סיי רי‬ ‫ערבה‬ ‫מליחי‬ ‫יטבתה‬ ‫תח‬ ‫נחושת‬ ‫מאגר מי מושבי‬ ‫באר‬ ‫אורה‬ ‫בריכות מי מושבי‬ ‫סבחה‬ ‫מתק התפלה‬ ‫מתק‬ ‫התפלת מי‬ ‫קדוחי מי מליחי‬ ‫אילת‬ ‫92‬ ‫מליחי‬ ‫לאילת‬
  30. 30. Reuse of All STATE OF ISRAEL Sewage Effluents Zephat waste Wastewater water utilization Infiltration site Sorek 2Treatment Plants Acre Carmiel waste water utilization Infiltration site Yavne 4 Kishon concern Western extension Ashdod Kefar Baruch reservoir Azrikam Kefar Tabor area Training areas, Givati and Beit Ezra Afula Taanach Gat east orchards Ashkelon plant Hadera waste water Hadera Mifal Halatz Nir Hen area and Zohar Main conduit for waste water Geulat Hayarkon plant Lachish plant Dan Wastewater Kibbutz Tel Aviv Safria orchards area Treatment Facility Ruhama Dvir Nesher reservoir (SAT) waste water utilization Lahav Ayalon-Latrun waste water utilization Tekuma plant Ashdod Hefetz Haim plant Ashkelon Pithat Shalom plant Adulam area Ashdod waste water – south extension Beer Sheba Zohar lake 30
  31. 31. Agriculture STATE OF ISRAEL Water for agriculture – 1,150 MCM/Y 450-530 MCM/Y – constant quota (potable water)Water Authority development plans:• Irrigation with recycled effluents in exchange of potable water quota release;• Building of irrigation water recycling facilities as a stable water supply source (replacing potable water quotas which are exposed to frequent cutbacks);• Reform in water tariffs for agriculture and graduate replacement of subsidy through water tariff towards direct subsidy to farmers;• “Network separation”: high quality potable water at appropriate tariff;• Brackish water suitable for irrigation at low tariff. 31
  32. 32. Water Saving in Agriculture STATE OF ISRAEL Production per Water Unit2.1 2.02 1.981.9 1.911.7 1.66 1.64 1.591.5 1.43 1.47 1.56 1.55 1.381.3 1.31 1.151.1 1.00 0.980.90.70.5 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 Source: Israel Farmer’s Federation
  33. 33. Irrigation facilities – reuse of effluents STATE OF ISRAEL NitzanimNitzanim Hof Carmel “Mei” Golan Maayan Zvi 33
  34. 34. Drillings STATE OF ISRAEL 34
  35. 35. Brackish Water Desalination STATE OF ISRAEL• Private sector Mate• Mekorot Co. Asher Naaman Atlit Kordani Neve Yam Maagan Emek Michael Harod Brackish water desalination facilities – 50 MCM/Y Granot ‫גרנות‬ Lahat Gat Negba Halatz Neve Rotem plane Zohar Ketziot Shizafon 35
  36. 36. BWRO - Mekorot Co. STATE OF ISRAELGranot Ktziot Neve Zohar 36
  37. 37. Water Sector development STATE OF ISRAELDevelopment programs based on long term Masterplan taking into consideration the population growthrate and its distribution and the rate of growth inconsumption:• Increased living standards• Water for nature utilization• Agricultural distribution and water consumption• Political arrangements 37
  38. 38. STATE OF ISRAELWater is a matter of deeds, not words!
  39. 39. Water Supply by Israel to the Palestinian Authority STATE OF ISRAEL Obligation vs. Implementation (MCM) 1995 accord Supplied basis ing to Total Actual Quantity Supplied to the Palestinian Authority in the West Bank in 2009, insn. Region for the Obligat addition to agree ion Israeli incre- 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005* 2006 2007 2008 2009 obligation ment ment +1 Jenin 2 2 2.6 2.3 2.3 2.1 2.0 1.9 2.4 2.2 0.7 1.2 1.6 1.7 -0.4 Nablus &2 Salfit 1.9 1.6 3.5 2.8 3.8 3.5 3.7 4.1 4.2 4.5 4.6 5.4 6.1 6.7 6.6 3.1 Hebron &3 Bethlehem 11.7 1 12.7 13.9 14.7 14.8 15.1 14.9 15.2 16.2 15.8 19.7 19.8 19.7 20.9 8.24 Ramalah 7.2 0.5 7.7 8.9 10.5 11.6 12.2 12.8 13.6 14.4 13.9 14.4 15.2 17.0 16.2 8.5 Jordan5 Valley 5.07 0 5.07 4.7 5.9 5.1 5.5 5.3 5.2 6.1 6.2 6.1 6.7 6.9 6.1 1.16 Total 27.9 3.1 31.0 32.9 37.2 37.3 38.6 39.1 40.1 43.6 42.8 46.4 48.9 51.8 51.5 20.5Notes:1. Gaza Strip – Israel has undertaken to supply 5 MCM/yr from the Israeli system, a quantity that will originate from desalination in Israel. For thispurpose Israel has laid a water supply line extending up to the border with the Gaza Strip, although works on the Palestinian side have not beencompleted. At present Israel supplies 5 MCM/yr, as per the previous commitment.In addition, Israel has handed over to the Palestinians (in the framework of disengagement) 25 water wells and an advanced water supplysystem.2. Jenin – Israels obligation was to drill an additional well supplying 1.4 MCM/yr. The well, Jenin 4, is indeed yielding the above quantity and isbeing operated by the Palestinians. It is therefore not presented in the table.* In 2005, in the framework of disengagement from Gaza, Israel handed over to the Palestinians the three Dotan wells, producing about 2MCM/yr. As of that year, this quantity of water is not taken into account in the framework of supply by Mekorot. 39
  40. 40. Total Quantity of Fresh Water per Capita on Multiannual Average STATE OF ISRAEL in Countries Bordering Israel CM 3Lebanon m 1000 Syria 900 Egypt 800 700 949 600 861 500 400 732 Jordan 300 Israel Palestinians 200 172 100 153 105 0 40
  41. 41. Sharing Israeli Experience & Knowledge STATE OF ISRAELCapacity Building – Professional Courses on Desalination and WaterReclamation for Jordanian and Palestinian water managers
  42. 42. Water Agreement – Obligation vs. Implementation (Major Commitments) STATE OF ISRAEL Commitment Status of Implementation (2008)Article 40 Nature of Commitment by Israel by PalestiniansClause An additional 1 MCM/year to the Hebron and Bethlehem An addition of 8 MCM/year was 7a1 area. provided An addition of 9.8 MCM/year 7a2 An additional 0.5 MCM/year to the Ramallah area was provided An addition of 4.8 MCM/year7a3,4 An additional 1.6 MCM/year to the Salfit and Nablus area was provided Israel drilled “Jenin 2” (1.4 7a5 An additional 1.4 MCM/year to the Jenin area MCM/year) for Palestinian operation Israel installed the pipeline up 7a6 An additional 5 MCM/year to the Gaza Strip to the Gaza Strip border 7b1 An additional 2.1 MCM/year to the Nablus area (new well) Israel authorized the drilling The well has been drilled Israel authorized the drilling of 70 approx. half of the approved An additional 17 MCM/year from new wells to be drilled by wells with an estimated extraction 7b2 wells were not yet drilled or Palestinians in the eastern aquifer and other agreed sources. capacity of more than 50 operated by the Palestinian side MCM/year In fact, Israel supplies 51.8 The total Israeli commitment to supply water directly to the MCM/Year directly to the PWA PWA in the West Bank stands at 31 MCM/year (3.1 in the West Bank which is additional water supplied under the agreement + 27.9 supplied at the time of signing the agreement). 20.8 MCM/year more than the commitment
  43. 43. STATE OF ISRAEL Commitment Status of Implementation (2008)Article 40 Nature of Commitment by Israel by PalestiniansClause It was agreed that a quantity of 28.6 MCM/year shall be added Additional amount of water made available for the Palestinians: to the Palestinians for the interim period 23.9 MCM/year supplied directly by Israel (20.8+3.1) 6-7 3.5 MCM/year by authorized wells- Jenin, Nablus (In addition to the 118 MCM/year which was consumed by the Palestinians at the signing of the agreement). 50 MCM/year estimated yield of 70 authorized wells Total: 77.4 MCM/year There are more than 250Sched. 8 Prevention of illegal drillings No illegal drillings Palestinian illegal drillings 1(b) mainly in the Northern West Bank Most of the Palestinian sewage is not treated. Most of the sewage from Out of 52 MCM of Prevention of pollution by wastewater Israeli settlements is treated at Palestinian sewage - 4 MCM least at the secondary level is treated in the West Bank, 3(f.) “Treating, reusing or properly disposing of all and Israel is working to 14 MCM is treated in Israel domestic, urban, industrial, and agricultural sewage” upgrade and expand the and 34 MCM is not treated systems at all and therefore polluting the environment.
  44. 44. Wells Approved by the JWC for Drilling by the Palestinians since the Agreement STATE OF ISRAEL Purpose of Wells Drinking Water (59 Wells) Agriculture (11 Wells) Observation (22 Wells)
  45. 45. Unauthorized Wells STATE OF ISRAEL About 146 of the total 250 unapproved wells are shown. The existence of the others is known, but they are not indicated since their exact coordinates are missing.
  46. 46. Paving the path to regional solutions STATE OF ISRAELResolving problems in the spirit of cooperation and goodneighboring, and not hiding failures in pointless accusations.Honoring bilateral agreements and donors efforts and finance forstabilizing the water sector.Implementing the vital water and wastewater treatment projectsand enforce uncompromisingly illegal acts.Strengthening technical cooperation.Acting towards clean environment: sewage treatment and effluentsreuse.Taking actions for building administrative and economic structuresto prevent funds lose and water spend.
  47. 47. STATE OF ISRAELWaterfront is a platform for cooperation, not confrontation!
  48. 48. STATE OF ISRAELTHANK YOU
  49. 49. The Extent of Water Shortage 49
  50. 50. Volumes of Kinneret’s available water/year 2009-2010 2008-2009 2007-2008 2006-2007 1993-2010 Average 1993-2010 Median MCM MCM 50
  51. 51. Demand in present decade STATE OF ISRAEL 2500 Agriculture ‫תואלקח‬ 2000 City ‫ינוריע‬ 1500‫מלמ"ק‬ Industry ‫היישעת‬MCM 1000 Nature ‫ונו עבט‬ 500 ‫הס" לארשי כ( יריפש‬ Israel – potable, brackish )‫ילפתומו ייעבט‬desalinated and ,‫הס" לארשי כ( יריפש‬brackish Israel – potable, 0 )‫ יחלוקו יחילמ‬waste and +‫ יריפש כ‬potable + neighbors Israel – ‫הס" לארשי‬ 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 ‫יאניטסלפו ינדרי‬ Year ‫הנש‬ 51
  52. 52. The Mountain Aquifer Israel andPalestinian Authority 52
  53. 53. The Water Crisis STATE OF ISRAELThe Water crisis has reached a peaktoday because of global changes inclimate – in Israel like in Australia,California, Spain, etc. 53
  54. 54. The Water Crisis in Israel STATE OF ISRAEL2008-2009 natural enrichment – 820 MCM versusaverage natural enrichment – 1,170 MCM/YAccording to our projections in the next 5 years it willbe not probable to reach a level above the “red lines”for all Israels water reservoirs Lake Kinneret 54
  55. 55. STATE OF ISRAEL 55
  56. 56. SWRO Process Diagram 56
  57. 57. The Membrane 57

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