The Hashemite Kingdom of JordanReuse of Reclaimed Water in Jordan By Eng. Ziad Darwish Taqash Ministry of Water and Irrigation September 2011
JORDAN IN FACTS AND FIGURESJordan is an arid to semi arid countryAn area of about 90.000 km2.A population of 6 million.. Annual growthrate of about 2.2 %High flow of refugees from surroundingcountries adds burden to water supplysystem due to instability in the region .About 73% of the population lives inurban areas concentrated in the northernand middle parts of Jordan .
Water Resources in Jordan The average annual renewable fresh water resources: (780) MCM 275 MCM is Ground Water 505 MCM is usable Surface Water Other sources of water are Non-conventional water resources: Nonrenewable water = 140 MCM Treated WW = 100 MCMAbout 95 % of treated effluent in Jordan is currently reused inagriculture. Almost 100% will be reused
Prevailing Water Sector Management Constraints and challenges• Per capita availability of water resources is declining rapidly, from 3600 m3/Cap in 1946 to 145 m3 in 2009.• Competing sectoral demands on scarce water resources• Demand centers are distant from water sources• Limited financial capacities• Groundwater over-abstraction
Water Supply & Demand Actual 2022 Year 2010 2015 2020 (2006)Domestic Needs 290 380 407 437 450(MCM)Industry & Remote 46 77 100 120 125AreasAgriculture 589 1072 1040 983 980including TWWTotal Needs (MCM) 1512 1529 1547 1540 1555ًWater Supply (MCM) 925 1150 1233* 1296 1871**Deficit (MCM) -587 -379 -314 -244 +316* DISI starts at 2013 ** Red – Dead starts at 2022
Jordan’s Water Strategy of the Ministry of Water and IrrigationWastewater shall not be managed as “waste”.It shall be collected and treated to standardsthat allow its reuse in unrestricted agricultureand other non-domestic purposes, including groundwater recharge.
Wastewater use in Jordan (2010)Wastewater Treatment Plants 23Total effluent (MCM) 102Total effluent of As Samra Treatment Plant (MCM) 79Restricted Agriculture inside Treatment Plant (ha) 1438Restricted Agriculture outside Treatment Plant (ha) 1055Unrestricted Agriculture in Jordan Valley (ha) 15252
Institutional and Legal Issues• In 1997, the MWI formulated a national Water Strategy, which was the foundation to four subsequent water policies: • The Water Utility Policy • The Groundwater Management Policy • The Irrigation Water Policy • The Wastewater Management Policy• Recently, the water demand management policy was issued.• The policies emphasize the need to study the environmental feasibility of proposed water projects.• The policies also focus on public awareness of water resource protection and conservation.
Policy guidelines• Protection of surface and groundwater• Efficient management of urban water and all environmental and irrigation aspects relevant to the water sector.• Development of appropriate institutional capacity building and legislative framework for water management.• Efficient and sustainable management of utilities by further involvement of the private sector.• Fostering of regional cooperation and donor coordination.• Introduction of socially acceptable cost recovery tariffs for all types of water use depending on the quality and quantity of water consumed.
Reclaimed Water Use in the Jordan ValleyFarmers in the Jordan Valley use reclaimedwater for irrigation in accordance withenvironmental and public health regulations.
Jordan Valley Area North JV Middle & South JV Southern Ghors
North JV ( 9000 ha ) YarmouK River Wadi Arab Dam GroundwaterKing Ab-dullah Canal Irrigation Networks Citrus, Vegetables
Middle & South JV (13370 ha)As Samra WWTP Wadi Seir WWTP KTD Kafrien Dam Mixing 50% TWW 30% TWW50% Rain Water 70% Rain Water JV Mixing Point Irrigation Networks Date palm, Vegetables
Impacts of irrigation with reclaimed water – salts – nutrients – heavy metals – microbiological contaminants crops human health soilsgroundwater
State Crop Monitoring system for fresh fruit and vegetablesCollaboration between JVA, JFDA, MoA.Safety Control Guideline for fresh fruit andvegetablesCrop quality assurance system The mainpurpose in establishing the steps towards a CropQuality Assurance System.Campaign 2009/2010 shows very low risksof microbial, contaminated crops nocases found.High Nitrate values in leafy crops, due toover fertigation.Monitoring campaign is going on (JFDA)
Soil MonitoringParameters Average Parameters Average (0 - 60cm) (0 - 60cm) 1999 2007 1985 2007EC (dS/m) 6.7 4.66 Fe - DTPA 3.07 11.2pH 7.88 7.92 Zn - DTPA 1.71 5.8CaCO3 (% ) 37.5 33.6 Cd - DTPA 0.04 0.07CEC (meq/100g) 10.8 13 Co - DTPA 0.13 0.26Gypsum 2.1 2.8 O.M (%) 1.02 1.9B – Hot water 2.06 2.0 Mn - DTPA 7.98 16SAR 9.7 4.0 Available k 583 696 (ppm)Texture Medium P – Olsen 40.8 210 (ppm)
Groundwater Monitoring• Possible impact on groundwater where RW is used for irrigation• Long-term risk for agricultural land use
Services to farmers• RW Guidelines• Monthly information sheet.• Soil and water analysis (labs).• Training about fertigation (nutrients in reclaimed water)
OutlookReclaimed Water will become the main source forirrigation.Risk monitoring - cross sector exchange information andlink data of all involved parties.Implementation and enforcement of monitoring programsConsider WHO Guidelines on reuse.Implement a project to link effluent from Irbid RW toirrigation network in north Jordan Valley (JV).Transfer knowledge and experience of JV to other areasin Jordan.
Strategic Planning for the Water sector Action Plan consists of 6 major items namely:1. Institutional and Legal Issues.2. Private Sector Participation.3. Agricultural Water Use.4. Cost Recovery.5. Information Systems.6. Adaptation of International Conventions
The Way Forward IN THE SHORT TERM• Enhance Stakeholders’ participation• Enhance use of recycled water for industries.• Adjust water tariff to ensure recovery of O&M Costs• Encourage Irrigation Advisory Services• Continued development of Centralised Water InformationSystems including the use of advanced technologies.
The Way Forward IN THE LONG TERM• Full development of SW & GW (Economic feasibility, socialand environmental considerations)• Continuous Development of marginal water.• Gradual reduction of renewable GW over-abstraction (By 2020)• Continued Development of HR & Public Awareness•Achieve Highest Possible efficiency (Conveyance, distribution,application and use, including Water & WW systems performance)• WW management and reuse to achieve public health standards
The Way Forward IN THE LONG TERM• Expansion of Private Sector Role• Regional Cooperation• Periodical review of institutional arrangements &restructuring to match changing needs• Recovery of O&M cost to become a standard practice.• Regular update of legislation whenever necessary• Improve Industrial waste water monitoring